Huntington's-chorea fibroblasts. Cellular protein glycosylation.
ABSTRACT: Five cell cultures of Huntington's-chorea fibroblasts exhibit greater than normal protein and lipid glycosylation when labelled with [U-14C]glucosamine. Oligosaccharide--polypeptide chains from all molecular-weight ranges are labelled differentially on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This difference in protein glycosylation is not accompanied by any apparent difference in general cellular protein synthesis or by a differential rate of glucosamine uptake or decreased degradation of [14C]glycosylated macromolecules. Additionally [U-14C]glucosamine exclusively labels hexosamines and sialic acid of cellular macromolecules.
Project description:The hypothesis that there is impaired endogenous synthesis of glucosamine 6-phosphate in Huntington's-chorea fibroblasts was tested by double labelling matched pairs of fibroblasts in culture with carrier-free H3 32PO4 and [U-14C]glucosamine. The [32P]UDP-N-acetyl[14C]glucosamine and [14C]glucosamine 6-[32P]phosphate of the cellular soluble fraction was isolated by charcoal column and paper chromatography. There is no quantitative difference in 32P but a significant difference in 14C in these two sugars in a ratio of approx. 1.5 for Huntington's-chorea fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts.
Project description:Two inhibitors of glycosylation, glucosamine and tunicamycin, were utilized to examine the effect of glycosylation inhibition in mouse neuroblastoma N18 cells on the degradation of membrane glycoproteins synthesized before addition of the inhibitor. Treatment with 10 mM-glucosamine resulted in inhibition of glycosylation after 2h, as measured by [3H]fucose incorporation into acid-insoluble macromolecules, and in a decreased rate of glycoprotein degradation. However, these results were difficult to interpret since glucosamine also significantly inhibited protein synthesis, which in itself could cause the alteration in glycoprotein degradation [Hudson & Johnson (1977) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 497, 567-577]. N18 cells treated with 5 microgram of tunicamycin/ml, a more specific inhibitor of glycosylation, showed a small decrease in protein synthesis relative to its effect on glycosylation, which was inhibited by 85%. Tunicamycin-treated cells also showed a marked decrease in glycoprotein degradation in experiments with intact cells. The inhibition of glycoprotein degradation by tunicamycin was shown to be independent of alterations in cyclic AMP concentration. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of isolated membranes from N18 cells, double-labelled with [14C]fucose and [3H]fucose, revealed heterogeneous turnover rates for specific plasma-membrane glycoproteins. Comparisons of polyacrylamide gels of isolated plasma membranes from [3H]fucose-labelled control cells and [14C]fucose-labelled tunicamycin-treated cells revealed that both rapidly and slowly metabolized, although not all, membrane glycoproteins became resistant to degradation after glycosylation inhibition.
Project description:1. Glycoproteins of hamster, rat and baboon lung parenchyma were investigated by using [14C]glucosamine incorporation in vitro followed by sequential extraction of the macromolecular components and characterization of the glycoproteins in the extracts. 2. Slices of lung parenchyma maintained in vitro incorporated [U-14C]glucosamine linearly with time into non-diffusible macromolecules for up to 5h. All the macromolecule-associated 14C label was present as [14C]glucosamine. 3. These 14C-labelled macromolecules were extracted from previously delipidated and salt-extracted lung by 5M-guanidinium chloride in the presence of dithiothreitol and proteinase inhibitors before (extract A1) and after (extract A2) hydrolysis of the collagen by collagenase. The [14C]glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins in extracts A1 and A2 contained 55 and 5% respectively of the total [14C]glucosamine incorporated in the lung of all three species studied. 4. The [14C]glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins were analysed by gel-filtration chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The major [14C]glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins of baboon lung parenchyma had apparent mol.wts. of about 400 000, 140 000 and 65 000 with isoelectric points respectively of 4.8, 5.4 and 5.4. The hamster lung glycoproteins with isoelectric points of 4.1 and 5.8 were devoid of hydroxyproline and contained galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine. These experiments indicate that several distinct glycoproteins are synthesized in situ by the cells of pulmonary parenchyma and may well play a role in its structure and function.
Project description:1. Primary cultures of chondrocytes from the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma were labelled with either [3H]glucosamine or [14C]glucosamine, and hyaluronate synthesized by the cells was isolated from the cell layer. Parallel cultures were labelled with either [3H]serine or [3H]lysine, and identical fractions were isolated from the cell layer. Some cultures were dual-labelled. 2. In cultures labelled with [3H]serine for between 30 min and 24 h and extracted with 4.0 M-guanidine, a procedure that solubilizes predominantly extracellular macromolecules, small amounts of [3H]serine-labelled molecules were found associated with the hyaluronate fraction purified from the extract by dissociative CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation and dissociative Sepharose CL-2B chromatography. About 75% of the [3H]serine-labelled molecules in the fraction were specifically associated with hyaluronate, since they could be removed by prior treatment with proteinase-free Streptomyces hyaluronidase. The association of the [3H]serine-labelled molecules with hyaluronate was non-covalent, since they could be separated from it by further centrifugation in CsCl density gradients containing 4 M-guanidinium chloride and a zwitterionic detergent. 3. In other experiments the cultures were extracted with a sequential zwitterionic-detergent/guanidinium chloride procedure that completely solubilized the cell layer and enabled fractions containing newly synthesized cell-associated hyaluronate to be isolated. Zwitterionic detergent was present throughout. No [3H]lysine was incorporated into these fractions, irrespective of whether the cultures were pulsed concurrently with [3H]lysine and [14C]glucosamine or sequentially with [3H]lysine to prelabel the protein pool (24 h) followed by [14C]-glucosamine to label hyaluronate (1 h). 4. The results show that newly synthesized hyaluronate is not associated with covalently bound protein, and suggest that chain synthesis is initiated by a mechanism other than on to a core protein. Small amounts of [3H]serine-labelled molecules are, however, non-covalently associated with extracellular hyaluronate. Their identity is at present unknown, but they are probably of low molecular weight.
Project description:Background:The differential diagnosis of chorea syndromes is complex. It includes inherited forms, the most common of which is autosomal dominant Huntington's disease (HD). In addition, there are disorders mimicking HD, the so-called HD-like (HDL) syndromes. Methods and Results:Here we review main clinical, genetic, and pathophysiological characteristics of HD and the rare HD phenocopies in order to familiarize clinicians with them. Molecular studies have shown that HD phenocopies account for about 1% of suspected HD cases, most commonly due to mutations in C9orf72 (also the main cause of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis syndromes), TATA box-binding protein (spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 [SCA17]/HDL4), and JPH3 (HDL2). Systematic screening studies also revealed mutations in PRNP (prion disease), VPS13A (chorea-acanthocytosis), ATXN8OS-ATXN8 (SCA8), and FXN (late-onset Friedreich's Ataxia) in single cases. Further differential diagnoses to consider in patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis consistent with HD, but without the HD expansion, include dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and benign hereditary chorea (TITF1), as well as the recently described form of ADCY5-associated neurodegeneration. Lastly, biallelic mutations in RNF216 and FRRS1L have recently been reported as autosomal recessive phenocopies of HD. Conclusion:There is a growing list of genes associated with chorea, yet a substantial percentage of patients remain undiagnosed. It is likely that more genes will be discovered in the future and that the clinical spectrum of the described disorders will broaden.
Project description:There are currently no effective pharmacological agents available to stop or prevent the progression of Huntington's disease (HD), a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. In addition to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairments, HD causes progressive motor disturbances, in particular choreiform movements, which are characterized by unwanted contractions of the facial muscles, trunk and extremities. Management of choreiform movements is usually advised if chorea interferes with daily functioning, causes social isolation, gait instability, falls, or physical injury. Although drugs to reduce chorea are available, only few randomized controlled studies have assessed the efficacy of these drugs, resulting in a high variety of prescribed drugs in clinical practice. The current pharmacological treatment options to reduce chorea in HD are outlined in this review, including the latest results on deutetrabenazine, a newly developed pharmacological agent similar to tetrabenazine, but with suggested less peak dose side effects. A review of the existing literature was conducted using the PubMed, Cochrane and Medline databases. In conclusion, mainly tetrabenazine, tiapride (in European countries), olanzapine, and risperidone are the preferred first choice drugs to reduce chorea among HD experts. In the existing literature, these drugs also show a beneficial effect on motor symptom severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms. Generally, it is recommended to start with a low dose and increase the dose with close monitoring of any adverse effects. New interesting agents, such as deutetrabenazine and pridopidine, are currently under development and more randomized controlled trials are warranted to assess the efficacy on chorea severity in HD.
Project description:Lysosomal degradation of the carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans produces monosaccharides and sulphate, which must efflux from the lysosomes before re-entering biosynthetic pathways. We examined the degradation of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans by lysosomes isolated from cultured human diploid fibroblasts. Cells were grown for 24 h in medium containing [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulphate. When lysosomes are isolated from these cells, they contain label primarily in macromolecules (glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). Glycoprotein degradation by isolated lysosomes was followed by measuring the release of tritiated sugars from macromolecules and efflux of these sugars from the organelles. Glycosaminoglycan degradation was monitored by the release of both tritiated sugars and [35S]sulphate. During macromolecule degradation, the total amounts of free [35S]sulphate, N-acetyl[3H]glucosamine and N-acetyl[3H]galactosamine found outside the lysosome parallels the amounts of these products released by degradation. The total degradation of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans by intact cultured cells was also examined. The lysosomal contribution to degradation was assessed by measuring inhibition by the lysosomotropic amine NH4Cl. After 48 h incubation, inhibition by NH4Cl exceeded 55% of glycoprotein and 72% of glycosaminoglycan degradation. Recycling of [3H]hexosamines and [35S]sulphate by intact cells was estimated by measuring the appearance of 'newly synthesized' radioactively labelled macromolecules in the medium. Sulphate does not appear to be appreciably recycled. N-Acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, on the other hand, are reutilized to a significant extent.
Project description:The incorporation in vivo of D-[1-14C]glucosamine into serum glycoproteins and proteins of liver microsomal fractions shows a decrease in the early stages (24h) after partial hepatectomy compared with sham-operated animals; 72h after partial hepatectomy the specific radioactivity of hexosamines bound to liver microsomal fractions reaches the same value as for sham-operated animals.
Project description:Latrepirdine (Dimebon) is a small-molecule compound under development by Medivation Inc and Pfizer Inc for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's chorea. Originally developed and marketed as an antihistamine in Russia, latrepirdine has since demonstrated potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Early research suggested that the mechanism of action was centered on AChE inhibition and NMDA antagonism. More recent research questions these early findings, and other mechanisms of action have been proposed and investigated. In phase II clinical trials, latrepirdine demonstrated clinically relevant improvements in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's chorea. At the time of publication, phase III clinical trials had been initiated. Given the robustness of the phase II clinical data, latrepirdine has a high likelihood of success in phase III trials and in subsequently being granted regulatory approval.
Project description:Human colon-carcinoma cells were exposed to D-glucosamine at 2.5, 5 and 10 mM, concentrations that were growth-inhibitory but not cytocidal in the presence of a physiological glucose concentration. Labelling of these HT-29 cells with D-[14C]-glucosamine, followed by nucleotide analyses, demonstrated that UDP-N-acetyl-hexosamines represented the major intracellular nucleotide pool and the predominant metabolite of the amino sugar. D-[14C]Glucosamine was not a precursor of UDP-glucosamine. After 4h exposure to D-glucosamine (2.5 mM), the pool of UDP-N-acetylhexosamines was increased more than 6-fold, whereas UTP and CTP were markedly decreased. UDP-glucuronate content increased by more than 2-fold, whereas purine nucleotide content was little altered. Uridine (0.1 mM) largely reversed the decrease in UTP, CTP, UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose, while intensifying the expansion of the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Uridine did not reverse the D-glucosamine-induced retardation of growth in culture. A 50% decrease in growth also persisted when uridine and cytidine, cytidine alone, or UDP, were added together with D-glucosamine. The growth-inhibitory effect of the amino sugar could therefore be best correlated with the quantitative change in the pattern of sugar nucleotides, and, in particular, with the many-fold increase in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine.