Relationship between acid-soluble carnitine and coenzyme A pools in vivo.
ABSTRACT: The relationship between the acid-soluble carnitine and coenzyme A pools was studied in fed and 24-h-starved rats after carnitine administration. Carnitine given by intravenous injection at a dose of 60mumol/100g body wt. was integrated into the animal's endogenous carnitine pool. Large amounts of acylcarnitines appeared in the plasma and liver within 5min of carnitine injection. Differences in acid-soluble acylcarnitine concentrations were observed between fed and starved rats after injection and reflected the acylcarnitine/carnitine relationship seen in the endogenous carnitine pool of the two metabolic states. Thus, a larger acylcarnitine production was seen in starved animals and indicated a greater source of accessible acyl-CoA molecules. In addition to changes in the amount of acylcarnitines present, the specific acyl groups present also varied between groups of animals. Acetylcarnitine made up 37 and 53% of liver acid-soluble acylcarnitines in uninjected fed and starved animals respectively. At 5min after carnitine injection hepatic acid-soluble acylcarnitines were 41 and 73% in the form of acetylcarnitine in fed and starved rats respectively. Despite these large changes in carnitine and acylcarnitines, no changes were observed in plasma non-esterified fatty acid or beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in either fed or starved rats. Additionally, measurement of acetyl-CoA, coenzyme A, total acid-soluble CoA and acid-insoluble CoA demonstrated that the hepatic CoA pool was resistant to carnitine-induced changes. This lack of change in the hepatic CoA pool or ketone-body production while acyl groups are shunted from acyl-CoA molecules to acylcarnitines suggests a low flux through the carnitine pool compared with the CoA pool. These results support the concept that the carnitine/acid-soluble acylcarnitine pool reflects changes in, rather than inducing changes in, the hepatic CoA/acyl-CoA pool.
Project description:In vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency the metabolism of propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA are inhibited secondarily to decreased L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity. Production of acylcarnitines provides a mechanism for removing acyl groups and liberating CoA under conditions of impaired acyl-CoA utilization. Carnitine metabolism was studied in the vitamin B-12-deficient rat to define the relationship between alterations in acylcarnitine generation and the development of methylmalonic aciduria. Urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid was increased 200-fold in vitamin B-12-deficient rats as compared with controls. Urinary acylcarnitine excretion was increased in the vitamin B-12-deficient animals by 70%. This increase in urinary acylcarnitine excretion correlated with the degree of metabolic impairment as measured by the urinary methylmalonic acid elimination. Urinary propionylcarnitine excretion averaged 11 nmol/day in control rats and 120 nmol/day in the vitamin B-12-deficient group. The fraction of total carnitine present as short-chain acylcarnitines in the plasma and liver of vitamin B-12-deficient rats was increased as compared with controls. When the rats were fasted for 48 h, relative or absolute increases were seen in the urine, plasma, liver and skeletal-muscle acylcarnitine content of the vitamin B-12-deficient rats as compared with controls. Thus vitamin B-12 deficiency was associated with a redistribution of carnitine towards acylcarnitines. Propionylcarnitine was a significant constituent of the acylcarnitine pool in the vitamin B-12-deficient animals. The changes in carnitine metabolism were consistent with the changes in CoA metabolism known to occur with vitamin B-12 deficiency. The vitamin B-12-deficient rat provides a model system for studying carnitine metabolism in the methylmalonic acidurias.
Project description:1. The concentrations of malonyl-CoA, glycerol 3-phosphate, non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble and acid-insoluble acylcarnitines, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acid-insoluble acyl-CoA were measured in rapidly-frozen liver samples from fed or starved (24h) virgin, pregnant (19-20 days), lactating (2, 10-12 and 18-20 days) and weaned (for 24h, on 10th day of lactation) rats. The activities of total and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive and -insensitive glycerophosphate acyltransferase (acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate O-acyltransferase; EC 188.8.131.52) were also measured. 2. The concentration of malonyl-CoA was significantly higher in liver of fed pregnant, mid- and late-lactating rats than in liver of fed virgin rats. After starvation for 24h hepatic malonyl-CoA concentrations were higher in mid-lactating rats and lower in pregnant and weaned rats than in virgin animals. 3. After starvation for 24h the hepatic concentrations of glycerol 3-phosphate, ketone bodies, acid-soluble acylcarnitines and the value for the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio were all highest in pregnant rats, intermediate in virgin, 2-day lactating and weaned animals and lowest in mid- and late-lactating rats. The concentrations of acid-insoluble acylcarnitines also increased most in pregnant rats, after starvation. The concentration of acid-insoluble acyl-CoA increased equally after starvation in virgin and pregnant animals but did not increase significantly in all other animals studied. 4. The total concentration of carnitine was similar in livers of fed virgin, pregnant and 2-day lactating animals but fell markedly by the 10th day of lactation and remained low in late-lactating animals. The concentration of non-esterified carnitine followed the same pattern. After starvation for 24h the hepatic concentration of non-esterified carnitine decreased significantly in virgin, pregnant and 2-day lactating animals, but remained unchanged in mid- and late-lactating or weaned animals. 5. The activities of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive and -insensitive glycerophosphate acyltransferase both increased significantly in livers of mid-lactating animals. After starvation for 24h the activity of the N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive O-acyltransferase decreased in livers of virgin, pregnant and mid-lactating animals, whereas the activity of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive O-acyltransferase was unchanged in virgin animals but decreased markedly in livers of pregnant and lactating rats. 6. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of different metabolic parameters in the regulation of long-chain acyl-CoA metabolism in the liver.
Project description:The effects of carnitine on the metabolism of palmitoylcarnitine were studied by using isolated rat liver mitochondria. Particular attention was given to carnitine acyltransferase-mediated interactions between carnitine and the mitochondrial CoA pool. Carnitine concentrations less than 1.25mm resulted in an increased production of acetylcarnitine during palmitoylcarnitine oxidation. Despite this shunting of C(2) units to acetylcarnitine formation, no change was observed in the rate of oxygen consumption or major product formation (citrate or acetoacetate). Further, no changes were observed in the mitochondrial content of acetyl-CoA, total acid-soluble CoA or acid-insoluble acyl-CoA. These observations support the concept, based on studies in vivo, that the carnitine/acylcarnitine pool is metabolically sluggish and the acyl-group flux low as compared with the CoA/acyl-CoA pool. Acid-insoluble acyl-CoA content was decreased and CoA content increased at carnitine concentrations greater than 1.25mm. When [(14)C]carnitine was used in the incubations, it was demonstrated that this resulted from acid-insoluble acylcarnitine formation from intramitochondrial acid-insoluble acyl-CoA mediated by carnitine palmitoyltransferase B. Again, the higher carnitine concentrations resulted in no changes in the rates of oxygen consumption or major product formation. The above effects of carnitine were observed whether citrate or acetoacetate was the major product of oxidation. In contrast, an increase in acetyl-CoA concentration was observed at high carnitine concentrations only when acetoacetate was the product. Since the rate of acetoacetate production was not changed, these higher acetyl-CoA concentrations suggest that a new steady state had been established to maintain acetoacetate-production rates. Since there was no change in acetyl-CoA concentration when citrate was the major product, a change in the activity of the pathway utilizing acetyl-CoA for ketone-body synthesis and the potential regulation of this pathway must be considered.
Project description:Calorie restriction (CR), an age delaying diet, affects fat oxidation through poorly understood mechanisms. We investigated the effect of CR on fat metabolism gene expression and intermediate metabolites of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. We found that CR changed the liver acylcarnitine profile: acetylcarnitine, short-chain acylcarnitines, and long-chain 3-hydroxy-acylcarnitines increased, and several long-chain acylcarnitines decreased. Acetyl-CoA and short-chain acyl-CoAs were also increased in CR. CR did not affect the expression of CPT1 and upregulated the expression of long-chain and very-long-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (LCAD and VLCAD, respectively). The expression of downstream enzymes such as mitochondrial trifunctional protein and enzymes in medium- and short-chain acyl-CoAs oxidation was not affected in CR. CR shifted the balance of fatty acid oxidation enzymes and fatty acid metabolites in the liver. Acetyl-CoA generated through beta-oxidation can be used for ketogenesis or energy production. In agreement, blood ketone bodies increased under CR in a time of the day-dependent manner. Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) is a bidirectional enzyme that interconverts short-chain acyl-CoAs and their corresponding acylcarnitines. CrAT expression was induced in CR liver supporting the increased acetylcarnitine and short-chain acylcarnitine production. Acetylcarnitine can freely travel between cellular sub-compartments. Supporting this CR increased protein acetylation in the mitochondria, cytoplasm, and nucleus. We hypothesize that changes in acyl-CoA and acylcarnitine levels help to control energy metabolism and contribute to metabolic flexibility under CR.
Project description:Tandem MS "profiling" of acylcarnitines and amino acids was conceived as a first-tier screening method, and its application to expanded newborn screening has been enormously successful. However, unlike amino acid screening (which uses amino acid analysis as its second-tier validation of screening results), acylcarnitine "profiling" also assumed the role of second-tier validation, due to the lack of a generally accepted second-tier acylcarnitine determination method. In this report, we present results from the application of our validated UHPLC-MS/MS second-tier method for the quantification of total carnitine, free carnitine, butyrobetaine, and acylcarnitines to patient samples with known diagnoses: malonic acidemia, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) or isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (IBD), 3-methyl-crotonyl carboxylase deficiency (3-MCC) or ß-ketothiolase deficiency (BKT), and methylmalonic acidemia (MMA). We demonstrate the assay's ability to separate constitutional isomers and diastereomeric acylcarnitines and generate values with a high level of accuracy and precision. These capabilities are unavailable when using tandem MS "profiles". We also show examples of research interest, where separation of acylcarnitine species and accurate and precise acylcarnitine quantification is necessary.
Project description:To assess the effects of acylcarnitine accumulation on muscle insulin sensitivity, a model of muscle acylcarnitine accumulation was generated by deleting carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) specifically from skeletal muscle (Cpt2Sk-/- mice). CPT2 is an irreplaceable enzyme for mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, converting matrix acylcarnitines to acyl-CoAs. Compared with controls, Cpt2Sk-/- muscles do not accumulate anabolic lipids but do accumulate ?22-fold more long-chain acylcarnitines. High-fat-fed Cpt2Sk-/- mice resist weight gain, adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impairments in insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Obesity resistance of Cpt2Sk-/- mice could be attributed to increases in lipid excretion via feces, GFD15 production, and energy expenditure. L-carnitine supplement intervention lowers acylcarnitines and improves insulin sensitivity independent of muscle mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative capacity. The loss of muscle CPT2 results in a high degree of long-chain acylcarnitine accumulation, simultaneously protecting against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
Project description:Isolated liver cells prepared from starved sheep converted palmitate into ketone bodies at twice the rate seen with cells from fed animals. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation only in liver cells from fed sheep, and completely abolished the difference between fed and starved animals in palmitate oxidation. The rates of palmitate oxidation to CO2 and of octanoate oxidation to ketone bodies and CO2 were not affected by starvation or carnitine. Neither starvation nor carnitine altered the ratio of 3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate or the rate of esterification of [1-14C]palmitate. Propionate, lactate, pyruvate and fructose inhibited ketogenesis from palmitate in cells from fed sheep. Starvation or the addition of carnitine decreased the antiketogenic effectiveness of gluconeogenic precursors. Propionate was the most potent inhibitor of ketogenesis, 0.8 mM producing 50% inhibition. Propionate, lactate, fructose and glycerol increased palmitate esterification under all conditions examined. Lactate, pyruvate and fructose stimulated oxidation of palmitate and octanoate to CO2. Starvation and the addition of gluconeogenic precursors stimulated apparent palmitate utilization by cells. Propionate, lactate and pyruvate decreased cellular long-chain acylcarnitine concentrations. Propionate decreased cell contents of CoA and acyl-CoA. It is suggested that propionate may control hepatic ketogenesis by acting at some point in the beta-oxidation sequence. The results are discussed in relation to the differences in the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism between sheep and rats.
Project description:Because tandem mass spectrometry- (MS/MS-) based newborn screening identifies many suspicious cases of fatty acid oxidation and carnitine cycle disorders, a simple, noninvasive test is required to confirm the diagnosis. We have developed a novel method to evaluate the metabolic defects in peripheral blood mononuclear cells loaded with deuterium-labeled fatty acids directly using the ratios of acylcarnitines determined by flow injection MS/MS. We have identified diagnostic indices for the disorders as follows: decreased ratios of d27-C14-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine and d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II (CPT-II) deficiency, decreased ratios of d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d27-C14-acylcarnitine for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, and increased ratios of d29-C16-OH-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency, together with increased ratios of d7-C4-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I deficiency. The decreased ratios of d1-acetylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine could be indicative of ?-oxidation ability in patients with CPT-II, VLCAD, and TFP deficiencies. Overall, our data showed that the present method was valuable for establishing a rapid diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation disorders and carnitine cycle disorders and for complementing gene analysis because our diagnostic indices may overcome the weaknesses of conventional enzyme activity measurements using fibroblasts or mononuclear cells with assumedly uncertain viability.
Project description:1. The synthesis of pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine, cyclopropanecarbonyl-l-carnitine and cyclobutanecarbonyl-l-carnitine is described. 2. Pent-4-enoate strongly inhibits palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation in coupled but not in uncoupled mitochondria. Pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine strongly inhibits palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation in uncoupled mitochondria. Prior intramitochondrial formation of pent-4-enoyl-CoA is therefore necessary for inhibition. 3. There was a small self-limiting pulse of oxidation of pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine during which the ability to inhibit the oxidation of subsequently added palmitoyl-l-carnitine developed. 4. Pent-4-enoate and pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine are equally effective inhibitors of the oxidation of all even-chain acylcarnitines of chain length C(4)-C(16). Pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine also inhibits the oxidation of pyruvate and of 2-oxoglutarate. 5. Pent-4-enoate strongly inhibits the oxidation of palmitate but not that of octanoate. This is presumably due to competition between octanoate and pent-4-enoate for medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase. 6. There was less inhibition of the oxidation of pyruvate by pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine, and of palmitoyl-l-carnitine by cyclopropanecarbonyl-l-carnitine, after pre-incubation with 10mm-arsenate. This suggests that these inhibitions were caused either by depletion of free CoA or by increase of acyl-CoA concentrations, since arsenate deacylates intramitochondrial acyl-CoA. There was little effect on the inhibition of palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation by pent-4-enoyl-l-carnitine. 7. Penta-2,4-dienoate strongly inhibited palmitoyl-l-carnitine oxidation in coupled mitochondria; acrylate only inhibited slightly. 8. Pent-4-enoate (0.1mm) caused a rapid and almost complete decrease in free CoA and a large increase in acid-soluble acyl-CoA when incubated with coupled mitochondria. Cyclopropanecarboxylate caused a similar decrease in CoA, with an equivalent rise in acid-soluble acyl-CoA concentrations. n-Pentanoate caused extensive lowering of CoA and a large increase in acid-soluble acyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA concentrations. Octanoate caused a 50% lowering of CoA and an increase in acid-soluble acyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA concentrations. 9. Cyclopropanecarboxylate and n-pentanoate were less potent inhibitors of palmitate oxidation than was pent-4-enoate. 10. It is concluded that pent-4-enoate causes a specific inhibition of beta-oxidation after the formation intramitochondrially of its metabolites.
Project description:In the present paper, we describe a novel method which enables the analysis of tissue acylcarnitines and carnitine biosynthesis intermediates in the same sample. This method was used to investigate the carnitine and fatty acid metabolism in wild-type and LCAD-/- (long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient) mice. In agreement with previous results in plasma and bile, we found accumulation of the characteristic C14:1-acylcarnitine in all investigated tissues from LCAD-/- mice. Surprisingly, quantitatively relevant levels of 3-hydroxyacylcarnitines were found to be present in heart, muscle and brain in wild-type mice, suggesting that, in these tissues, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is rate-limiting for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. The 3-hydroxyacylcarnitines were absent in LCAD-/- tissues, indicating that, in this situation, the beta-oxidation flux is limited by the LCAD deficiency. A profound deficiency of acetylcarnitine was observed in LCAD-/- hearts, which most likely corresponds with low cardiac levels of acetyl-CoA. Since there was no carnitine deficiency and only a marginal elevation of potentially cardiotoxic acylcarnitines, we conclude from these data that the cardiomyopathy in the LCAD-/- mouse is caused primarily by a severe energy deficiency in the heart, stressing the important role of LCAD in cardiac fatty acid metabolism in the mouse.