Role of adrenaline and cyclic AMP in appearance of tyrosine aminotransferase in perinatal rat liver.
ABSTRACT: 1. Adrenaline increased hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity when injected into foetal rats or 2-day-old rats. 2. The inhibition of the postnatal increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity which occurred in adrenalectomized newborn rats rapidly overcome by injection of adrenaline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. 3. The effects of adrenaline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the tyrosine aminotransferase activity in foetal, adrenalectomized newborn and 2-day-old rats could be partially or completely blocked by prior treatment with actinomycin D. 4. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP induced tyrosine aminotransferase activity in hepatocytes cultured from 15-day foetal rats in glucocorticoid-free medium. 5. Actinomycin D at 0.2 microgram/ml in the culture medium completely prevented the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity by dibutyryl cyclic AMP in cultured cells. 6. The results suggest that adrenaline and cyclic AMP stimulate a transcriptional event during induction of tyrosine aminotransferase in perinatal liver.
Project description:1. The administration of glucagon, cAMP [adenosine 3',5'-(cyclic)-monophosphate], BcAMP [6-N-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-(cyclic)-monophosphate] or adrenaline to foetal rats during the last 2 days of gestation evoked the appearance of tyrosine aminotransferase and enhanced the accumulation of glucose 6-phosphatase in the liver. In foetuses 1-2 days younger only BcAMP was effective. After birth liver glucose 6-phosphatase no longer responds to glucagon or BcAMP. Tyrosine aminotransferase is still inducible by these agents in 2-day-old rats, but not in 50-day-old rats. After adrenalectomy of adults glucagon or BcAMP can enhance the induction of the enzyme by hydrocortisone. The results indicate that the ability to synthesize tyrosine aminotransferase and glucose 6-phosphatase when exposed to cAMP develops sooner than the ability to respond to glucagon with an increase in the concentration of cAMP; the responsiveness of enzymes to different hormones changes with age. A scheme illustrating the sequential development of competence in regulating the level of an enzyme is presented. 2. Actinomycin inhibited the effects of glucagon and BcAMP on liver tyrosine aminotransferase and glucose 6-phosphatase in foetal rats. Growth hormone, insulin and hydrocortisone did not enhance the formation of these enzymes. 3. The time-course of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphatase in the kidney is different from that in the liver. Hormones that increase the accumulation in foetal liver do not do so in the kidney of the same foetus or in the livers of postnatal rats.
Project description:A specific tyrosine aminotransferase, separate from the aspartate aminotransferases, is present in low concentration in foetal rat liver at the 21st day of gestation. Intraperitoneal injections of tyrosine methyl ester into the foetuses in utero increase the activity 2-fold, whereas glucose injections decrease it. Tyrosine, dexamethasone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP induce the enzyme activity in organ culture to the same extent as in adult rat liver in vivo.
Project description:1. The activities of l-serine dehydratase and l-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase were determined in rat liver during foetal and neonatal development. 2. l-Serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity begins to develop in late-foetal liver, increases rapidly at birth to a peak during suckling and then decreases at weaning to the adult value. 3. l-Serine dehydratase activity is very low prenatally, but increases rapidly after birth to a transient peak. After a second transient peak around the time weaning begins, activity gradually rises to the adult value. Both of these peaks have similar isoenzyme compositions. 4. In foetal liver both l-serine dehydratase and l-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activities are increased after injection in utero of glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Cycloheximide or actinomycin D inhibited the prenatal induction of both enzymes and actinomycin D blocked the natural increase of l-serine dehydratase immediately after birth. Glucose or insulin administration also blocked the perinatal increase of l-serine dehydratase. 5. After the first perinatal peak of l-serine dehydratase, activity is increased by cortisol and this is inhibited by actinomycin D. After the second postnatal peak, activity is increased by amino acids or cortisol and this is insensitive to actinomycin D inhibition. Glucose administration blocks the cortisol-stimulated increase in l-serine dehydratase and also partially lowers the second postnatal peak of activity. 6. The developmental patterns of the enzymes are discussed in relation to the pathways of gluconeogenesis from l-serine. The regulation of enzyme activity by hormonal and dietary factors is discussed with reference to the changes in stimuli that occur during neonatal development and to their possible mechanisms of action.
Project description:1. Gluconeogenesis from pyruvate was measured in renal-cortical-tubules fragments prepared from fed male rats 6-8 days after adrenalectomy or sham adrenalectomy. The response of this process to 3':5'-cyclic AMP and adrenaline was compared in these two states at two Ca2+ concentrations. 2. Adrenalectomy decreased the percentage stimulation of gluconeogenesis by 3':5'-cyclic AMP, but increased percentage stimulation by adrenaline. Cortisol treatment of adrenalectomized rats (50 mg/kg, twice daily for 2 days) did not reverse the change in responsiveness to 3':5'-cyclic AMP and adrenaline. 3. Stimulation of gluconeogenesis by 1 micron-adrenaline was unaffected by 10 micron-propranolol (beta-blocker) in either state. Phentolamine (alpha-blocker; 10 micron) totally blocked stimulation of gluconeogenesis by 1 micron-adrenaline in the sham-operated condition, but was only partially effective in this respect after adrenalectomy.
Project description:1. The concentrations of liver glycogen and plasma d-glucose were measured in caesarian-delivered newborn rats at time-intervals up to 3h after delivery after treatment of the neonatal rats with glucagon, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cortisol or cortisol+dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Glycogenolysis was promoted by glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP in the third hour after birth but not at earlier times. Cortisol and dibutyryl cyclic AMP together (but neither agent alone) promoted glycogenolysis in the second hour after birth, but no hormone combination was effective in the first postnatal hour. 2. The specific radioactivity of plasma d-glucose was measured as a function of time for up to 75 min after the intraperitoneal injection of d-[6-(14)C]glucose and d-[6-(3)H]glucose into newborn rats at delivery and after treatment with glucagon or actinomycin D. Glucagon-mediated hyperglycaemia at this time was due to an increased rate of glucose formation and a decreased rate of glucose utilization. Actinomycin D prevented glucose formation and accelerated the rate of postnatal hypoglycaemia. 3. The specific radioactivity of plasma l-lactate and the incorporation of (14)C into plasma d-glucose was measured as a function of time after the intraperitoneal injection of l-[U-(14)C]lactate into glucagon- or actinomycin D-treated rats immediately after delivery. The calculated rates of lactate formation were unchanged by either treatment, but lactate utilization was stimulated by glucagon administration. Glucagon stimulated and actinomycin D diminished (14)C incorporation into plasma d-glucose. 4. The factors involved in the initiation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the rat immediately after birth are discussed.
Project description:1. The ability of exogenously administered cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate) to exert andromimetic action on certain carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in the rat prostate gland and seminal vesicles. 2. Cyclic AMP, when injected concurrently with theophylline, produced marked increases in hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and two hexose monophosphate-shunt enzymes, as well as alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in accessory sexual tissues of castrated rats. The 6-N,2'-O-dibutyryl analogue of cyclic AMP caused increases of enzyme activity that were greater than those induced by the parent compound. 3. Time-course studies demonstrated that, whereas significant increases in the activities of most enzymes occurred within 4h after the injection of cyclic AMP, maximal increases were attained at 16-24h. 4. Increase in the activity of the various prostatic and vesicular enzymes was dependent on the dose of cyclic AMP; in most instances, 2.5mg of the cyclic nucleotide/rat was sufficient to elicit a statistically significant response. 5. Administration of cyclic AMP and theophylline also produced stimulation of enzyme activities in secondary sexual tissues of immature rats. 6. Cyclic AMP and theophylline did not affect significantly any of the enzymes studied in hepatic tissue. 7. Stimulation of various carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in the prostate gland and seminal vesicles by cyclic AMP was independent of adrenal function. 8. Concurrent treatment with actinomycin or cycloheximide prevented the cyclic AMP- and theophylline-induced increases in enzyme activities in both castrated and adrenalectomized-castrated animals. 9. Administration of a single dose of testosterone propionate (5.0mg/100g) to castrated rats caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP concentration in both accessory sexual tissues. 10. In addition, treatment with theophylline potentiated the effects of a submaximal dose of testosterone (1.0mg/100g) on all those prostatic and seminal-vesicular enzymes that are increased by exogenous cyclic AMP. 11. The evidence indicates that cyclic AMP may be involved in triggering the known metabolic actions of androgens on secondary sexual tissues of the rat.
Project description:1. Premature delivery of foetal rats by uterine section results in the rapid appearance of tyrosine aminotransferase activity in foetal liver, after an initial lag period of 3-6hr. 2. The premature induction of activity is completely repressible by actinomycin D given soon after delivery and partially repressible by puromycin and amino acid analogues. 3. Glucagon injections into foetal rats in utero lead to production of tyrosine aminotransferase in the foetal liver, but adrenalin and nor-adrenalin are without effect. 4. Injections of glucose, galactose, fructose and mannose into prematurely delivered rats repress the development of tyrosine aminotransferase activity about 50% when they are given 2hr. after delivery, but glucose has no significant effect when injected at delivery. 5. The results are discussed in relation to current hypotheses on the role of hormones in enzyme induction in foetal development.
Project description:Adrenalectomy results in significant changes in the mechanism of adrenergic activation of hepatic glycogenolysis. In adrenalectomized rats a greater role for the beta-adrenergic receptor is observed, whereas the alpha 1-adrenergic-mediated phosphorylase activation declines. Our present findings document that adrenalectomy causes a significant decrease in the high-affinity population of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor labelled with [3H]adrenaline. Our data indicate a large increase in the number of beta-adrenergic binding sites after adrenalectomy. This increase was not consistent with the observed modest increase in the beta-adrenergic-mediated activation of cyclic AMP accumulation and glycogen phosphorylase. When alpha-adrenergic antagonists are present along with the catecholamine, a 100% increase in the adrenaline-mediated accumulation of cyclic AMP in hepatocytes from adrenalectomized rats was observed. Adrenalectomy was also shown to cause a significant increase in the hepatic alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites. These data are consistent with an inhibitory role on the beta-adrenergic-mediated activation of glycogenolysis by the hepatic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in adrenalectomy.
Project description:1. The administration of triamcinolone (19-190mug/animal) to postnatal rats increased the arginine synthetase system activity 1.2-2.5-fold above control values 24h after exposure to the hormone. Cortisol (hydrocortisone), however, increased the arginine synthetase system activity only when larger (190mug/animal) or repeated daily doses were given. Glucagon (100mug/animal) stimulated arginine synthetase system activity only after the second postnatal day. None of these agents increased the activity in 19.5-21.5-day foetuses after intrauterine administration. 2. The viability of foetal rat liver explants maintained in organ culture for up to 54h was validated both by ultramicroscopic examination and by incorporation of radioactive leucine and orotic acid. 3. In organ cultures of foetal rat liver explants (18.5 days to term), triamcinolone (20mug/ml of medium) evoked a 2.8-4.3-fold increase after 24h of incubation. This increase was completely inhibited by actinomycin D (25mug/ml) or cycloheximide (10mug/ml). Cortisol (5-50mug/ml) or glucagon (0.067-67mug/ml) also increased the arginine synthetase system activity above the respective control values, but there was no increase in activity with insulin (0.05-0.25i.u./ml). 4. Maximum concentrations of glucagon (67mug/ml), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (6-N,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate) (0.1mm) and triamcinolone (20mug/ml) incubated for 24h with foetal rat liver explants each produced between a two-and three-fold increase in the activity of the arginine synthetase system. Combinations of maximum amounts of glucagon and the cyclic nucleotide did not produce a greater effect than either agent alone. However, the combination of dibutyryl cyclic AMP with triamcinolone appeared to produce somewhat less than additive effects. 5. The effects of the cyclic nucleotide and triamcinolone were evident after 12h of incubation and increased steadily throughout the 24h of observation. This time-course of increased enzyme activity is very much slower than that reported for the induction of other enzymes in explant cultures of foetal rat liver.
Project description:1. The specificity of the effect of glucose on the induction of glucokinase activity that occurs when hepatocytes freshly isolated from 13-day-old rats are incubated in Medium 199 together with insulin [Wakelam & Walker (1980) FEBS Lett. 111, 115-119] was examined. A pattern that is different from other known effects of glucose is found, and metabolism of this compound is not necessarily to account for this particular effect. 2. The effects of a raised glucose concentration and of insulin on the induction can be separated. The hexose initiates the process in the absence of insulin in a manner that is sensitive to actinomycin D but not to cycloheximide. The subsequent effect of insulin is dependent on the prior effect of glucose or other positive analogue, does not require the presence of glucose and is inhibited by cycloheximide but not by actinomycin D. 3. Induction of glucokinase in vitro in hepatocytes from neonatal animals is inhibited by adrenaline, glucagon and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, but not by vasopressin or angiotensin II. The inhibition by cyclic AMP is on the stage requiring insulin and is comparatively specific, because total protein synthesis is not apparently diminished. 4. The implications of these results are discussed with reference to possible mechanisms of induction and to the situation in vivo.