Effects of phenobarbital upon triacylglycerol metabolism in the rabbit.
ABSTRACT: 1. The association between hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and triacylglycerol metabolism was examined in fasting male rabbits (2kg body wt.) injected intra-peritoneally with 50 mg of phenobarbital per kg for 10 days. 2. Occurrence of enzyme induction was established by a significant increase in hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity and cytochrome P-450 content, as well as a doubling of microsomal protein per g of liver and a 54% increase in liver weight. Parallel increments in hepatic gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity occurred; these were more pronounced in the whole homogenate than in the microsomes, which only accounted for 12.5% of the total enzyme activity in the controls and 17.0% in the animals given phenobarbital. Increased activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was also observed in the blood serum of the test animals. 3. The rabbits given phenobarbital manifested increased hepatic triacylglycerol content and the triacylglycerol concentration of blood serum was also elevated. These changes were accompanied by a significantly enhanced ability of cell-free fractions of liver from the test animals (postmitochondrial supernatant and microsomal fractions) to synthesize glycerolipids in vitro from sn-[14C] glycerol 3-phosphate and fatty acids, when expressed per whole liver. Relative to the protein content of the fraction, glycerolipid synthesis in vitro was significantly decreased in the microsomes, presumably consequent upon the dramatic increase in their total protein content, whereas no change occurred in the postmitochondrial supernatant, possibly due to the protective effect of cytosolic factors present in this fraction and known to enhance glycerolipid synthesis. 4. Microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase accounted for 85% of the total liver activity of this enzyme and its specific activity was 20-fold higher than that of the cytosolic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (EC 220.127.116.11), when each was measured under optimal conditions. A significant increase in the activity of both enzymes per whole liver occurred in the rabbits given phenobarbital. A closer correlation between hepatic triacylglycerol content and and microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, as well as the above observation, suggest that this, rather than the cytosolic enzyme, may be rate-limiting for triacylglycerol synthesis in rabbit liver. 5. Significant correlations were observed between the various factors of hepatic microsomal-enzyme induction (aminopyrine N-demethylase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity as well as cytochrome P-450 content) and hepatic triacylglycerol content, suggesting that that microsomal enzyme induction may promote hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis and consequently hypertriglyceridaemia in the rabbit.
Project description:1. Various aspects of triacylglycerol metabolism were compared in rats given phenobarbital at a dose of 100mg/kg body wt. per day by intraperitoneal injection; controls were injected with an equal volume of 0.15m-NaCl by the same route. Animals were killed after 5 days of treatment. 2. Rats injected with phenobarbital demonstrated increased liver weight, and increased microsomal protein per g of liver. Other evidence of microsomal enzyme induction was provided by increased activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase and cytochrome P-450 content. Increased hepatic activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 18.104.22.168) occurred in male rats, but not in females, and was not accompanied by any detectable change in the activity of this enzyme in serum. 3. Phenobarbital treatment increased the hepatic content of triacylglycerol after 5 days in starved male and female rats, as well as in non-starved male rats; non-starved females were not tested in this regard. At 5 days after withdrawal of the drug, there was no difference in hepatic triacylglycerol content or in hepatic functions of microsomal enzyme induction between the treated and control rats. 4. After 5 days, phenobarbital increased the synthesis in vitro of glycerolipids in cell-free liver fractions fortified with optimal concentrations of substrates and co-substrates when results were expressed per whole liver. The drug caused a significant increment in the activity of hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 22.214.171.124), but did not affect the activity per liver of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (EC 126.96.36.199) in cytosolic or washed microsomal fractions. A remarkable sex-dependent difference was observed for this latter enzyme. In female rats, the activity of the microsomal enzyme per liver was 10-fold greater than that of the cytosolic enzyme, whereas in males, the activities of phosphohydrolases per liver from both subcellular fractions were similar. 5. The phenobarbital-mediated increase in hepatic triacylglycerol content could not be explained by a decrease in the hepatic triacylglycerol secretion rate as measured by the Triton WR1339 technique. Since the hepatic triacylglycerol showed significant correlation with microsomal enzyme induction functions, with hepatic glycerolipid synthesis in vitro and with diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, it is likely to be due to enhanced triacylglycerol synthesis consequent on hepatic microsomal enzyme induction. 6. In contrast with rabbits and guinea pigs, rats injected with phenobarbital showed a decrease in serum triacylglycerol concentration in the starved state; this decrease persisted for up to 5 days after drug administration stopped, and did not occur in non-starved animals. It seems to be independent of the microsomal enzyme-inducing properties of the drug, and may be due to the action of phenobarbital at an extrahepatic site.
Project description:Activities of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase were determined in cardiac subcellular fractions prepared from rabbits which has received tri-iodothyronine and from hamsters with hereditary cardiomyopathy (strain BIO 14.6). 1. Both mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of hyperthyroid rabbit hearts produced 4-5 times as much diacylglycerol 3-phosphate from glycerol 3-phosphate and palmitate as did those of euthyroid hearts. 2. Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, measured with phosphatidate emulsion, was activated by 1mm-Mg(2+) in all but the mitochondrial fraction of euthyroid rabbit hearts. The activation was more pronounced in subcellular fractions isolated from hyperthyroid hearts, so that the measured activities were significantly increased above those of the controls. The highest activity was found in the microsomal and lysosomal fractions. 3. In the absence of Mg(2+) during incubation, the difference in phosphohydrolase activities between eu- and hyper-thyroid states was not significant. 4. The phosphohydrolase of subcellular fractions of control hamsters did not respond to addition of 0.5-8.0mm-Mg(2+). The enzyme from cardiomyopathic hearts was slightly inhibited by this bivalent cation and therefore significant increases in activity were observed only in the absence of Mg(2+) from the assay system. 5. The rate of reaction by soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase was similar regardless of the nature of the substrate. Both when microsomal-bound phosphatidate was used as the substrate and when phosphatidate suspension was used, the activity of soluble enzyme was lower than that of the microsomal and lysosomal enzymes measured with phosphatidate suspension; this was especially so when the assay was carried out in the absence of Mg(2+). Neither tri-iodothyronine nor cardiomyopathy influenced the soluble phosphohydrolase activity in the two species. 6. Neither tri-iodothyronine nor cardiomyopathy significantly changed palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activities in subcellular fractions. 7. Microsomal diacylglycerol acyltransferase and myocardial triacylglycerol content were also unchanged in the hyperthyroid state.
Project description:Obesity in obese-hyperglycaemic mouse is associated with an increase in number and size of adipocytes. Adipocytes from the obese mouse showed increased incorporation of [14C]acetate and[14C]glucose into triacylglycerol. This increased capacity of triacylglycerol formation was correlated with increased activities of various triacylglycerol-forming enzymes measured in the microsomal fraction of adipose tissue from obese mice. Microsomal fractions from lean and obese mice contained sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase was also detected in the soluble fraction. In the presence of Mg2+, the phosphatidate phsophohydrolase from the soluble and the microsomal fractions was active towards membrane-bound phosphatidate. Among the three enzymes studied here, the increase in Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase was most prominent in adipose tissue of obese mice.
Project description:Rats were fed by stomach tube with a single dose of glucose, sorbitol, fructose, glycerol or ethanol of equivalent energy contents or with 0.15 M-NaCl. They were killed 6 h later and the relative rates of phosphatidate deacylation and dephosphorylation measured in the microsomal and supernatant fractions of the livers. Treatment with sorbitol, fructose, glycerol and ethanol increased phosphohydrolase activities in the microsomal and supernatant fractions. The only significant change in deacylase activity was an increase in the microsomal fraction produced by ethanol. It is proposed that hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis is partly controlled by the balance between phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and phospholipase A-type activities.
Project description:1. Male rats were injected daily for 5 days with 0.15m-NaCl, corticotropin, cortisol or l-thyroxine and the rates of glycerolipid synthesis were measured in the livers after intraportal injection of [(14)C]palmitate and [(3)H]glycerol. 2. Injection of all three hormones decreased the rates of body-weight gain. 3. Cortisol treatment increased the weight of the liver relative to body weight. 4. Thyroxine treatment increased the relative rate of triacylglycerol synthesis from [(3)H]glycerol and decreased the relative accumulation of (3)H and (14)C in diacylglycerol. It did not significantly alter the accumulation of these isotopes in phosphatidate nor the activity of the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in the total liver. However, this activity increased by 1.5-fold when expressed relative to the soluble protein of the liver. The increased triacylglycerol synthesis appears to be related to a general increase in the turnover of fatty acids in the liver. 5. Treatment with cortisol and corticotropin increased the relative rate of triacylglycerol synthesis from [(3)H]glycerol, decreased the accumulation of (3)H in phosphatidate and increased the flux of both isotopes from phosphatidate to diacylglycerol. This appeared to be caused by the increased activity of the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase that was observed in the livers of the cortisol-treated rats. 6. It is proposed that cortisol could be directly or indirectly involved in increasing the activity of hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in starvation, diabetes, laparotomy, subtotal hepatectomy, liver damage, ethanol feeding and in obesity. This enzyme adaptation could contribute to the potential of the liver to increase its synthesis and accumulation of triacylglycerols or to secrete very-low-density lipoproteins.
Project description:1. Male rats were fed for 14 days on diets containing (by wt.) 53% of starch, or on diets in which 20% of the starch was replaced by sucrose, corn oil or lard. 2. The hepatic activities of the microsomal glycerol phosphate acyltransferase, dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase, phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and choline phosphotransferase, and of the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, were measured. 3. The soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity was higher in those rats fed on lard than in those fed on the starch diet. Choline phosphotransferase activity was higher in the rats fed on corn oil than in those fed on the starch diet. 4. The rate of hepatic glycerolipid synthesis was measured in vivo 1 min after injection of [1,3-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitate into the portal veins. 5. The relative rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in vivo was increased after feeding with corn oil and the higher specific activity of choline phosphotransferase may contribute to this result. The equivalent rate of triacylglycerol synthesis was increased by feeding with lard rather than corn oil, and the increased activity of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase may partly explain this. The latter changes probably contribute to the increased concentration of triacylglycerol which other authors have observed in the livers and sera of animals fed on saturated and monounsaturated fats.
Project description:1. Rats were injected with a single dose of 35mg of streptozotocin/kg body wt. They exhibited a diabetes that was characterized by glycosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, hyperphagia, hyperglycaemia, increased concentrations of unesterified fatty acids, glycerol and triacylglycerols in the serum and an increased activity of glucose 6-phosphatase in the liver. 2. After 10 weeks the hepatic activities of the microsomal glycerol phosphate acyltransferase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, choline phosphotransferase, CDP-diacylglycerol--inositol phosphatidyltransferase and the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase were measured. 3. The only significant changes were an increase in the activity of the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and a decrease in that of the CDP-diacylglycerol--inositol phosphatidyltransferase in the diabetic rats. 4. These results are discussed in relation to the control of glycerolipid synthesis.
Project description:The translocation of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase between the cytosol and the microsomal membranes was investigated by using a cell-free system from rat liver. Linoleate, alpha-linolenate, arachidonate and eicosapentenoate promoted the translocation to membranes with a similar potency to that of oleate. The phosphohydrolase that associated with the membranes in the presence of [14C]oleate or 1mM-spermine coincided on Percoll gradients with the peak of rotenone-insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase, and in the former case with a peak of 14C. Microsomal membranes were enriched with the phosphohydrolase activity by incubation with [14C]oleate or spermine and then incubated with albumin. The phosphohydrolase activity was displaced from the membranes by albumin, and this paralleled the removal of [14C]oleate from the membranes when this acid was present. Chlorpromazine also displaced phosphatidate phosphohydrolase from the membranes, but it did not displace [14C]oleate. The effects of spermine in promoting the association of the phosphohydrolase with the membranes was inhibited by ATP, GTP, CTP, AMP and phosphate. ATP at the same concentration did not antagonize the translocating effect of oleate. From these results and previous work, it was concluded that the binding of long-chain fatty acids and their CoA esters to the endoplasmic reticulum acts as a signal for more phosphatidate phosphohydrolase to associate with these membranes and thereby to enhance the synthesis of glycerolipids, especially triacylglycerol. The translocation of the phosphohydrolase probably depends on the increased negative charge on the membranes, which could also be donated by the accumulation of phosphatidate. Chlorpromazine could oppose the translocation by donating a positive charge to the membranes.
Project description:Partially hepatectomized rats were used to investigate the mechanism of fatty-liver development in the regenerating rat liver. After partial hepatectomy the amount of hepatic triacylglycerol increased by almost 4-fold compared with sham-operated rats. The activities of both cytosolic and microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase were enhanced at 12 h after surgery. The activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase was increased at a later stage of regeneration. Analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed a significant decrease of lipids associated with very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Relative to control, the rate of hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis from [3H]glycerol in vivo was stimulated at 22 h after partial liver resection. However, secretion of glycerol-labelled triacylglycerol in VLDL was the same in control and hepatectomized rats. In cultures of hepatocytes from hepatectomized donor rats, the concentration of triacylglycerol and the biosynthesis of this lipid from [3H]glycerol or from [3H]oleate were enhanced. The secretion of total triacylglycerol into the medium was not affected, resulting in a net accumulation of intracellular triacylglycerol. The rate of secretion of leucine-labelled apolipoproteins B and E associated with VLDL was similar in cell cultures from hepatectomized and sham-operated rats. The results of this study show that the enhancement of the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in hepatectomized livers is not accompanied by an increase of the secretion of VLDL.
Project description:1. The accumulation of triglyceride in the liver remnant after subtotal hepatectomy (removal of 82% of the liver) exceeded that described for partial hepatectomy (removal of 70% of the liver). 2. Palmitoyl-CoA synthetase, glycerol phosphate acyltransferase and diglyceride acyltransferase activities were measured in the microsomal fraction, and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity was measured in the particle-free supernatant fraction, prepared from the liver remnant at various times after subtotal hepatectomy. 3. The only enzyme showing a significant change in specific activity was phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. The specific activity was approximately fivefold that of the control value at 6h after operation and threefold that of the control at 10, 16 and 24h after operation. A smaller increase in the specific activity of the enzyme in sham-operated animals occurred only at 6h after operation. 4. However, at this time the total phosphohydrolase activity of the remaining liver in the sham-operated rats was approximately threefold that in hepatectomized rats. 5. Injection of actinomycin D prevented the increase in activity of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase but did not prevent the accumulation of triglyceride.