Metal ion interactions in the control of haem oxygenase induction in liver and kidney.
ABSTRACT: Mn2+ and Zn2+ exhibit a striking ability to block the induction by Sn2+ and Ni2+ of haem oxygenase (EC 18.104.22.168) in kidney. The blocking effects of Mn2+ and Zn2+ were found to be greatest on simultaneous administration, time-dependent when administered up to 8 h before the inducing metal ions, and ineffective when administered as little as 10 min after the inducing metal ions. The decreases in cytochrome P-450 and haem contents and the sequential changes in delta-aminolaevulinate synthase (EC 22.214.171.124) activity that occur concomitant with haem oxygenase induction were largely eliminated with simultaneous or prior treatment with Mn2+ or Zn2+, but not when Mn2+ or Zn2+ was administered after Sn2+ or Ni2+. Mn2+ and Zn2+ did not increase the catabolism of the enzyme in vivo. Zn2+ on simultaneous administration was also able substantially to block the induction of haem oxygenase by Co2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ in liver. The Zn2+ blockade of Cd2+ induction was examined in detail, and prior or simultaneous administration of Zn2+ was found to be effective in blocking the induction of haem oxygenase and the concomitant decreases in cytochrome P-450 and haem contents, ethylmorphine demethylase activity and the sequential changes in delta-aminolaevulinate synthase activity. Zn2+ administration 10 min or more after Cd2+ was ineffective in preventing the occurrence of these perturbations in haem metabolism. These findings describe a new and striking biological property of Mn2+ and Zn2+, and indicate the existence of significant metal ion interactions in the control of haem metabolism.
Project description:Cobalt ions (Co2+) are potent inducers of haem oxygenase in liver and inhibit microsomal drug oxidation probably by depleting microsomal haem and cytochrome P-450. Complexing of Co2+ ions with cysteine or glutathione (GSH) blocked ability of the former to induce haem oxygenase. When hepatic GSH content was depleted by treatment of animals with diethyl maleate, the inducing effect of Co2+ on haem oxygenase was significantly augmented. Other metal ions such as Cr2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ were also capable of inducing haem oxygenase and depleting microsomal haem and cytochrome P-450. None of these metal ions had a stimulatory effect on hepatic haem oxidation activity in vitro. It is suggested that the inducing action of Co2+ and other metal ions on microsomal haem oxygenase involves either the covalent binding of the metal ions to some cellular component concerned directly with regulating haem oxygenase or non-specific complex-formation by the metal ions, which depletes some regulatory system in liver cells of an essential component involved in controlling synthesis or activity of the enzyme.
Project description:Heavy metals are hazardous environmental contaminants, often highly toxic even at extremely low concentrations. Monitoring their presence in environmental samples is an important but complex task that has attracted the attention of many research groups. We have previously developed a fluorescent peptidyl sensor, dH3w, for monitoring Zn2+ in living cells. This probe, designed on the base on the internal repeats of the human histidine rich glycoprotein, shows a turn on response to Zn2+ and a turn off response to Cu2+. Other heavy metals (Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) do not interfere with the detection of Zn2+ and Cu2+. Here we report that dH3w has an affinity for Hg2+ considerably higher than that for Zn2+ or Cu2+, therefore the strong fluorescence of the Zn2+/dH3w complex is quenched when it is exposed to aqueous solutions of Hg2+, allowing the detection of sub-micromolar levels of Hg2+. Fluorescence of the Zn2+/dH3w complex is also quenched by Cu2+ whereas other heavy metals (Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Sn2+ and Cr3+) have no effect. The high affinity and selectivity suggest that dH3w and the Zn2+/dH3w complex are suited as fluorescent sensor for the detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ in environmental as well as biological samples.
Project description:The responses of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinate synthase and microsomal haem oxygenase to inducers were examined in pregnant rats. 2-Allyl-2-isopropylacetamide-mediated induction of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase was greatly decreased during pregnancy and in the early post-partum period. Administration of allylisopropylacetamide to pseudopregnant rats induced delta-aminolaevulinate synthase normally. Treatment of pregnant rats with cortisol failed to restore the drug-mediated induction of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase. Microsomal cytochrome P-450 content and the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes such as aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine. N-demethylase were significantly lowered during pregnancy. In contrast with the greatly impaired induction of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase, the induction of haem oxygenase in response to CoCl2 remained unaltered in pregnant rats. The normal perturbations of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase, consisting of an initial inhibition followed by a rebound increase in the enzyme activity associated with CoCL2 treatment, were observed during pregnancy. These findings indicate that hormones and metabolic factors associated with gestation exert significant but differential controls on the induction patterns of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase and haem oxygenase.
Project description:1. The inflow of Mn2+ across the plasma membranes of isolated hepatocytes was monitored by measuring the quenching of the fluorescence of intracellular quin2, by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by the uptake of 54Mn2+. The inflow of other divalent metal ions was measured using quin2. 2. Under ionic conditions which resembled those present in the cytoplasmic space, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ each quenched the fluorescence of a solution of Ca2(+)-quin2. 3. The addition of Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Cd2+ to cells loaded with quin2 caused a time-dependent decrease in the fluorescence of intracellular quin2. Plots of the rate of decrease in fluorescence as a function of the concentration of Mn2+ reached a plateau at 100 microM-Mn2+. 4. The rate of decrease in fluorescence induced by Mn2+ was stimulated by 20% in the presence of vasopressin. The effect of vasopressin was completely inhibited by 200 microM-verapamil. Adrenaline, angiotensin II and glucagon also stimulated the rate of decrease in the fluorescence of intracellular quin2 induced by Mn2+. 5. The rate of decrease in fluorescence induced by Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Cd2+ was stimulated by between 20 and 190% in the presence of vasopressin or angiotensin II. 6. The rates of uptake of Mn2+ measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy or by using 54Mn2+ were inhibited by about 20% by 1.3 mM-Ca2+o and stimulated by 30% by vasopressin. 7. Plots of Mn2+ uptake, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy or with 54Mn2+, as a function of the extracellular concentration of Mn2+ were biphasic over the range 0.05-1.0 mM added Mn2+ and did not reach a plateau at 1.0 mM-Mn2+. 8. It is concluded that (i) hepatocytes possess both a basal and a receptor-activated divalent cation inflow system, each of which has a broad specificity for metal ions, and (ii) the receptor-activated divalent cation inflow system is the receptor-operated Ca2+ channel.
Project description:We previously showed that Cd2+ is able to induce hepatic and renal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). In addition to Cd2+, the administration of Co2+ and other metal ions such as Se2+, Zn2+ and Cr2+ produced a significant increase of hepatic and/or renal ODC activity. Of the metal ions used in this study, Co2+ produced the greatest increase of ODC activity. The maximum increases in hepatic and renal ODC activity, to respectively 70 and 14 times the control values in male rats, were observed 6 h after the administration of Co2+. A similar response was seen in the liver, but not in the kidney, of female rats. Thereafter, ODC activity gradually returned to control values in the liver, but it was profoundly decreased to 7% of the control value at 24 h in the kidney. The pretreatment of animals with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide almost completely blocked the Co2+-mediated increase of ODC activity. Co2+ complexed with either cysteine or glutathione (GSH) failed to induce ODC. Depletion of hepatic GSH content by treatment of rats with diethyl maleate greatly enhanced the inducing effect of Co2+ on ODC. The inhibitors of ODC, 1,3-diaminopropane and alpha-difluoromethylornithine, were able to inhibit the induction of the enzyme, without affecting the induction of haem oxygenase by Co2+. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, significantly inhibited the Co2+-mediated induction of both ODC and haem oxygenase. It is suggested that the inducing effects of Co2+ on ODC and haem oxygenase are brought about in a similar manner.
Project description:Endotoxin was administered to rats at a dose shown previously to stimulate hepatic haem oxygenase activity and to block induction of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase, apparently by causing redistribution of haem from cytochrome P-450 to a regulatory haem pool in the liver. Within 5h of the administration of endotoxin (at a time when the effect of the compound on cytochrome P-450 is maximal) the relative saturation of tryptophan pyrrolase with intrinsic haem rose, from a basal value of 50% to 90%, indicating that 'free' haem had become available. Concurrently, the activity of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase was decreased to 25% of its basal value. Haem oxygenase reached peak activity 13h after endotoxin administration. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of an 'unassigned' hepatic haem fraction, which exchanges with cytochrome P-450 haem and regulates these three enzyme functions.
Project description:The Ca2+-sensitive ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) of human erythrocyte membranes is activated, not only by Ca2+ ions, but also by a series of other bivalent metal ions including Sr2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+. The degree of activation is dependent on the radius of the ion rather than on its nature, in contrast with the dissociation constant of the enzyme--metal ion complex.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that the transcriptional regulator PsaR regulates the expression of the PsaR regulon consisting of genes encoding choline binding protein (PcpA), the extracellular serine protease (PrtA), and the Mn2+-uptake system (PsaBCA), in the presence of manganese (Mn2+), zinc (Zn2+), and cobalt (Co2+). In this study, we explore the Ni2+-dependent regulation of the PsaR regulon. We have demonstrated by qRT-PCR analysis, metal accumulation assays, β-galactosidase assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that an elevated concentration of Ni2+ leads to strong induction of the PsaR regulon. Our ICP-MS data show that the Ni2+-dependent expression of the PsaR regulon is directly linked to high, cell-associated, concentration of Ni2+, which reduces the cell-associated concentration of Mn2+. In vitro studies with the purified PsaR protein showed that Ni2+ diminishes the Mn2+-dependent interaction of PsaR to the promoter regions of its target genes, confirming an opposite effect of Mn2+ and Ni2+ in the regulation of the PsaR regulon. Additionally, the Ni2+-dependent role of PsaR in the regulation of the PsaR regulon was studied by transcriptome analysis. Comparison of the Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type vs D39 ΔpsaR in CDM Plus 0.3 mM Ni2+ Two condition design including a dye swap
Project description:The czcR gene, one of the two control genes responsible for induction of resistance to Co2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ (czc system) in the Alcaligenes eutrophus plasmid pMOL30, was cloned and characterized. The 1,376-bp sequence upstream of the czcCBAD structural genes encodes a 41.4-kDa protein, the czcR gene product, transcribed in the opposite direction of that of the czcCBAD genes. The putative CzcR polypeptide (355 amino acid residues) contains 11 cysteine and 14 histidine residues which might form metal cation-binding sites. A czcC::lacZ reporter gene translational fusion was constructed, inserted into plasmid pMOL30 in A. eutrophus, and expressed under the control of CzcR. Zn2+, Co2+, and Cd2+, as well as Ni2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, and Mn2+ and even Al3+, served as inducers of beta-galactosidase activity. Besides the CzcR protein, the membrane-bound CzcD protein was essential for induction of czc. The CzcR and CzcD proteins display no sequence similarity to two-component regulatory systems of a sensor and a response activator type; however, CzcD has 34% identity with the ZRC-1 protein, which mediates zinc resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (A. Kamizomo, M. Nishizawa, Y. Teranishi, K. Murata, and A. Kimura, Mol. Gen. Genet. 219:161-167, 1989).
Project description:A novel, simple, highly selective, and sensitive fluorescence chemosensor for detecting Cd2+ that was constructed from a bis(salamo)-type compound (H?L) with two N?O? chelating moieties as ionophore was successfully developed. Sensor H?L could show fluorescence turn-on response rapidly and significant selectivity to Cd2+ over many other metallic ions (Cu2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, K?, Cr3+, Mn2+, Sr2+, Co2+, Na?, Li?, Ni2+, Ag?, and Zn2+), and a clear change in color from colorless to yellow that can be very easily observed via the naked eyes in the existence of Cd2+, while other metallic ions do not induce such a change. Interestingly, its fluorescent intensity was increased sharply with the increased concentration of Cd2+. The detection limit of sensor H?L towards Cd2+ was down to 8.61 × 10-7 M.