Phosphorylation of nuclear and DNA-binding proteins in proliferating and quiescent mammalian cells.
ABSTRACT: The dependence of cell proliferation on nuclear protein phosphorylation was studied with exponential-phase and stationary-phase cultures of Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Nuclear proteins were fractionated, according to their DNA-binding affinities, by using sequential extractions of isolated nuclei with increasing concentrations of NaCl. When viable whole cells were labelled with H332PO4, phosphorylation of nuclear proteins was found to be lower in quiescent cells than in proliferating cells. Phosphorylation of nuclear proteins soluble in 0.30M-NaCl (less than 50% of these proteins bind to DNA) was greater than for those proteins soluble in higher salt concentrations (80-100% of these proteins bind to DNA). Cyclic AMP enhanced the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins soluble in 0.3 m-NaCl by 40-50%, and this stimulation was independent of cell growth. Cyclic AMP also increased the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins soluble in 0.6M-NaCl and 2.0M-NaCl by 40-50% in exponential-phase cultures, but not in stationary-phase cultures. Several examples of specific phosphorylation in response to cyclic AMP were observed, including a 35000-mol.wt. protein in the 0.30 M-NaCl-soluble fraction and several proteins larger than 100000 molecular weight within this fraction. A major peptide of molecular weight approx. 31000 extracted with 0.6M-NaCl was also phosphorylated. Its phosphorylation was independent of cyclic AMP in exponential-phase cultures, and it was not phosphorylated in plateau-phase cells. These changes in cell-growth-dependent phosphorylation occurred in the absence of any apparent qualitative changes in the nuclear protein molecular-weight distributions. These data demonstrate that (1) phosphorylation of nuclear proteins is dependent on the culture's proliferative status, (2) both cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic AMP-independent specific phosphorylation occurs, and (3) the cyclic AMP-dependent growth-independent phosphorylation that occurs does not appear to be a modification of DNA-binding proteins, whereas the cyclic AMP-dependent growth-dependent phosphorylation does involve modification of DNA binding proteins.
Project description:Isolated rat heart nuclei were prepared by homogenization and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. The protein/DNA ratio of these nuclei was 3.1:1 (w/w), and the histones/non-histone proteins/DNA proportions were 1.4:1.6:1 (by wt.). Non-histone proteins were fractionated into six major groups by elution on a quaternized anion-exchanger (QAE-Sephadex A-50 column with increasing concentrations of NaCl in 5M-urea/0.01 M-Tris/HCl buffer (pH8.3). When isolated nuclei were incubated in a medium containing [gamma-32P]ATP, a differential distribution of 32P was observed in the six fractions of nonhistone proteins. The fractions eluted from the Sephadex column with 0.35M- and 0.6M-NaCl contained contained 80% of the total radioactivity incorporated into the non-histone proteins. This incorporation into the 0.35M- and 0.6M-NaCl fractions was increased by 66 and 112% respectively in the presence of cyclic AMP. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of these two particular fractions showed a selective increase in labelling of five protein bands in the presence of cyclic AMP.
Project description:Parotid glands were stimulated to growth by repeated injection of the beta-agonist isoprenaline into rats. Incubation of intact parotid-gland lobules with [32P]Pi and subsequent analysis of nuclear proteins revealed in the stimulated glands an increased 32P incorporation into two acid-soluble non-histone proteins with apparent Mr values of 110,000 and 130,000 (p110 and p130). After a single injection of isoprenaline, leading to a biphasic increase in DNA synthesis (maximum at 24 h), the same two proteins showed a transiently increased 32P incorporation at 17 h after injection. At this time point at the onset of DNA synthesis the total activity of soluble cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreased. No change in p110/p130 phosphorylation was observed at 0.3 h after stimulation, a time of maximal stimulation of secretion. Administration of the beta-antagonist propranolol 8 h after the injection of isoprenaline suppressed the increase in DNA synthesis, the preceding changes in the concentration of cyclic AMP and in the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, as well as the increased phosphorylation of p110 and p130. Cross-reactivity of p110 and p130 with specific antisera against two nucleolar phosphoproteins of similar molecular mass (nucleolin and pp135), as well as their localization in a nucleolar cell fraction, indicated a possible identity of p110 and p130 with these two proteins. Our results suggest that nucleolin and pp135 are nuclear target proteins of cyclic AMP in the cyclic AMP-influenced regulation of the transition of cells from the G1 to the S phase.
Project description:A nuclear protein kinase that shows a high degree of substrate specificity for the phosphorylation of the acidic proteins casein, phosvitin and non-histone chromatin proteins, rather than the basic proteins histones and protamine, was partially purified from lactatingrat mammary gland. The enzyme is associated with the acidic protein fraction of chromatin. Nuclear kinase requires Co(2+) for activity, and other bivalent cations such as Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) can substitute partially for Co(2+). The kinase is further activates (2-3-fold) by various salts, their concentration for maximum stimulation being: NaCl, 150mm; KCl, 200mm; sodium acetate, 300mm. The sedimentation coefficient of the nuclear kinase is 8.9S and its mol.wt. is approx. 300000 by gel-exclusion chromatography. The enzyme is not activated by cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP and is inhibited neither by the regulatory subunit of mammary cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase nor by the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor from ox heart. Analysis of (32)P-labelled protein products reveals that the kinase transfers the terminal phosphate of ATP to serine and threonine residues of proteins. The enzyme, however, has specificity for the phosphorylation of threonine in casein and serine in phosvitin. Molecular size and enzymic characteristics of the nuclear protein kinase are clearly different from those of the cytosol enzyme previously characterized.
Project description:Cytoplasmic and membrane fractions prepared from human peripheral-blood lymphocytes both contained cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity and endogenous protein kinase substrates. Protein kinase activity in the particulate fractions was not eluted with 0.25 M-NaCl, suggesting that it was not derived from non-specifically absorbed soluble cytoplasmic protein kinase. Nor was the particulate protein kinase activity eluted by treatment with cyclic AMP, suggesting that the catalytic subunit is membrane-bound and arguing against cyclic AMP-induced translocation of particulate activity. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein-phosphorylating activity in the cytoplasmic fraction was highly sensitive to inhibition by Mn2+, and was co-eluted from DEAE-cellulose primarily with type-I rabbit skeletal-muscle kinase. Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylating activity in the plasma-membrane fractions was stimulated at low [Mn2+] and inhibited only at high [Mn2+]. When solubilized with Nonidet P-40, plasma-membrane protein kinase was co-eluted from DEAE-cellulose with type-II rabbit muscle kinase. These differences, together with the strong association of the particulate kinases with the particulate fraction, suggest the possibility of compartmentalized protein phosphorylation in intact lymphocytes.
Project description:Phosphorylation of soluble proteins in rat mammary acinar cells was investigated. When phosphorylation proceeded in intact cells, in the presence of [32P]Pi, the major non-casein phosphoproteins, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were unresponsive to incubation conditions that caused major increases in the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP. The overall 32P specific radioactivity (c.p.m./microgram of protein) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, assessed after affinity purification of the enzyme with avidin-Sepharose, was unchanged by incubation under such conditions. Furthermore, the distribution of 32P among tryptic phosphopeptides of the enzyme, resolved by reversed-phase h.p.l.c., was not altered by cyclic AMP-increasing treatments of the acinar cells. When cytosol fractions were incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, some phosphoproteins responded to the addition of micromolar concentrations of dibutyryl cyclic AMP or cyclic AMP by undergoing an enhancement of phosphate incorporation. In these experiments in vitro, protein phosphatase activity did not make a major contribution to the net phosphorylation of individual phosphoproteins, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was not prominent among the phosphoproteins identified after short (less than 1 min) incubations of cytosols with [gamma-32P]ATP. The resistance of protein phosphorylation to variations in the cyclic AMP concentration in intact mammary epithelial cells, demonstrated by this work, is one of several mechanisms that ensure the pleiotropic refractoriness of those cells to agents which normally cause a stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in hormone-sensitive cells.
Project description:After human platelets were lysed by freezing and thawing in the presence of EDTA, about 35% of the total cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was specifically associated with the particulate fraction. In contrast, Ca2+-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase was found exclusively in the soluble fraction. Photoaffinity labelling of the regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase with 8-azido-cyclic [32P]AMP indicated that platelet lysate contained a 4-fold excess of 49 000-Da RI subunits over 55 000-Da RII subunits. The RI and RII subunits were found almost entirely in the particulate and soluble fractions respectively. Chromatography of the soluble fraction on DEAE-cellulose demonstrated a single peak of cyclic AMP-dependent activity with the elution characteristics and regulatory subunits characteristic of the type-II enzyme. A major enzyme peak containing Ca2+-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase was eluted before the type-II enzyme, but no type-I cyclic AMP-dependent activity was normally observed in the soluble fraction. The particulate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and associated RI subunits were solubilized by buffers containing 0.1 or 0.5% (w/v) Triton X-100, but not by extraction with 0.5 M-NaCl, indicating that this enzyme is firmly membrane-bound, either as an integral membrane protein or via an anchor protein. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of the Triton X-100 extracts demonstrated the presence of both type-I cyclic AMP-dependent holoenzyme and free RI subunits. These results show that platelets contain three main protein kinase activities detectable with histone substrates, namely a membrane-bound type-I cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme, a soluble type-II cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme and Ca2+-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, which was soluble in lysates containing EDTA.
Project description:Free ribosomes and a smooth-microsomal fraction were prepared from bovine corpus luteum. Both preparations will self-phosphorylate when incubated with Mg(2+) and ATP, but at low concentrations of Mg(2+) and ATP the self-phosphorylation of the smooth-microsomal fraction was much more dependent on cyclic AMP than was that of free ribosomes, stimulation by the nucleotide being up to 10-fold in the former case. The self-phosphorylation of the smooth-microsomal fraction was studied further. The reaction bears similarities to that brought about by soluble cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, being inhibited by Ca(2+) and the heat-stable inhibitor protein from skeletal muscle. Cyclic GMP will activate the reaction at concentrations higher than those required for full activation by cyclic AMP. In the presence of cyclic AMP, phosphate bound to protein is found almost exclusively as phosphoserine. Several proteins are phosphorylated, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and the phosphorylation of all of them is markedly stimulated by cyclic AMP. If the reaction is carried out at high concentrations of Mg(2+) and ATP, a distinct cyclic AMP-independent phosphorylation is observed. This activity is not inhibited by the heat-stable inhibitor protein, and phosphate is found esterified with both threonine and serine residues.
Project description:Gene expression profiling of EHEC and its luxS-deficient mutant strain which cannot produce autoinducer-2 molecule at the late log-phase in 0.6M NaCl LB broth (osmotic stress condition) against controls grown under normal osmotic condition (LB broth)
Project description:1. The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity-ratio assay was investigated by comparing histone and a synthetic peptide, malantide [Malencik & Anderson (1983) Anal. Biochem. 132, 32-40], as substrates. 2. In several tissues the activity ratio was higher when assayed with histone as the substrate; this result was obtained in control tissues and also in those incubated with agents known to increase cyclic AMP. The effect of these agents to increase the activity ratio was more clearly demonstrated with malantide. 3. The higher activity ratios observed with histone are due to: (a) measurement of phosphorylation not catalysed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; (b) activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase by histone during the assay. 4. When tissues were homogenized in buffers without NACl, lower activity ratios were found, owing to the catalytic subunit being artifactually removed from the supernatant. 5. We conclude that the measured activity ratio more faithfully reflects that in the tissue when NaCl is included in the homogenization buffer and malantide is used in the assay. This was confirmed in experiments where cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was added to the tissue before homogenization, and no dissociation of the exogenous enzyme was observed.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation in intact S49 mouse lymphoma cells was studied by using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labelled with [35S]methionine or [32P]Pi. In wild-type cells substrates for cyclic AMP-stimulatable phosphorylation exhibited high basal phosphorylation; in mutant cells deficient in activities of either cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase or adenylate cyclase, basal phosphorylation of most of these substrates was negligible. Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides from proteins labelled with [32P]Pi in wild-type cells suggested that identical sites were phosphorylated under conditions of both basal and hormonally elevated concentrations of cyclic AMP. These results argue that most basal phosphorylation is a consequence of partial activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and that this activation is attributable to basal concentrations of cyclic AMP. For the intermediate filament protein vimentin, basal phosphorylation was largely at a site distinct from that stimulated by increased cyclic AMP, and basal phosphorylation was not markedly different in mutant and wild-type cells. Vimentin phosphorylated at both sites was not observed. Cyclic AMP treatment resulted in enhanced phosphorylation at the cyclic AMP-specific site and decreased phosphorylation at the cyclic AMP-independent site.