Isolation, properties and amino acid sequence of a long-chain neurotoxin, Acanthophis antarcticus b, from the venom of an Australian snake (the common death adder, Acanthophis antarcticus).
ABSTRACT: The venom of an Australian elapid snake, the common death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus), was chromatographed on a CM-cellulose CM52 column. One of the neurotoxic components, Acanthophis antarcticus b (toxin Aa b) was isolated in about 9.4% (A280) yield. The complete amino acid sequence of toxin Aa b was elucidated. Toxin Aa b is composed of 73 amino acid residues, with ten half-cystine residues, and has a formula weight of 8135. Toxin Aa b has no histidine or methionine residue in its sequence. The amino acid sequence of toxin Aa b is homologous with those of other neurotoxins with known sequences, although it is novel in having a valine residue at its N-terminus and an arginine residue at position-23, where a lysine residue is found in almost all the so-far-known neurotoxins. Irrespective of the latter replacement, the toxin Aa b is fully active, with an LD50 value (in mice) of 0.13 microgram/g body weight on intramuscular injection.
Project description:The amino acid sequence of a short-chain neurotoxin Acanthophis antarcticus c (toxin Aa c) from the venom of an Australian elapid snake, the common death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus, subfamily Acanthophiinae) was elucidated. Toxin Aa c is composed of 62 amino acid residues, including eight half-cystine residues and a cysteine residue. The amino acid sequence of toxin Aa c is homologous with those of other short-chain neurotoxins found in snakes of the family Elapidae, especially with those from snakes of the subfamily Hydrophiinae. The single cysteine residue was located in position 4. Toxin Aa c has a lethal dose (LD50) of 0.08 micrograms/g body weight of mouse on intramuscular injection.
Project description:Seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed against neurotoxin I (NT-1), a protein from central Asian cobra (Naja naja oxiana) venom which binds specifically to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR). All of the mAbs cross-reacted with another long-chain post-synaptic neurotoxin, Bungarus multicinctus alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BT), but not Naja naja kaouthia alpha-cobratoxin, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (e.l.i.s.a.). Short-chain post-synaptic neurotoxins like Naja naja atra cobrotoxin, Laticauda semifasciata erabutoxin b, or N. n. oxiana neurotoxin II did not cross-react with the NT-1 mAbs, but an antigen(s) found in Dendroaspis polylepis, Acanthophis antarcticus and Pseudechis australis venoms was immunoreactive. The e.l.i.s.a. readings for dithiothreitol-reduced NT-1 and NT-1 mAbs ranged from 13 to 27% of those for native toxin but reduced alpha-BT was not immunoreactive. Synthetic NT-1 peptides were used in epitope-mapping studies and two, non-contiguous regions (Cys15-Tyr23 and Lys25-Gly33 or Pro17-Lys25 and Asp29-Lys37) were recognized by the NT-1 mAbs. The NT-1 mAbs individually inhibited 31-71% of alpha-BT binding to AchR in vitro and afforded a slight protective effect in vivo with a toxin: antibody mole ratio of 1:1.5. This report is the first to describe mAbs which recognize and protect against a heterologous, long-chain, post-synaptic neurotoxin from snake venom.
Project description:The binding of compounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is of great interest in biomedical research. However, progress in this area is hampered by the lack of a high-throughput, cost-effective, and taxonomically flexible platform. Current methods are low-throughput, consume large quantities of sample, or are taxonomically limited in which targets can be tested. We describe a novel assay which utilizes a label-free bio-layer interferometry technology, in combination with adapted mimotope peptides, in order to measure ligand binding to the orthosteric site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunits of diverse organisms. We validated the method by testing the evolutionary patterns of a generalist feeding species (Acanthophis antarcticus), a fish specialist species (Aipysurus laevis), and a snake specialist species (Ophiophagus hannah) for comparative binding to the orthosteric site of fish, amphibian, lizard, snake, bird, marsupial, and rodent alpha-1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Binding patterns corresponded with diet, with the Acanthophis antarcticus not showing bias towards any particular lineage, while Aipysurus laevis showed selectivity for fish, and Ophiophagus hannah a selectivity for snake. To validate the biodiscovery potential of this method, we screened Acanthophis antarcticus and Tropidolaemus wagleri venom for binding to human alpha-1, alpha-2, alpha-3, alpha-4, alpha-5, alpha-6, alpha-7, alpha-9, and alpha-10. While A. antarcticus was broadly potent, T. wagleri showed very strong but selective binding, specifically to the alpha-1 target which would be evolutionarily selected for, as well as the alpha-5 target which is of major interest for drug design and development. Thus, we have shown that our novel method is broadly applicable for studies including evolutionary patterns of venom diversification, predicting potential neurotoxic effects in human envenomed patients, and searches for novel ligands of interest for laboratory tools and in drug design and development.
Project description:Planococcus antarcticus DSM 14505 is a psychrophile bacterium that was isolated from cyanobacterial mat samples, originally collected from ponds in McMurdo, Antarctica. This orange-pigmented bacterium grows at 4°C and may possess interesting enzymatic activities at low temperatures. Here we report the first genomic sequence of P. antarcticus DSM 14505.
Project description:Psychrophilic enzymes play crucial roles in cold adaptation of microbes and provide useful models for studies of protein evolution, folding, and dynamic properties. We examined the crystal structure (2.2-Å resolution) of the psychrophilic ?-glucosidase BglU, a member of the glycosyl hydrolase 1 (GH1) enzyme family found in the cold-adapted bacterium Micrococcus antarcticus. Structural comparison and sequence alignment between BglU and its mesophilic and thermophilic counterpart enzymes (BglB and GlyTn, respectively) revealed two notable features distinct to BglU: (i) a unique long-loop L3 (35 versus 7 amino acids in others) involved in substrate binding and (ii) a unique amino acid, His299 (Tyr in others), involved in the stabilization of an ordered water molecule chain. Shortening of loop L3 to 25 amino acids reduced low-temperature catalytic activity, substrate-binding ability, the optimal temperature, and the melting temperature (Tm). Mutation of His299 to Tyr increased the optimal temperature, the Tm, and the catalytic activity. Conversely, mutation of Tyr301 to His in BglB caused a reduction in catalytic activity, thermostability, and the optimal temperature (45 to 35°C). Loop L3 shortening and H299Y substitution jointly restored enzyme activity to the level of BglU, but at moderate temperatures. Our findings indicate that loop L3 controls the level of catalytic activity at low temperatures, residue His299 is responsible for thermolability (particularly heat lability of the active center), and long-loop L3 and His299 are jointly responsible for the psychrophilic properties. The described structural basis for the cold adaptedness of BglU will be helpful for structure-based engineering of new cold-adapted enzymes and for the production of mutants useful in a variety of industrial processes at different temperatures.
Project description:There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (?-bungarotoxin, ?-elapitoxin-Nk2a, ?-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and ?-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV). The chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation was used for this study. Antivenom was added to the organ bath 20 min prior to venom. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Bungarus caeruleus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms was neutralised by all antivenoms except TCAV, which did not neutralise pre-synaptic activity. Post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Ophiophagus hannah was neutralised by all antivenoms, and Naja kaouthia by all antivenoms except IPAV. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Notechis scutatus was neutralised by all antivenoms, except TCAV, which only partially neutralised pre-synaptic activity. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Oxyuranus scutellatus was neutralised by TNPAV and APAV, but TCAV and IPAV only neutralised post-synaptic neurotoxicity. Post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Acanthophis antarcticus was neutralised by all antivenoms except IPAV. Pseudonaja textillis post-synaptic neurotoxicity was only neutralised by APAV. The ?-neurotoxins were neutralised by TNPAV and APAV, and taipoxin by all antivenoms except IPAV. Antivenoms raised against venoms with post-synaptic neurotoxic activity (TCAV) cross-neutralised the post-synaptic activity of multiple snake venoms. Antivenoms raised against pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxic venoms (TNPAV, IPAV, APAV) cross-neutralised both activities of Asian and Australian venoms. While acknowledging the limitations of adding antivenom prior to venom in an in vitro preparation, cross-neutralization of neurotoxicity means that antivenoms from one region may be effective in other regions which do not have effective antivenoms. TCAV only neutralized post-synaptic neurotoxicity and is potentially useful in distinguishing pre-synaptic and post-synaptic effects in the chick biventer cervicis preparation.
Project description:The complete mitochondrial genome DNA sequence of <i>Cryodraco antarcticus</i> was 17,857?bp in size. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and one control region. Among 22 tRNA genes, 8 tRNAs were encoded on the L-strand. The overall base composition of the genome is 26.45% for A, 25.96% for T, 29.78% for C, and 17.81% for G. The phylogenetic tree suggested <i>C. antarcticus</i> was genetically closest to some species in family Channichthyidae. This study could provide valuable information for further studies on population structure, conservation genetics and molecular evolution of <i>C. antarcticus.</i>
Project description:For the first time, we illuminate the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the <i>Paradiplospinus antarcticus,</i> which is 16,988?bp in size and contains 13 protein-coding (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one control region.The base composition of the mitogenome is 26.08% A, 26.77% T, 28.46% C and 18.69% G. Here, we selected 11 genera of species from the mostly monotypic snake mackerel family, including representative Antarctic <i>Paradiplospinus antarcticus</i> that have been identified, and constructed phylogenetic trees to better study the snake mackerel family.
Project description:We first determined and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of <i>Parribacus antarcticus</i>. It is 15,806?bp long and consists of 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and 1 control region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased with AT contents of 69.3%. Five PCGs used an unusual initiation codon, and nine PCGs were terminated with an incomplete or abnormal stop codon. Three microsatellites were identified and located in the <i>ND</i> <i>4</i> gene and D-loop region. Phylogenetic tree showed that P. antarcticus was first clustered with Ibacus ciliatus and Ibacus alticrenatus, which is consistent with the expected phylogenetic relationship.
Project description:Objective: To identify the pathogen causing fungemia in a Chinese patient and describe its morphological and molecular characterizes. Methods: Samples of central and peripheral venous blood were collected for blood culture. Morphology and drug sensitivities of the isolated yeast-like fungus were analyzed. rDNA sequencing and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the isolated strains were performed using DNAMAN and MEGA software. Results: A strain of yeast-like fungi was repeatedly isolated from blood samples of a Chinese patient. The isolates grew well on sabouraud medium broth plate. The colonies were smooth and round at 28°C, and were of rough surface and irregular shape at 35°C. Molecular phylogenetic trees constructed based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and D1/D2 domains of 28S rDNA gene demonstrated the isolated yeast-like fungus was Moesziomyces antarcticus. Drug susceptibility test showed that this isolated M. antarcticus was resistant or had relatively low susceptibility to flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole, and only sensitive to amphotericin. Conclusion: This study provided more information for the molecular and morphology characteristics of M. antarcticus and reviewed the species information of Moesziomyces associated with human infections, which will contribute to the identification and diagnosis of Moesziomyces infections.