Interaction of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors with alpha-amylase from yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L. larva).
ABSTRACT: The highly purified alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larva (yellow mealworm) reversibly combines with two closely related homogeneous glycoprotein inhibitors, one dimeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.19') and one monomeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.28'), from wheat flour. As established by means of difference spectroscopy and kinetic studies, molar combining ratios for the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase-inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Two amylase--inhibitor-0.19 complexes with slightly different retention volumes on Bio-Gel P-300 and only one amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complex were observed. Dissociation constants of the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 0.85 nM and 0.13 nM respectively. A strong tendency of both complexes to precipitate under an ultracentrifugal field was observed; the minimum molecular weight calculated for the two complexes under such conditions was approx. 95 000. The two complexes showed difference spectra indicating involvement of structurally related or identical tryptophyl side chains in the binding of inhibitors 0.28 and 0.19 to the amylase. A model summarizing the main features of the inhibition of the insect amylase by the two wheat protein inhibitors is proposed.
Project description:Two wheat monomeric protein inhibitors of alpha-amylase with mol.wt. 12000, designated inhibitors 0.28 and 0.39 according to their gel-electrophoretic mobilities, showed almost identical circular-dichroism spectra in both the far and near u.v. at different pH values as well as in the presence or absence of dissociating and reducing agents. Both inhibitors (0.28 and 0.39) were readily inactivated by reduction of the five disulphide bridges present in each inhibitor molecule. These properties are very similar to those exhibited by the wheat dimeric protein inhibitor of alpha-amylase with mol.wt. 24000, designated inhibitor 0.19 according to its gel-electrophoretic mobility. The N-terminal sequence of the 0.19 inhibitor was determined without separating its subunits and compared with that of the 0.28 inhibitor reported by Redman [(1976) Biochem. J. 155, 193--195]. Petide 'maps' from tryptic digests of reduced and carboxymethylated inhibitors 0.19 and 0.28 were compared. One molecule of reducing sugar is covalently bound per inhibitor-0.19 protomer and inhibitor-0.28 molecule. The results obtained strongly support previous findings indicating the structural equivalence of inhibitor 0.28 with each inhibitor-0.19 protomer and the common phylogenetic origin of these protein alpha-amylase inhibitors from wheat kernel.
Project description:<h4>Key message</h4>Wheat cultivars largely differ in the content and composition of ATI proteins, but heritability was quite low for six out of eight ATIs. The genetic architecture of ATI proteins is built up of few major and numerous small effect QTL. Amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) are important allergens in baker's asthma and suspected triggers of non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) inducing intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammation. As studies on the expression and genetic architecture of ATI proteins in wheat are lacking, we evaluated 149 European old and modern bread wheat cultivars grown at three different field locations for their content of eight ATI proteins. Large differences in the content and composition of ATIs in the different cultivars were identified ranging from 3.76 pmol for ATI CM2 to 80.4 pmol for ATI 0.19, with up to 2.5-fold variation in CM-type and up to sixfold variation in mono/dimeric ATIs. Generally, heritability estimates were low except for ATI 0.28 and ATI CM2. ATI protein content showed a low correlation with quality traits commonly analyzed in wheat breeding. Similarly, no trends were found regarding ATI content in wheat cultivars originating from numerous countries and decades of breeding history. Genome-wide association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture built of many small, few medium and two major quantitative trait loci (QTL). The major QTL were located on chromosomes 3B for ATI 0.19-like and 6B for ATI 0.28, explaining 70.6 and 68.7% of the genotypic variance, respectively. Within close physical proximity to the medium and major QTL, we identified eight potential candidate genes on the wheat reference genome encoding structurally related lipid transfer proteins. Consequently, selection and breeding of wheat cultivars with low ATI protein amounts appear difficult requiring other strategies to reduce ATI content in wheat products.
Project description:The objective of this work was to investigate the potential effect of cereal α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) on growth parameters and selective digestive enzymes of <i>Tenebrio molitor</i> L. larvae. The approach consisted of feeding the larvae with wheat, sorghum and rice meals containing different levels and composition of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. The developmental and biochemical characteristics of the larvae were assessed over feeding periods of 5 h, 5 days and 10 days, and the relative abundance of α-amylase and selected proteases in larvae were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, weight gains ranged from 21% to 42% after five days of feeding. The larval death rate significantly increased in all groups after 10 days of feeding (<i>p</i> < 0.05), whereas the pupation rate was about 25% among larvae fed with rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L.) and <i>Siyazan</i>/<i>Esperya</i> wheat meals, and only 8% and 14% among those fed with <i>Damougari</i> and <i>S35</i> sorghum meals. As determined using the Lowry method, the protein contents of the sodium phosphate extracts ranged from 7.80 ± 0.09 to 9.42 ± 0.19 mg/mL and those of the ammonium bicarbonate/urea reached 19.78 ± 0.16 to 37.47 ± 1.38 mg/mL. The total protein contents of the larvae according to the Kjeldahl method ranged from 44.0 and 49.9 g/100 g. The relative abundance of α-amylase, CLIP domain-containing serine protease, modular serine protease zymogen and C1 family cathepsin significantly decreased in the larvae, whereas dipeptidylpeptidase I and chymotrypsin increased within the first hours after feeding (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Trypsin content was found to be constant independently of time or feed material. Finally, based on the results we obtained, it was difficult to substantively draw conclusions on the likely effects of meal ATI composition on larval developmental characteristics, but their effects on the digestive enzyme expression remain relevant.
Project description:Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (ATIs) are putative triggers of nonceliac gluten sensitivity, but contents of ATIs in different wheat species were not available. Therefore, the predominant ATIs 0.19 + 0.53, 0.28, CM2, CM3, and CM16 in eight cultivars each of common wheat, durum wheat, spelt, emmer, and einkorn grown under the same environmental conditions were quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC−MS/MS) and stable isotope dilution assays using specific marker peptides as internal standards. The results were compared to a label-free untargeted LC−MS/MS analysis, in which protein concentrations were determined by intensity based absolute quantitation. Both approaches yielded similar results. Spelt and emmer had higher ATI contents than common wheat, with durum wheat in between. Only three of eight einkorn cultivars contained ATIs in very low concentrations. The distribution of ATI types was characteristic for hexaploid, tetraploid, and diploid wheat species and suitable as species-specific fingerprint. The results point to a better tolerability of einkorn for NCGS patients, because of very low total ATI contents.
Project description:Baker's asthma, a typical occupational allergic disease, is a serious problem in the food industries. In this study, purification and identification of major allergens recognized by IgEs in sera of allergic patients were performed. Major immunoreactive proteins were purified from the albumin fraction by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-50 column followed by reverse-phase HPLC. The N-terminal amino acid sequences and molecular masses measured by MS indicated that the major immunoreactive proteins are members of the alpha-amylase inhibitor family, 0.19 and 0.28. Significant leukotriene release by each purified protein was observed in cell-associated stimulation tests, suggesting in vivo activity of these antigens. Carbohydrate analyses of major allergens indicated that they are monoglycosylated but not N-glycosylated in spite of the presence of a potential N-glycosylation site. Recombinant 0.19 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the same reactivity with IgE as native wheat 0.19 in Western blotting and ELISA using methyl vinyl ether maleic anhydride co-polymer as an immobilizing reagent, suggesting that the allergenic epitopes are located in the peptide portions.
Project description:Although wheat is a staple food for most of the human population, some of its components trigger adverse reactions. Among wheat components, the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are important triggers of several allergies and activators of innate immunity. ATI are a group of exogenous protease inhibitors and include several polypeptides. The three ATI polypeptides named CM3, CM16 and 0.28 are considered major allergens, and might also play a role in other common wheat-related pathologies, such as Non Celiac Wheat Sensitivity and even Celiac Disease. On this basis, we pointed to obtain high amounts of them in purity and to evaluate their allergenicity potential. We thus isolated the mRNA corresponding to the three ATI genes CM3, CM16 and 0.28 from 28 days post-anthesis wheat kernels and the corresponding cDNAs were used for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The three purified proteins were tested in degranulation assay against human sera of patients with food allergy to wheat. A large range of degranulation values was observed for each protein according to the sera tested. All of the three purified proteins CM3, CM16 and 0.28 were active as allergens because they were able to induce basophils degranulation on wheat allergic patients' sera, with the highest values of ?-hexosaminidase release observed for CM3 protein.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. These proteins have more balanced amino acid compositions than the major wheat gluten proteins and contribute important reserves for both seedling growth and human nutrition. The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and thereby impact human health. RESULTS: The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized by analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Coding sequences for 19 distinct proteins were identified. These included two monomeric (WMAI), four dimeric (WDAI), and six tetrameric (WTAI) inhibitors of exogenous alpha-amylases, two inhibitors of endogenous alpha-amylases (WASI), four putative trypsin inhibitors (CMx and WTI), and one putative chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI). A number of the encoded proteins were identical or very similar to proteins in the NCBI database. Sequences not reported previously included variants of WTAI-CM3, three CMx inhibitors and WTI. Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. Based on numbers of ESTs, transcripts for WTAI-CM3 Bu-1, WMAI Bu-1 and WTAI-CM16 Bu-1 were most abundant in Butte 86 developing grain. Coding sequences for 16 of the inhibitors were unequivocally associated with specific proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in a previous proteomic analysis of milled white flour from Butte 86. Proteins corresponding to WDAI Bu-1/Bu-2, WMAI Bu-1 and the WTAI subunits CM2 Bu-1, CM3 Bu-1 and CM16 Bu-1 were accumulated to the highest levels in flour. CONCLUSIONS: Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of these proteins in both plant defense mechanisms and human allergies and facilitates both breeding and biotechnology approaches for manipulating the composition of these proteins in plants.
Project description:Wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) contributes to 20% of the human protein supply, delivers essential amino acids and is of fundamental importance for bread and pasta quality. Wheat proteins are also involved in adverse human reactions like celiac disease, wheat allergy and the non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS). Using LC-MS-based LFQ proteomics of aqueous flour extracts we determined 756 proteins across 150 wheat varieties grown in three environments. However, only 303 proteins were stably expressed across all environments in at least one variety underlining the large influence of environmental conditions on the expression of many proteins. Moreover, only 89 proteins were comparably expressed by all 150 varieties, with high coefficients of variation for the other proteins. Heritability (h) ranged from 0-1 with 114 proteins having h² > 0.6. Therefore, the expression of the variable proteins should be amenable to targeted manipulation across the wheat supply chain by varietal choice and breeding. Our study provides a first approach towards a fast and high-throughput methodology for quantifying these proteins which is required to breed wheats with the desired properties. Amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) appear as a potential trigger for NCWS inducing intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammation. Studies on the prevalence and genetic architecture of ATI proteins in wheat are lacking so far. Large differences in the content and composition of 8 ATIs in the different varieties were identified by QconCAT-assisted quantification. The ATI proteins had low coefficients of correlations with quality traits commonly analyzed in wheat breeding. However, heritability was quite low except for ATI 0.28 and ATI CM2. A genome wide association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture built up on many small but few medium and two major quantitative trait loci (QTL). The latter were on chromosome 3B for ATI 0.19-like and 6B for ATI 0.28 explaining 70.6 and 68.7% of the genetic variance, respectively. Using the wheat reference genome sequence, seven potential candidate genes behind the medium and major QTL were described with only one showing polymorphism based on exome capture analysis. Consequently, wheat breeding could contribute to a reduction of ATI contents in wheat products if incidence of ATI on human health is further confirmed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: alpha-Amylase inhibitors are attractive candidates for the control of seed weevils, as these insects are highly dependent on starch as an energy source. In this study, we aimed to reveal the structure and diversity of dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes in wild emmer wheat from Israel and to elucidate the relationship between the emmer wheat genes and ecological factors using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Another objective of this study was to find out whether there were any correlations between SNPs in functional protein-coding genes and the environment. RESULTS: The influence of ecological factors on the genetic structure of dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes was evaluated by specific SNP markers. A total of 244 dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes were obtained from 13 accessions in 10 populations. Seventy-five polymorphic positions and 74 haplotypes were defined by sequence analysis. Sixteen out of the 75 SNP markers were designed to detect SNP variations in wild emmer wheat accessions from different populations in Israel. The proportion of polymorphic loci P (5%), the expected heterozygosity He, and Shannon's information index in the 16 populations were 0.887, 0.404, and 0.589, respectively. The populations of wild emmer wheat showed great diversity in gene loci both between and within populations. Based on the SNP marker data, the genetic distance of pair-wise comparisons of the 16 populations displayed a sharp genetic differentiation over long geographic distances. The values of P, He, and Shannon's information index were negatively correlated with three climatic moisture factors, whereas the same values were positively correlated by Spearman rank correlation coefficients' analysis with some of the other ecological factors. CONCLUSION: The populations of wild emmer wheat showed a wide range of diversity in dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors, both between and within populations. We suggested that SNP markers are useful for the estimation of genetic diversity of functional genes in wild emmer wheat. These results show significant correlations between SNPs in the alpha-amylase inhibitor genes and ecological factors affecting diversity. Ecological factors, singly or in combination, explained a significant proportion of the variations in the SNPs, and the SNPs could be classified into several categories as ecogeographical predictors. It was suggested that the SNPs in the alpha-amylase inhibitor genes have been subjected to natural selection, and ecological factors had an important evolutionary influence on gene differentiation at specific loci.
Project description:Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) has been proposed to be an independent disease entity that is characterized by intestinal (e.g., abdominal pain, flatulence) and extra-intestinal symptoms (e.g., headache, fatigue), which are propagated following the ingestion of wheat products. Increased activity of amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) in modern wheat is suggested to be major trigger of NCWS, while underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Here, we aimed to generate and functionally characterize the most abundant ATI in modern wheat, chloroform/methanol-soluble protein 3 (CM3), in vitro and in Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that CM3 displays ?-glucosidase but not ?-amylase or trypsin inhibitory activity in vitro. Moreover, fruit flies fed a sucrose-containing diet together with CM3 displayed significant overgrowth of intestinal bacteria in a sucrose-dependent manner while the consumption of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitors was sufficient to limit bacterial quantities in the intestine. Notably, both CM3 and acarbose-treated flies showed a reduced lifespan. However, this effect was absent in amylase inhibitor (AI) treated flies. Together, given ?-glucosidase is a crucial requirement for disaccharide digestion, we suggest that inhibition of ?-glucosidase by CM3 enhances disaccharide load in the distal gastrointestinal tract, thereby promoting intestinal bacteria overgrowth. However, it remains speculative if this here described former unknown function of CM3 might contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms observed in NCWS patients which are very similar to symptoms of patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.