Is regulation of proteolysis associated with redox-state changes in rat skeletal muscle?
ABSTRACT: In isolated rat diaphragms, only those substrates that increased the tissue NADH/NAD+ ratio lowered the rate of proteolysis. However, direct inhibition of proteinase activity by leupeptin promoted oxidation of the NAD couple of the muscles. These results suggest that changes in muscle reduction-oxidation state may be important in the regulation of proteolysis.
Project description:Continuous energy conversion is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) processes. NAD(+) and NADH represent an important redox couple in energy metabolism. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) is a redox-cycling nitroxide that promotes the scavenging of several reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is reduced to hydroxylamine by NADH. TEMPOL is also involved in NAD(+) production in the ascorbic acid-glutathione redox cycle. We utilized the chemical properties of TEMPOL to investigate the effects of antioxidants and NAD(+)/NADH modulators on the metabolic imbalance in obese mice. Increases in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio by TEMPOL ameliorated the metabolic imbalance when combined with a dietary intervention, changing from a high-fat diet to a normal diet. Plasma levels of the superoxide marker dihydroethidium were higher in mice receiving the dietary intervention compared with a control diet, but were normalized with TEMPOL consumption. These findings provide novel insights into redox regulation in obesity.
Project description:Many guanide-containing drugs are antihyperglycaemic but most exhibit toxicity, to the extent that only the biguanide metformin has enjoyed sustained clinical use. Here, we have isolated unique mitochondrial redox control properties of metformin that are likely to account for this difference. In primary hepatocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells we found that antihyperglycaemic diguanides DG5-DG10 and the biguanide phenformin were up to 1000-fold more potent than metformin on cell signalling responses, gluconeogenic promoter expression and hepatocyte glucose production. Each drug inhibited cellular oxygen consumption similarly but there were marked differences in other respects. All diguanides and phenformin but not metformin inhibited NADH oxidation in submitochondrial particles, indicative of complex I inhibition, which also corresponded closely with dehydrogenase activity in living cells measured by WST-1. Consistent with these findings, in isolated mitochondria, DG8 but not metformin caused the NADH/NAD+ couple to become more reduced over time and mitochondrial deterioration ensued, suggesting direct inhibition of complex I and mitochondrial toxicity of DG8. In contrast, metformin exerted a selective oxidation of the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ couple, without triggering mitochondrial deterioration. Together, our results suggest that metformin suppresses energy transduction by selectively inducing a state in complex I where redox and proton transfer domains are no longer efficiently coupled.
Project description:The effect of the lysosomotropic agent NH4Cl and the proteinase inhibitors leupeptin, Z-Phe-Ala-CHN2 (benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylalanyldiazomethane) and pepstatin on the degradation of intracellular proteins in Swiss 3T3 mouse and normal human fibroblasts in both the exponential and stationary (confluent) growth phases in nutritionally complete conditions was investigated. Inhibitory effects of all four agents on degradation in both growth states were detected. The increase in proteolysis normally occurring as cells approach confluence could be completely blocked by NH4Cl, by Z-Phe-Ala-CHN2, or by pepstatin in the presence of leupeptin. These results suggest that the lysosomal system is responsible for the regulation of proteolysis at confluence and further confirm its role in 'basal' proteolysis in growing cells.
Project description:Nitrogen balances were measured in isolated perfused rat livers in the presence and absence of nitrogen donors. In all instances the balance apparently was incomplete. The expression [alanine][alpha-oxoglutarate]/[pyruvate][glutamate] remained fairly constant under the metabolic conditions studied, indicating that it may be at near-equilibrium. The source of the extra nitrogen seems to be derived from increased hepatic proteolysis. The addition of a nitrogen donor to the perfusate arrested proteolysis, as did the addition of pyruvate. The free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio, calculated from the glutamate dehydrogenase and beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase reactants, showed similar values and exhibited parallel changes under most metabolic situations studied. These results suggest that, under the reported experimental conditions, both dehydrogenases share a common mitochondrial NAD pool. Glutamate dehydrogenase plays an important role in hepatic nitrogen metabolism in vivo.
Project description:1. Turnover of intracellular proteins in cultured mouse macrophages was found to be slightly accelerated by the omission of serum from the culture medium. Media containing 10% (v/v) or more of serum established basal degradation rates in the cultures. 2. Basal degradation rates varied considerably between experiments, probably as a result of variable activation in vivo of the macrophages. 3. The selective carboxyl proteinase inhibitor pepstatin, which appeared to enter the lysosomes of the cells by pinocytosis, gave a progressive inhibition of basal proteolysis up to a maximum of about 40%. Cellular cathepsin D was largely inhibited after 48h of cultivation with pepstatin (100 micrograms/ml). 4. Leupeptin and 7-amino-1-chloro-3-tosylamidoheptan-2-one are less selective proteinase inhibitors. They also induced 25--35% inhibition of degradation, but their actions may not have been restricted to lysosomes. 5. Several solutes and particles that are endocytosed by macrophages and stored in lysosomes induce some inhibition of basal proteolysis, whether or not they themselves are substrates for proteolysis. 6. Colchicine was without effect on protein degradation, but cytochalasin B and the local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine, all of which have effects on microfilaments, were significantly inhibitory. This inhibition may result from a decrease in the rate of autophagy, and thus of lysosomal proteolysis, due to prevention of microfilament action.
Project description:Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a frequent complication occurring even in well-controlled asymptomatic diabetic patients, and it may advance to heart failure (HF). Recent Advances: The diabetic heart is characterized by a state of "metabolic rigidity" involving enhanced rates of fatty acid uptake and mitochondrial oxidation as the predominant energy source, and it exhibits mitochondrial electron transport chain defects. These alterations promote redox state changes evidenced by a decreased NAD+/NADH ratio associated with an increase in acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio. NAD+ is a co-substrate for deacetylases, sirtuins, and a critical molecule in metabolism and redox signaling; whereas acetyl-CoA promotes protein lysine acetylation, affecting mitochondrial integrity and causing epigenetic changes.DCM lacks specific therapies with treatment only in later disease stages using standard, palliative HF interventions. Traditional therapy targeting neurohormonal signaling and hemodynamics failed to improve mortality rates. Though mitochondrial redox state changes occur in the heart with obesity and diabetes, how the mitochondrial NAD+/NADH redox couple connects the remodeled energy metabolism with mitochondrial and cytosolic antioxidant defense and nuclear epigenetic changes remains to be determined. Mitochondrial therapies targeting the mitochondrial NAD+/NADH redox ratio may alleviate cardiac dysfunction.Specific therapies must be supported by an optimal understanding of changes in mitochondrial redox state and how it influences other cellular compartments; this field has begun to surface as a therapeutic target for the diabetic heart. We propose an approach based on an alternate mitochondrial electron transport that normalizes the mitochondrial redox state and improves cardiac function in diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Project description:1. The midpoint potentials of the various iron-sulphur centres in Site I were determined at different pH values by the technique of redox potentiometry. An interesting feature is the pH-dependence of Centre N-2, the highest potential component of the NADH dehydrogenase segment of the respiratory chain. 2. The apparent midpoint potentials of Centre N-2 (NADH dehydrogenase) and S-1 (succinate dehydrogenase) and their pH-dependence was also determined by using the succinate/fumarate couple. Again Centre N-2 is pH-dependent in midpoint potential, and Centre S-1 is not. The results obtained by titrating with the succinate/fumarate couple are in quantitative agreement with those obtained for these centres by redox potentiometry. 3. Oxidation-reduction titrations of iron-sulphur centres with the couple NADH/NAD+ and an analogue APADH/APAD+ in the presence of rotenone gave results substantially different from those obtained by redox potentiometry; these differences may be due to the mechanism of action of NADH dehydrogenase and its specific interaction with NADH. 5. The addition of ATP to an NAD+/NADH-poised system induces an uncoupler-sensitive oxidation of Centre N-4.
Project description:Degradation of mitochondrial translation products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria was studied by selectively labelling these entities in vivo in the presence of cycloheximide and following their fate in isolated mitochondria. One-third to one-half of the mitochondrial translation products are shown to be degraded, depending on the culture growth phase, with an approximate half-life of 35 min. This process is shown to be ATP-dependent, enhanced in the presence of puromycin and inhibited by chloramphenicol. Further, the proteolysis is suppressed by detergents and is insensitive to antisera against yeast proteinases A and B when measured in mitochondria or 'inside-out' submitochondrial particles. It is concluded that the breakdown of mitochondrial translation products is most probably due to the action of endogenous proteinase(s) associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. This proteinase is inhibited by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, leupeptin, antipain and chymostatin.
Project description:1. The redox state of the NAD couple of rat liver mitochondria, as measured by the [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, rapidly changed in the direction of oxidation during the preparation of homogenates in a saline medium. The value of the [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio fell from 2.3 to 0.15 in 10min. EDTA diminished the fall and succinate prevented it. 2. The redox state of the rat liver cytoplasm, as measured by the [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio, changed slightly in the direction of reduction during the preparation of homogenate. This was prevented by succinate. 3. In unsupplemented homogenates the differences in the redox states of mitochondria and cytoplasm decreased. Succinate and EDTA together maintained the differences within the physiological range. A measure of the ability of the mitochondria to maintain different redox states in mitochondria and cytoplasm is the value of the expression [lactate][acetoacetate]/[pyruvate][beta-hydroxybutyrate]. If there are no differences in the redox states of the NAD in the two cell compartments the value of the expression is 444 at 37 degrees . The value in the intact rat liver is between 4.7 and 21. 4. alpha-Oxoglutarate or glutamate were still more effective than succinate in maintaining high [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratios in the homogenates because these substrates supply a reducing agent of NAD(+) and, through succinate, an inhibitor of the oxidation of NADH. 5. When supplemented with alpha-oxoglutarate and EDTA, homogenates readily adjust the redox state of the beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase system after it has been upset by the addition of either acetoacetate or beta-hydroxybutyrate. 6. Amytal and rotenone raised the value of the [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio. This is taken to indicate that the reduction of acetoacetate in the homogenates was not an energy-linked process. 7. 2,4-Dinitrophenol shifted the [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio in the presence of succinate in favour of oxidation because it inhibited the oxidation of succinate and accelerated the oxidation of NADH. 8. Rotenone increased the rate of ketone-body formation of liver homogenates, though it decreased the rate of oxygen uptake.
Project description:The enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an important source of oxygen free radicals and related postischemic injury. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), the major form of XOR in tissues, can be converted to xanthine oxidase (XO) by oxidation of sulfhydryl residues or by proteolysis. The conversion of XDH to XO has been assumed to be required for radical generation and tissue injury. It is also possible that XDH could generate significant quantities of superoxide, •O??, for cellular signaling or injury; however, this possibility and its potential ramifications have not been previously considered. To unambiguously determine if XDH can be a significant source of •O??, experiments were performed to measure and characterize •O²? generation using XDH from chicken liver that is locked in the dehydrogenase conformation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping experiments with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide demonstrated that XDH in the presence of xanthine produces significant amounts of •O??. NAD? and NADH inhibited the generation of •O?? from XDH in a dose-dependent manner, with NAD? exhibiting stronger inhibition than NADH at low physiological concentrations. Decreased amounts of NAD? and NADH, which occur during and following tissue ischemia, enhanced the generation of •O?? from XDH in the presence of xanthine. It was observed that XDH-mediated oxygen radical generation markedly depressed Ca²?-ATPase activity of isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from cardiac muscle, and this was modulated by NAD? and NADH. Thus, XDH can be an important redox-regulated source of •O?? generation in ischemic tissue, and conversion to XO is not required to activate radical formation and subsequent tissue injury.