Studies on valinomycin inhibition of synaptosome-fraction protein synthesis.
ABSTRACT: The ionophore valinomycin inhibited adult and neonatal synaptosome fraction protein synthesis with half-maximal inhibition at approximately 10nM. Valinomycin had no effect on [3H]leucine uptake into synaptosomes at high or low external [K+]. Synaptosome-fraction protein synthesis was dependent on [K+]e reaching a maximum at 25mM-K+. Valinomycin inhibition of protein synthesis was not reversed at high [K+]e. Valinomycin failed to influence the intrasynaptosomal [K+] even at zero [K+]e. A significant increase in State-4 respiration of synaptosomal fractions was found at 5nM-valinomycin with a decrease in the respiratory control index. At these concentrations of valinomycin there was no inhibition of the ADP-stimulated (State 3) respiration rate. Valinomycin had no effect on cerebral microsomal protein synthesis in vitro, which was inhibited by puromycin (100 micrograms/ml) or the absence of ATP. Valinomycin, 2,4-dinitrophenol and KCN inhibition of protein synthesis was not reversed by added ATP, suggesting impermeability of the membrane to ATP. Valinomycin induced a rapid fall in synaptosome ATP content not observed with atractylate or ouabain. Valinomycin inhibition of protein synthesis under these conditions is secondary to uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with a subsequent decrease in intraterminal ATP necessary for translation.
Project description:1. Investigation of a number of reactions involving both internal and externally added adenine nucleotides of isolated liver mitochondria has revealed that atractylate and oligomycin differ markedly in the site of their inhibitory action. 2. Both atractylate and oligomycin inhibited the respiratory-chain-level phosphorylation of added ADP. Neither compound inhibited the substrate-level phosphorylation of internal (endogenous) ADP or the respiration-dependent accumulation of bivalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Sr(2+) or Mn(2+)). 3. Atractylate, but not oligomycin, inhibited the substrate-level phosphorylation of externally added ADP, the ATP- and carnitine-dependent reduction of nicotinamide nucleotide by palmitate and the ATP-induced activation of succinate oxidation. 4. Oligomycin, but not atractylate, inhibited the respiratory-chain-linked phosphorylation of internal ADP, and the dephosphorylation of internal ATP that occurred on the addition of antimycin. 5. The enhancement of arsenate-stimulated respiration by ADP was prevented by atractylate added either before or after the ADP. Oligomycin abolished both the arsenate and ADP stimulation. 6. It is suggested that atractylate prevents the passage of adenine nucleotides across the mitochondrial membrane, whereas oligomycin interferes with the formation of a ;high-energy' phosphorylated intermediate.
Project description:1. Parameters of ATP uptake by fully functional Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, including kinetic constants, binding constants and sensitivity to atractylate, closely resemble those of mammalian mitochondria. Scatchard plots of atractylate-sensitive adenine nucleotide binding indicate two distinct sites of high affinity (binding constant, K(D)'=1mum), and low affinity (binding constant, K(D)''=20mum) in the ratio 1:3. Uptake has high Arrhenius activation energies (+35 and +57kJ/mol), above and below a transition temperature of 11 degrees C. Atractylate-insensitive ATP uptake is apparently not saturable and has a low Arrhenius activation energy (6kJ/mol), suggesting a non-specific binding process. 2. Kinetic and binding constants for ATP uptake are not significantly changed in catabolite-repressed or anaerobic mitochondrial structures. 3. Inhibition of the mitochondrial protein-synthesizing system by growth of cells in the presence of erythromycin, or loss of mitochondrial DNA by mutation profoundly alters the adenine nucleotide transporter. ATP uptake becomes completely insensitive to atractylate, and the high-affinity binding site is lost. However, the adenine nucleotide transporter does not appear to be totally eliminated, as a moderate amount of saturable low-affinity ATP binding remains. 4. It is concluded that products of the mitochondrial protein-synthesizing system, probably coded by mitochondrial DNA, are required for the normal function of the adenine nucleotide transporter.
Project description:1. The membrane sterol composition of mitochondria of the ole-3 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was manipulated by growing the organism in the presence of Tween 80 (1%, W/V) plus defined supplements o- delta-aminolaevulinate. 2. Changes in mitochondrial sterol content induced considerable changes in the adenine nucleotide transporter. 3. As the sterol content was decreased, the affinity of the transporter for ATP did not alter significantly, but the rate of ATP uptake was greatly decreased, the total number of atractylate-sensitive binding sites diminished, and the proportion of high-affinity binding sites was decreased. 4. Since sterol depletion also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation [Astin & Haslam (1977) Biochem. J., 166, 287-298] and prevents the intramitochondrial generation of ATP, the decrease in the rate of ATP uptake by sterol-depleted mitochondria will cause a decrease in intramitochondrial ATP concentrations in vivo. This probably explains the inhibition of mitochondrial macromolecular synthesis that has previously been reported in lipid-depleted yeast mitochondria.
Project description:The gene DTNBP1 encodes the protein dysbindin and is among the most promising and highly investigated schizophrenia-risk genes. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbindin plays an important role in the regulation of neuroplasticity. Dysbindin was reported to be a stable component of BLOC-1 complex in the cytosol. However, little is known about the endogenous dysbindin-containing complex in the brain synaptosome. In this study, we investigated the associated proteome of dysbindin in the P2 synaptosome fraction of mouse brain. Our data suggest that dysbindin has three isoforms associating with different complexes in the P2 fraction of mouse brain. To facilitate immunopurification, BAC transgenic mice expressing a tagged dysbindin were generated, and 47 putative dysbindin-associated proteins, including all components of BLOC-1, were identified by mass spectrometry in the dysbindin-containing complex purified from P2. The interactions of several selected candidates, including WDR11, FAM91A1, snapin, muted, pallidin, and two proteasome subunits, PSMD9 and PSMA4, were verified by coimmunoprecipitation. The specific proteasomal activity is significantly reduced in the P2 fraction of the brains of the dysbindin-null mutant (sandy) mice. Our data suggest that dysbindin is functionally interrelated to the ubiquitin-proteasome system and offer a molecular repertoire for future study of dysbindin functional networks in brain.
Project description:The resolvase Sin regulates DNA strand exchange by assembling an elaborate interwound synaptosome containing catalytic and regulatory Sin tetramers, and an architectural DNA-bending protein. The crystal structure of the regulatory tetramer was recently solved, providing new insights into the structural basis for regulation. Here we describe the selection and characterization of two classes of Sin mutations that, respectively, bypass or disrupt the functions of the regulatory tetramer. Activating mutations, which allow the catalytic tetramer to assemble and function independently at site I (the crossover site), were found at approximately 20% of residues in the N-terminal domain. The most strongly activating mutation (Q115R) stabilized a catalytically active synaptic tetramer in vitro. The positions of these mutations suggest that they act by destabilizing the conformation of the ground-state site I-bound dimers, or by stabilizing the altered conformation of the active catalytic tetramer. Mutations that block activation by the regulatory tetramer mapped to just two residues, F52 and R54, supporting a functional role for a previously reported crystallographic dimer-dimer interface. We suggest how F52/R54 contacts between regulatory and catalytic subunits might promote assembly of the active catalytic tetramer within the synaptosome.
Project description:Homogenates of rat brain cortex were fractionated by conventional methods of velocity sedimentation and separated into a microsomal and a washed mitochondrial fraction. By electron microscopy the mitochondrial fraction was shown to be rich in synaptosomes. The mitochondria-synaptosome fraction synthesized protein in vitro by a route that was partially inhibited by cycloheximide and partly by chloramphenicol. The relative effectiveness of the two inhibitors varied greatly with the medium used. In the mitochondria-synaptosome fraction active 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes and active 55S mitochondrial ribosomes were detected; these were also seen in the electron microscope. Mild osmotic shock of the mitochondria-synaptosome fraction followed by velocity sedimentation in sucrose-EDTA allowed isolation of a mitochondrial fraction free of synaptosomes. Protein synthesis in this fraction was entirely inhibited by chloramphenicol, but was completely resistant to cycloheximide both in a medium promoting oxidative phosphorylation and in ATP-generating medium. Ouabain had no inhibitory effect on protein synthesis in a purified mitochondrial preparation. It is concluded that brain-cortex mitochondria synthesize protein entirely on 55S mitochondrial ribosomes.
Project description:The epsilon subunit of bacterial FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1), a rotary motor protein, is known to inhibit the ATP hydrolysis reaction of this enzyme. The inhibitory effect is modulated by the conformation of the C-terminal alpha-helices of epsilon, and the "extended" but not "hairpin-folded" state is responsible for inhibition. Although the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by the C-terminal domain of epsilon has been extensively studied, the effect on ATP synthesis is not fully understood. In this study, we generated an Escherichia coli FoF1 (EFoF1) mutant in which the epsilon subunit lacked the C-terminal domain (FoF1epsilonDeltaC), and ATP synthesis driven by acid-base transition (DeltapH) and the K+-valinomycin diffusion potential (DeltaPsi) was compared in detail with that of the wild-type enzyme (FoF1epsilonWT). The turnover numbers (kcat) of FoF1epsilonWT were severalfold lower than those of FoF1epsilonDeltaC. FoF1epsilonWT showed higher Michaelis constants (Km). The dependence of the activities of FoF1epsilonWT and FoF1epsilonDeltaC on various combinations of DeltapH and DeltaPsi was similar, suggesting that the rate-limiting step in ATP synthesis was unaltered by the C-terminal domain of epsilon. Solubilized FoF1epsilonWT also showed lower kcat and higher Km values for ATP hydrolysis than the corresponding values of FoF1epsilonDeltaC. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of the epsilon subunit of EFoF1 slows multiple elementary steps in both the ATP synthesis/hydrolysis reactions by restricting the rotation of the gamma subunit.
Project description:Protein copy numbers can be measured by biochemical methods ranging from quantitative Western Blotting to several mass spectrometry approaches. Such methods only provide average copy numbers, obtained over large cell numbers. However, copy number estimates for single cells or single organelles could be obtained by combining biochemical characterizations with an imaging approach. We performed this here for synaptic proteins, in a protocol that we termed comparative synaptosome imaging for semi-quantitative copy numbers (CosiQuant). In brief, in CosiQuant we immunostain in parallel biochemically-characterized synaptosomes, for which we have already determined the average protein copy numbers, and the samples of interest (such as neuronal cultures). We then derive the copy numbers in the samples of interest by comparing the immunofluorescence intensities. We measured the intensities not only in arbitrary fluorescence units, but also as numbers of antibodies per synaptosome, for a large number of targets. This implies that other groups can immediately apply CosiQuant for these targets, by simply estimating the number of antibodies per structure of interest. CosiQuant should therefore be a useful addition to the growing set of imaging techniques for synaptic neuroscience.
Project description:Ischaemia compromises mitochondrial respiration. Consequently, the mitochondrial F1 Fo-ATPsynthase reverses and acts as a proton-pumping ATPase, so maintaining the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m ), while accelerating ATP depletion and cell death. Here we have looked for a molecule that can selectively inhibit this activity without affecting ATP synthesis, preserve ATP and delay ischaemic cell death.We developed a chemoinformatic screen based on the structure of BMS199264, which is reported to selectively inhibit F1 Fo-ATPase activity and which is cardioprotective. Results suggested the molecule BTB06584 (hereafter referred to as BTB). Fluorescence microscopy was used to study its effects on ??m and on the rate of ATP consumption following inhibition of respiration in several cell types. The effect of BTB on oxygen (O2 ) consumption was explored and protective potential determined using ischaemia/reperfusion assays. We also investigated a potential mechanism of action through its interaction with inhibitor protein of F1 subunit (IF1 ), the endogenous inhibitor of the F1 Fo-ATPase.BTB inhibited F1 Fo-ATPase activity with no effect on ??m or O2 consumption. ATP consumption was decreased following inhibition of respiration, and ischaemic cell death was reduced. BTB efficiency was increased by IF1 overexpression and reduced by silencing the protein. In addition, BTB rescued defective haemoglobin synthesis in zebrafish pinotage (pnt) mutants in which expression of the Atpif1a gene is lost.BTB may represent a valuable tool to selectively inhibit mitochondrial F1 Fo-ATPase activity without compromising ATP synthesis and to limit ischaemia-induced injury caused by reversal of the mitochondrial F1 Fo-ATPsynthase.
Project description:The evoked effects of the negatively charged drugs phenobarbital and barbituric acid, the positively charged imipramine, perphenazine and trifluoperazine, and the neutral primidone, on the synaptosome-associated acetylcholinesterase activity were studied. A marked increase in the enzyme activity was exhibited in the presence of low concentrations (up to 3 mM) of phenobarbital, barbituric acid and primidone. Higher concentrations (up to 10 mM), however, led to a progressive inhibition of the enzyme activity. However, the activity of the enzyme was not affected by imipramine, but it was decreased by perphenazine and trifluoperazine. Arrhenius plots of acetylcholinesterase activity exhibited a break point at 23.4 degrees C for the untreated (control) synaptosomes, which was shifted to around 16 degrees C in the synaptosomes treated with the charged drugs. The allosteric inhibition by F- of acetylcholinesterase was studied in control synaptosomes and in those treated with the charged drugs. Changes in the Hill coefficients in combination with changes in Arrhenius activation energy produced by the charged drugs would be expected if it is assumed that charged drugs 'fluidize' the synaptosomal plasma membranes.