Interaction of dinitrophenyl-pepstatins with human cathepsin D and with anti-dinitrophenyl antibody. Development of potential reagents for the localization in vivo of active proteinases at sites of tissue injury.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular cathepsin D has been observed by various cytochemical methods at sites of tissue injury. However, the role of this enzyme in connective tissue matrix degradation is uncertain because there are no histochemical methods for determining whether or not the cathepsin D is active at such sites in living tissues. We considered that the combined use of a labelled tight-binding inhibitor with immunoprecipitation of the enzymes might overcome this problem. We have explored the application of derivatives of the inhibitor pepstatin, as only active cathepsin D binds pepstatin tightly. A series of N-pepstatinyl-N'-dinitrophenyl-alpha, omega-diaminoalkanes were synthesized with alkyl-chain lengths of two, four and six carbon atoms. These compounds were tight-binding inhibitors of human cathepsin D. In fluorescence-quenching titrations the dinitrophenyl groups were also fully available to bind high-affinity anti-dinitrophenyl antibody. It was shown by immunodiffusion in gels and by gel permeation chromatography that N-pepstatinyl-N'-dinitrophenyl-1,6-diaminohexane was a bifunction inhibitor able to bind cathepsin D and anti-dinitrophenyl antibody at the same time.
Project description:1. N-Pepstatinyl-N'-dinitrophenyl-1,6-diaminohexane, a potential active-site-directed localization reagent for cathepsin D, was found to bind non-specifically to immuno-precipitates containing cathepsin D. 2. Three new water-soluble localization reagents were synthesized, by using NN'-bis-(3-aminopropyl)piperazine, 3-oxa-1,5-diamino-pentane or 3,6-dioxa-1,8-diamino-octane, as spacer arms between the pepstatin and dinitrophenyl moieties. 3. The hydrophilic dinitrophenyl-pepstatins were all tight-binding inhibitors of cathepsin D at pH 3.5, but showed little or no binding to immuno-precipitates containing the inactive enzyme at pH 7.4. 4. Gel-chromatographic experiments showed that, at pH 5.0, all the dinitrophenyl-pepstatins were bifunctional reagents able to bind cathepsin D and anti-dinitrophenyl antibody at the same time. Enzyme-inhibitor-antibody complexes were not formed at pH 7.4, thus confirming that the reagents were active-site-directed. 5. Cultured human synovial cells were fixed and incubated with the dinitrophenyl-pepstatins at pH 5.0 or pH 7.4. After washing briefly, the cells were incubated at the appropriate pH value with anti-dinitrophenyl antibody labelled with fluorescein. When examined by fluorescence microscopy the cells stained at pH 5.0 showed fluorescent perinuclear granules, which were not seen in the cells treated at pH 7.4. The distribution of cathepsin D, determined by indirect immuno-fluorescence at pH 7.4, closely resembled that revealed by the dinitrophenyl-pepstatins at pH 5.0. 7. NN'-(3-Pepstatinylaminopropyl-3'-dinitrophenylaminopropyl)piperazine gave the most intense lysosomal staining and showed no non-specific binding. We conclude that this reagent is suitable for the subcellular localization of the active conformation of cathepsin D.
Project description:1. Because of the proposed role of cathepsin D in a variety of biological and pathological processes, the characteristics of inhibition by the potentially useful agent, pepstatin, were determined. 2. The beta and gamma forms of human cathepsin D, separated by isoelectric focusing, have identical specific extinction coefficients and specific activity in the degradation of haemoglobin. 3. Cathepsin D showed tight binding of 1 mol of pepstatin per 43000 g of protein, indicating that titration with the inhibitor represents a useful method for determination of absolute concentrations of the enzyme. 4. The titration curves were used to determine apparent dissociation constants (KD) for the binding of pepstatin and pepstatin methyl ester at pH3.5; values of approx. 5 X 10(-10)M were obtained. 5. Pepstatinyl-[3H]glycine was synthesized and shown to have a KD similar to that of pepstatin. Gel-chromatographic experiments showed that the binding of pepstatin and its derivatives is strongly pH-dependent. 6. The effect of pH on the KD for pepstatinyl-glycine was determined by equilibrium dialysis. As the pH was raised from 5.0 to 6.4, KD rose from 5 X 10(-10)M to 2 X 10(-6)M. 7. The catalytic activity of cathepsin D declines essentially to zero on going from pH5.0 to pH7.0, and we suggest that the binding site for substrate and pepstatin is abolished by a conformational change in the enzyme molecule. 8. The data indicate that, in biological experiments near neutral pH, large molar excesses of pepstatin over cathepsin D will be required for efficient inhibition.
Project description:1. Pepstatinyl-cystamine was synthesized. The disulphide bond was cleaved and the pepstatin-bound thiol was made to react with monobromobimane. The fluorescent N-pepstatinyl-S-bimanyl-2-aminoethanethiol was purified. 2. Human cathepsin D showed tight binding of the bimane-labelled pepstatin at pH 3.5. The titration curves were used to determine the apparent dissociation constant, KD; values of approx. 1 x 10(-10) M were obtained. 3. Gel-chromatographic experiments showed that, like that of pepstatin, the binding of N-pepstatinyl-S-bimanyl-1-aminoethanethiol to cathepsin D was strongly pH-dependent. Binding was seen at pH 5.0, but could not be demonstrated at pH 7.4. 4. Cultured human synovial cells were fixed and incubated with the fluorescent inhibitor at pH 5.0 or pH 7.4. When examined by fluorescence microscopy the cells stained at pH 5.0 showed a punctate perinuclear distribution of bimane fluorescence. By contrast, the cells stained at pH 7.4 showed no fluorescence. 5. The distribution of cathepsin D, determined by indirect immunofluorescence at pH 7.4, closely resembled that of the fluorescent inhibitor seen at pH 5.0. 6. We conclude that N-pepstatinyl-S-bimanyl-2-aminoethanethiol is a fluorescent probe selective for the active conformation of cathepsin D.
Project description:Lactoyl-pepstatin (an acylated tetrapeptide) is much more readily soluble in aqueous media than the more common isovaleryl- and acetyl-pepstatins (acylated pentapeptides). However, the K1 value for inhibition of cathepsin D by lactoyl-pepstatin at pH 3.5 is approx. 10(-7) M, some two to three orders of magnitude weaker than has been obtained previously for isovaleryl- or acetyl-pepstatins. One of the peptides released during activation of pig pepsinogen is known to be an effective inhibitor of pig pepsin, but it does not alter the activity of the similar aspartic proteinase, pig cathepsin D.
Project description:Cathepsin D (EC 126.96.36.199) is a lysosomal protease suspected to play important roles in protein catabolism, antigen processing, degenerative diseases, and breast cancer progression. Determination of the crystal structures of cathepsin D and a complex with pepstatin at 2.5 A resolution provides insights into inhibitor binding and lysosomal targeting for this two-chain, N-glycosylated aspartic protease. Comparison with the structures of a complex of pepstatin bound to rhizopuspepsin and with a human renin-inhibitor complex revealed differences in subsite structures and inhibitor-enzyme interactions that are consistent with affinity differences and structure-activity relationships and suggest strategies for fine-tuning the specificity of cathepsin D inhibitors. Mutagenesis studies have identified a phosphotransferase recognition region that is required for oligosaccharide phosphorylation but is 32 A distant from the N-domain glycosylation site at Asn-70. Electron density for the crystal structure of cathepsin D indicated the presence of an N-linked oligosaccharide that extends from Asn-70 toward Lys-203, which is a key component of the phosphotransferase recognition region, and thus provides a structural explanation for how the phosphotransferase can recognize apparently distant sites on the protein surface.
Project description:The effect of varying the temperature over a wide range (4--60 degrees C) on the binding of epsilon-dinitrophenyl-L-lysine to bovine colostral anti-dinitrophenyl immunoglobulin G2 yielded a non-linear van't Hoff plot. The extent of curvature was indicative of a large positive heat-capacity change, and the thermodynamic parameters, calculated by using a non-linear least squares computer procedure, revealed an enthalpy--entropy-compensation mechanism for hapten-antibody binding. The enthalpy factor was found to be the primary contributor for the complex-formation at low temperatures, but at increasing temperatures the entropy factor assumed greater importance. At physiological temperature (39 degrees C), the entropy factor was the major contributor to the free energy of reaction.
Project description:Magnetic-resonance techniques are used to refine the model of the combining site of the Fv fragment of the dinitrophenyl-binding mouse myeloma protein MOPC 315 constructed by Padlan, Davies, Pecht, Givol & Wright (1976) (Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.41, in the press). Light-absorption studies indicate a dinitrophenyl-tryptophan interaction in the Fv fragment of the type occurring in free solution. The Dnp-aspartate-tryptophan complex is therefore used as a starting point for the n.m.r. (nuclear-magnetic-resonance) analysis of the dinitrophenyl-Fv fragment interaction. Ring-current calculations are used to determine the geometry of the complex. The specificity of complex-formation between dinitrophenyl and tryptophan is confirmed by the lack of ring-current shifts of the dinitrophenyl resonances when tryptophan is replaced by any other aromatic amino acid. Proton n.m.r. difference spectra (at 270MHz), resulting from the addition of a variety of haptens to the Fv fragment, show that the combining site is highly aromatic in nature. Calculations on the basis of ring-current shifts define the geometry of the combining site, which involves a dinitrophenyl ring in van der Waals contact with four aromatic amino acid residues on the protein. The observation of a nuclear Overhauser effect on the H((3)) resonance of the dinitrophenyl ring provides additional constraints on the relative geometry of the H((3)) proton and an aromatic amino acid residue on the Fv fragment. The specificity of the Fv fragment for dinitrophenyl ligands arises from a stacking interaction of the dinitrophenyl ring with tryptophan-93(L), in an ;aromatic box' of essentially tryptophan-93(L), phenylalanine-34(H) and tyrosine-34(L); asparagine-36(L) and tyrosine-34(L) also contribute by forming hydrogen bonds with the nitro groups on the dinitrophenyl ring. The n.m.r. results also confirm that the antibody-hapten reaction may be visualized as a single encounter step. An Appendix shows the method of calculation of ring currents for the four aromatic amino acids and their use in calculating structures.
Project description:Dinitrophenyl S-glutathione is accumulated by inside-out vesicles made from human erythrocytes in a process totally dependent on ATP and Mg2+. The vesicles were shown to accumulate dinitrophenyl S-glutathione against a concentration gradient. The vesicles were able to concentrate this glutathione derivative even in the absence of membrane potential. This indicated that the ATP-dependent uptake of dinitrophenyl S-glutathione by inside-out vesicles represented an active transport process. Neither extravesicular EGTA nor intravesicular ouabain inhibited the transport process, indicating that neither the Ca2+-ATPase nor the Na+, K+-ATPase were involved. These results indicated that dinitrophenyl S-glutathione uptake by inside-out vesicles probably represented primary active transport. The uptake of dinitrophenyl S-glutathione was a linear function of time (up to 5 h) and vesicle protein. The rate of uptake was optimal between pH 7.0 and 8.0 and at 37 degrees C. The Km values determined for dinitrophenyl S-glutathione and ATP were 0.29 mM and 1 mM, respectively. The transport process was completely inhibited by vanadate and by p-hydroxymercuribenzene sulphonate and inhibited to a lesser extent by N-ethylmaleimide. GTP could efficiently substitute for ATP as an energy source for the transport process, but CTP and UTP were comparatively much less effective.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) growth in lymphocyte cultures was increased when the virus inoculum was incubated in breast milk. The enhancing effect of milk was abolished by anti-cathepsin D antibody or by pepstatin A, a cathepsin D inhibitor. The cathepsin D-producing CD4-negative MCF7 mammary cells supported the growth of some HIV-1 isolates. An MCF7 line chronically producing HIV-1 IIIb was obtained. Cathepsin D may induce conformational modification of viral gp120, allowing direct interaction with a coreceptor. We demonstrated the presence of CXCR4 mRNA in MCF7 cells.
Project description:Procathepsin D is a rapidly processed precursor form of the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin D. The enzymic properties of procathepsin D have been studied by examining the pepstatin-binding characteristics of both the precursor and the mature enzyme. Procathepsin D bound to immobilized pepstatin at 4 degrees C in pH 3.5 buffer but not in pH 5.3 buffer, whereas mature forms of cathepsin D bound to immobilized pepstatin at both pH values. These characteristics of procathepsin D were exploited to isolate the proenzyme from mature forms and to determine whether activation of the proenzyme is an autocatalytic process. After incubation at 37 degrees C in pH 3.5 buffer, the proenzyme underwent pepstatin-inhibitable proteolysis resulting in a dramatically increased affinity of purified procathepsin D for pepstatin at pH 5.3. The low concentration of enzyme used in these studies suggests that procathepsin D cleavage to single-chain cathepsin D may occur via a unimolecular mechanism.