The metabolism of L-tryptophan by isolated rat liver cells. Quantification of the relative importance of, and the effect of nutritional status on, the individual pathways of tryptophan metabolism.
ABSTRACT: 1. The metabolism of L-tryptophan by liver cells prepared from fed and 48 h-starved rats was studied. Methods are described, with the use of L-[ring-2-(14)C], L-[carboxy-14C]-and L-[benzene-ring-U-14C]-tryptophan, for the simultaneous determination of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and kynureninase activities and of the oxidation of tryptophan to CO2 and non-aromatic intermediates of the kynurenine-glutarate pathway. 2. At physiological concentrations (0.1 mM), tryptophan was oxidized by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase at comparable rates in liver cells from both fed and starved rats. Kynureninase activity of hepatocytes from starved rats was 50% greater than that of cells from fed rats. About 10% of the tryptophan metabolized by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase was degraded completely to CO2. 3. In the presence of 0.5 mM-L-tryptophan, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and kynureninase activities increased 5--6-fold. Liver cells from starved rats oxidized tryptophan at about twice the rate of these from fed rats. Degradation of tryptophan to non-aromatic intermediates of the glutarate pathway and CO2 was increased only 3-fold, suggesting an accumulation of aromatic intermediates of the kynurenine pathway. 4. Rates of metabolism with 2.5 mM-L-tryptophan were not significantly different from those obtained with 0.5 mM-tryptophan. 5. Rates of synthesis of quinolinic acid from 0.5 mM-L-tryptophan, determined either by direct quantification or indirectly from rates of radioisotope release from L-[carboxy-(14)C]- and [benzene-ring-U-14C]tryptophan, were essentially similar. 6. At all three concentrations examined, tryptophan was degraded exclusively through kynurenine; there was no evidence of formation of either indol-3-ylacetic acid or 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid.
Project description:1. The metabolism of L-tryptophan by liver cells prepared from fed normal, adrenalectomized and streptozotocin-diabetic rats was studied. 2. At physiological concentrations (0.1 mM), the rate of oxidation of tryptophan by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase was 3-fold greater in liver cells from diabetic rats than in those from fed rats. In liver cells from diabetic rats, oxidation of tryptophan to CO2 and metabolites of the glutarate pathway was increased 7-fold. Quinolinate synthesis was decreased by 50%. These findings are consistent with an increase in picolinate carboxylase activity. 3. Rates of metabolism of 0.1 mM-tryptophan by hepatocytes from fed and adrenalectomized rats were similar. 4. In all three types of cell preparation, fluxes through tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase with 2.5 mM-tryptophan were 7-fold greater than those obtained with 0.1 mM-tryptophan. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and kynureninase fluxes in hepatocytes from fed and adrenalectomized rats were comparable, whereas those in liver cells from diabetic rats were increased 2.5-fold and 3.3-fold respectively. Picolinate carboxylase activities of liver cells from diabetic rats were 15-fold greater than those of cells from fed rats, but rates of quinolinate synthesis were unchanged. 5. It is concluded that: (i) adrenal corticosteroids are not required for the maintenance of basal activities of the kynurenine pathway, whereas (ii) chronic insulin deficiency produces changes in both the rate of oxidation and metabolic fate of tryptophan carbon.
Project description:The metabolism of L-tryptophan by isolated liver cells prepared from control, adrenalectomized, glucocorticoid-treated, acute-diabetic, chronic-diabetic and insulin-treated chronic-diabetic rats was studied. Liver cells from adrenalectomized rats metabolized tryptophan at rates comparable with the minimum diurnal rates of controls, but different from rates determined for cells from control rats 4h later. Administration of dexamethasone phosphate increased the activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 126.96.36.199) 7-8-fold, and the flux through the kynurenine pathway 3-4-fold, in cells from both control and adrenalectomized rats. Increases in flux through kynureninase (EC 188.8.131.52) and to acetyl-CoA can be explained in terms of increased substrate supply from tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The metabolism of tryptophan was increased 3-fold in liver cells isolated from acutely (3 days) diabetic rats, with a 7-8-fold increase in the maximal activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The oxidation of tryptophan to CO2 and metabolites of the glutarate pathway increased 4-5-fold, consistent with an increase in picolinate carboxylase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity. Liver cells isolated from chronic (10 days) diabetic rats metabolized tryptophan at rates comparable with those of cells from acutely diabetic rats, but with a 50% decrease in the activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The proportion of flux from tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase to acetyl-CoA, however, was increased by 50%; this was indicative of further increases in the activity of picolinate carboxylase. Administration of insulin partially reversed the effects of chronic diabetes on the activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and flux through the kynurenine pathway, but had no effect on the increased activity of picolinate carboxylase. The role of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in regulating the blood tryptophan concentration is discussed with reference to its sensitivity to the above conditions.
Project description:Substantial increases in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites, l-kynurenine and the neurotoxin quinolinic acid, occur in human brain, blood and systemic tissues during immune activation. Studies in vitro have shown that not all human cells are capable of synthesizing quinolinate. To investigate further the mechanisms that limit l-kynurenine and quinolinate production, the activities of kynurenine pathway enzymes and the ability of different human cells to convert pathway intermediates into quinolinate were compared. Stimulation with interferon gamma substantially increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and L-kynurenine production in primary peripheral blood macrophages and fetal brains (astrocytes and neurons), as well as cell lines derived from macrophage/monocytes (THP-1), U373MG astrocytoma, SKHEP1 liver and lung (MRC-9). High activities of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase, kynureninase or 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase were found in interferon-gamma-stimulated macrophages, THP-1 cells and SKHEP1 cells, and these cells made large amounts of quinolinate when supplied with L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine or 3-hydroxyanthranilate. Quinolinate production by human fetal brain cultures and U373MG cells was restricted by the low activities of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase, kynureninase and 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase, and only small amounts of quinolinate were synthesized when cultures were supplied with L-tryptophan or 3-hydroxyanthranilate. In MRC-9 cells, quinolinate was produced only from 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilate, consistent with their low kynurenine 3-hydroxylase activity. The results are consistent with the notion that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is an important regulatory enzyme in the production of L-kynurenine and quinolinate. Kynurenine 3-hydroxylase and, in some cells, kynureninase and 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase are important determinants of whether a cell can make quinolinate.
Project description:Increasing evidence demonstrates the immunosuppressive kynurenine pathway's (KP) role in the pathophysiology of human gliomas. To study the KP in vivo, we used the noninvasive molecular imaging tracer ?-[(11)C]-methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT). The AMT-positron emission tomography (PET) has shown high uptake in high-grade gliomas and predicted survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). We generated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models from dissociated cells, or tumor fragments, from 5 patients with GBM. Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors were imaged with AMT-PET, and tumors were analyzed to detect the KP enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1, IDO2, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynureninase, and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase. Overall, PET imaging showed robust tumoral AMT uptake in PDX mice with prolonged tracer accumulation over 60 minutes, consistent with AMT trapping seen in humans. Immunostained tumor tissues demonstrated positive detection of multiple KP enzymes. Furthermore, intracranial implantation of GBM cells was performed with imaging at both 9 and 14 days postimplant, with a marked increase in AMT uptake at 14 days and a corresponding high level of tissue immunostaining for KP enzymes. These results indicate that our PDX mouse models recapitulate human GBM, including aberrant tryptophan metabolism, and offer an in vivo system for development of targeted therapeutics for patients with GBM.
Project description:Kynurenine pathway (KP) is the primary path of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in most mammalian cells. The KP generates several bioactive catabolites, such as kynurenine (Kyn), kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), xanthurenic acid (XA), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA). Increased catabolite concentrations in serum are associated with several cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, as well as their risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and aging. The first catabolic step in KP is primarily controlled by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Following this first step, the KP has two major branches, one branch is mediated by kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) and kynureninase (KYNU) and is responsible for the formation of 3-HK, 3-HAA, and quinolinic acid (QA); and another branch is controlled by kynurenine amino-transferase (KAT), which generates KA. Uncontrolled Trp catabolism has been demonstrated in distinct CVD, thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms by which regulates KP enzyme expression and activity is paramount. This review highlights the recent advances on the effect of KP enzyme expression and activity in different tissues on the pathological mechanisms of specific CVD, KP is an inflammatory sensor and modulator in the cardiovascular system, and KP catabolites act as the potential biomarkers for CVD initiation and progression. Moreover, the biochemical features of critical KP enzymes and principles of enzyme inhibitor development are briefly summarized, as well as the therapeutic potential of KP enzyme inhibitors against CVD is briefly discussed.
Project description:The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the principal route of L-tryptophan (TRP) catabolism leading to the production of kynurenine (KYN), the neuroprotectants, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and picolinic acid (PIC), the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO-2) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO-2) initiate the first step of the KP. IDO-1 and TDO-2 induction in tumors are crucial mechanisms implicated to play pivotal roles in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterisation of the KP in 1) cultured human glioma cells and 2) plasma from patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Our data revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-?) stimulation significantly potentiated the expression of the KP enzymes, IDO-1 IDO-2, kynureninase (KYNU), kynurenine hydroxylase (KMO) and significantly down-regulated 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) and kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I) expression in cultured human glioma cells. This significantly increased KP activity but significantly lowered the KYNA/KYN neuroprotective ratio in human cultured glioma cells. KP activation (KYN/TRP) was significantly higher, whereas the concentrations of the neuroreactive KP metabolites TRP, KYNA, QUIN and PIC and the KYNA/KYN ratio were significantly lower in GBM patient plasma (n = 18) compared to controls. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of the KP in glioma pathophysiology and highlight a potential role of KP products as novel and highly attractive therapeutic targets to evaluate for the treatment of brain tumors, aimed at restoring anti-tumor immunity and reducing the capacity for malignant cells to produce NAD(+), which is necessary for energy production and DNA repair.
Project description:Increased tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in the tumor microenvironment (TME) can mediate immune suppression by upregulation of interferon (IFN)-?-inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and/or ectopic expression of the predominantly liver-restricted enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Whether these effects are due to Trp depletion in the TME or mediated by the accumulation of the IDO1 and/or TDO (hereafter referred to as IDO1/TDO) product kynurenine (Kyn) remains controversial. Here we show that administration of a pharmacologically optimized enzyme (PEGylated kynureninase; hereafter referred to as PEG-KYNase) that degrades Kyn into immunologically inert, nontoxic and readily cleared metabolites inhibits tumor growth. Enzyme treatment was associated with a marked increase in the tumor infiltration and proliferation of polyfunctional CD8+ lymphocytes. We show that PEG-KYNase administration had substantial therapeutic effects when combined with approved checkpoint inhibitors or with a cancer vaccine for the treatment of large B16-F10 melanoma, 4T1 breast carcinoma or CT26 colon carcinoma tumors. PEG-KYNase mediated prolonged depletion of Kyn in the TME and reversed the modulatory effects of IDO1/TDO upregulation in the TME.
Project description:Vitamin B-6 deficiency is associated with impaired tryptophan metabolism because of the coenzyme role of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for kynureninase and kynurenine aminotransferase. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. The model includes mammalian data on enzyme kinetics and tryptophan transport from the intestinal lumen to liver, muscle, and brain. Regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of relevant enzymes were included. We simulated the effects of graded reduction in cellular PLP concentration, tryptophan loads and induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) on metabolite profiles and urinary excretion. The model predictions matched experimental data and provided clarification of the response of metabolites in various extents of vitamin B-6 deficiency. We found that moderate deficiency yielded increased 3-hydroxykynurenine and a decrease in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. More severe deficiency also yielded an increase in kynurenine and xanthurenic acid and more pronounced effects on the other metabolites. Tryptophan load simulations with and without vitamin B-6 deficiency showed altered metabolite concentrations consistent with published data. Induction of TDO caused an increase in all metabolites, and TDO induction together with a simulated vitamin B-6 deficiency, as has been reported in oral contraceptive users, yielded increases in kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid and decreases in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. These results show that the model successfully simulated tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway and can be used to complement experimental investigations.
Project description:The quantitative importance of the individual steps of aromatic amino acid metabolism in rat liver was determined by calculation of the respective Control Coefficients (Strengths). The Control Coefficient of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase for tryptophan degradation was determined in a variety of physiological conditions and with a range of activities of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The Control Coefficient varied from 0.75 with basal enzyme activity to 0.25 after maximal induction of the enzyme by dexamethasone. The remainder of the control for tryptophan degradation was associated with the transport of the amino acid across the plasma membrane, with only very small contributions from kynureninase and kynurenine hydroxylase. The Control Coefficients of tyrosine aminotransferase for tyrosine degradation were approx. 0.70 and 0.20 with basal and dexamethasone-induced tyrosine aminotransferase activities respectively; the Control Coefficients of the transport of the amino acid into the cell were 0.22 and 0.58 respectively. Phenylalanine hydroxylase was found to have a Control Coefficient for the degradation of phenylalanine of approx. 0.50 under conditions of basal enzyme activity; after maximal activation by glucagon, the Control Coefficient decreased to 0.12. The transport of phenylalanine was responsible for the remaining control in the pathway. These results have important implications, directly for the regulation of aromatic amino acid metabolism in the liver, and indirectly for the regulation of neuroamine synthesis in the brain.
Project description:Accumulation of quinolinic acid and L-kynurenine occurs in the brain and/or blood following immune activation, and may derive from L-tryptophan following induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and other kynurenine-pathway enzymes. In the present study a survey of various cell lines derived from either brain or systemic tissues showed that, while all cells examined responded to interferon-gamma by increased conversion of L-[13C6]tryptophan into L-kynurenine (human: B-lymphocytes, neuroblastoma, glioblastoma, lung, liver, kidney; rat brain: microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), only macrophage-derived cells (peripheral-blood mononuclear cells; THP-1, U-937) and certain liver cells (SKHep1) synthesized [13C6]quinolinic acid. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha enhanced the effects of interferon-gamma in THP-1 cells. Norharmane, 6-chloro-DL-tryptophan and 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate attenuated quinolinic acid formation by THP-1 cells with IC50 values of 51 microM, 58 microM and 0.11 microM respectively. Norharmane and 6-chloro-DL-tryptophan attenuated L-kynurenine formation with IC50 values of 43 microM and 51 microM respectively, whereas 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate had no effect on L-kynurenine accumulation. The reductions in L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid formation are consistent with the reports that norharmane is an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, 6-chloro-DL-tryptophan is metabolized through the kynurenine pathway, and 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase. These results suggest that many tissues may contribute to the production of L-kynurenine following indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase induction and immune activation. Quinolinic acid may be directly synthesized from L-tryptophan in both macrophages and certain types of liver cells, although uptake of quinolinic acid precursors from blood may contribute to quinolinic acid synthesis in cells that cannot convert L-kynurenine into quinolinic acid.