Initiation of protein synthesis in cell-free extracts of Tetrahymena pyriformis.
ABSTRACT: Saturating concentrations of the initiation-specific inhibitors poly(I) and T-2 toxin inhibit protein synthesis by over 35% and cause ribosome 'run-off' from the polyribosomes. The elongation-specific inhibitor cycloheximide totally prevents protein synthesis and 'freezes' the ribosomes in the pattern of unincubated controls. These results prove that our Tetrahymena extracts are capable of protein-synthesis initiation, a conclusion which is confirmed by a 30% inhibition of synthesis by the mRNA cap analogue, 7-methylguanosine 5'-monophosphate.
Project description:1. We have examined methods necessary for preparing post-mitochondrial supernatants from Tetrahymena pyriformis strain HSM that are capable of efficient cell-free protein synthesis. 2. The requirements for optimum synthesis in these extracts are described. 3. Data relating to the kinetics of protein synthesis and the initiation capacity of these supernatants are presented.
Project description:A soluble dolichyl phosphate phosphatase from Tetrahymena pyriformis was purified about 68-fold. The enzyme appeared to be specific for dolichyl phosphate and existed in two interrelated forms, one of mol.wt. about 500000 and the other of mol.wt. about 63000. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by 5 mM-Mn2+ and was strongly stimulated by Mg2+. Tetrahymena in the exponential growth phase contained more of this enzymic activity than cells in stationary or lag phase. The dolichyl phosphate phosphatase may be loosely bound to mitochondrial membranes. Two roles proposed for this enzyme are (1) that of releasing dolichol from its phosphorylated biosynthetic form for its use in the cell as unesterified dolichol or dolichyl ester and/or (2) that of regulation of synthesis of glycoproteins or some other glycosylated compound.
Project description:1. Mitochondria of the obligately aerobic ciliate protozoon, Tetrahymena pyriformis strain ST, are unusual in that they possess a cytochrome oxidase system that does not react with reduced mammalian cytochrome c; the presence of cytochromes a(603)+a(3) is masked in the alpha-band region of spectra by the broad absorption band of cytochrome a(620). 2. Other haemoproteins present include cytochromes b(560), b(556), c(553) and c(549). 3. The reaction of reduced cytochrome a(3) with CO is reversed by flash photolysis, and in the presence of O(2) the subsequent oxidation of this cytochrome is followed by that of cytochrome a(603). 4. Cytochromes a(620) and b(560) also react with CO and with KCN; the latter cytochrome corresponds with that designated cytochrome o by other workers. 5. The contribution of cytochrome a(603) to difference spectra is revealed by making use of the fact that it does not react with KCN. 6. Cytochrome a(620) is unstable, and its alpha-absorption band is lost from spectra of mitochondria which have been aged or treated with ultrasound, detergents or organic solvents. 7. Possible pathways of electron transport via the several different terminal oxidases in Tetrahymena mitochondria are proposed.
Project description:The Protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis, is capable of phosphorylating dolichol in the presence of CTP. Other nucleotides (ATP, UTP and GTP) were ineffective. The enzyme was activated independently by the bivalent cations Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+. The Ca2+ stimulation of the enzyme activity was calmodulin-dependent. A substantial increase in the enzyme activity was seen in the presence of UTP. The apparent Km values for CTP and dolichol, as calculated from the Lineweaver-Burk plot, were 3 mM and 70 microM respectively. Although the presence of detergent was essential, at higher concentrations there was a decrease in the enzyme activity. The enzyme had two pH optima (pH 7.4 and 9.0) and at both the activity was Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent.
Project description:The behavior of ciliates has been studied for many years through environmental biology and the ethology of microorganisms, and recent hydrodynamic studies of microswimmers have greatly advanced our understanding of the behavioral dynamics at the single-cell level. However, the association between single-cell dynamics captured by microscopic observation and pattern dynamics obtained by macroscopic observation is not always obvious. Hence, to bridge the gap between the two, there is a need for experimental results on swarming dynamics at the mesoscopic scale. In this study, we investigated the spatial population dynamics of the ciliate, <i>Tetrahymena pyriformis</i>, based on quantitative data analysis. We combined the image processing of 3D micrographs and machine learning to obtain the positional data of individual cells of <i>T. pyriformis</i> and examined their statistical properties based on spatio-temporal data. According to the 3D spatial distribution of cells and their temporal evolution, cells accumulated both on the solid wall at the bottom surface and underneath the air-liquid interface at the top. Furthermore, we quantitatively clarified the difference in accumulation levels between the bulk and the interface by creating a simple behavioral model that incorporated quantitative accumulation coefficients in its solution. The accumulation coefficients can be compared under different conditions and between different species.
Project description:1. Mitochondrial DNA from Tetrahymena pyriformis strain T has a buoyant density (rho) of 1.685 compared with rho1.688 for whole cell DNA. Mitochondrial preparations from T. pyriformis strain W show an enrichment of a light satellite (rho1.686), although this is not obtained free from nuclear DNA (rho1.692). 2. T. pyriformis mitochondrial DNA renatures rapidly and the kinetics of this process indicate a complexity of approx. 3x10(7) daltons. 3. The base-pairing in the renaturation product is of a precise nature, since the ;melting' temperature (80.5 degrees C) is indistinguishable from that of the native DNA (80.5 degrees C). 4. Centrifugation of mitochondrial DNA in an alkaline caesium chloride density gradient gives two bands, implying the separation of the complementary strands.
Project description:The unicellular Tetrahymena distinguishes structure-related vertebrate hormones by its chemosensory reactions. In the present work, the selectivity of hormone receptors was evaluated by analyzing the effects of various gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs (GnRH-I, GnRH-III) as well as truncated (Ac-SHDWKPG-NH2) and dimer derivatives ([GnRH-III(C)]2 and [GnRH-III(CGFLG)]2) of GnRH-III on (i) locomotory behaviors, (ii) cell proliferation, and (iii) intracellular hormone contents of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The migration, intracellular hormone content, and proliferation of Tetrahymena were investigated by microscope-assisted tracking analysis, flow cytometry, and a CASY TT cell counter, respectively. Depending on the length of linker sequence between the two GnRH-III monomers, the GnRH-III dimers had the opposite effect on Tetrahymena migration. [GnRH-III(CGFLG)]2 dimer had a slow, serpentine-like movement, while [GnRH-III(C)]2 dimer had a rather linear swimming pattern. All GnRH-III derivatives significantly induced cell growth after 6 h incubation. Endogenous histamine content was uniformly enhanced by Ac-SHDWKPG-NH2 and GnRH-III dimers, while some differences between the hormonal activities of GnRHs were manifested in their effects on intracellular levels of serotonin and endorphin. The GnRH peptides could directly affect Tetrahymena migration and proliferation in a structure-dependent manner, and they could indirectly regulate these reactions by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms. Present results support the theory that recognition ability and selectivity of mammalian hormone receptors can be deduced from a phylogenetically ancient level like the unicellular Tetrahymena.
Project description:The biosynthesis of ubiquinone-8 from radioactive mevalonate by cultures of Tetrahymena pyriformis is demonstrated. Under normal conditions the incorporation of this radioactive precursor into ubiquinone and the triterpenoid alcohol tetrahymanol reflects the amounts of these two compounds in the cell. Growth of T. pyriformis in the presence of cholesterol results in a complete inhibition of incorporation of radioactive mevalonate into tetrahymanol while there is a corresponding increase of radioactive incorporation into ubiquinone. This increased incorporation of mevalonic acid into ubiquinone must reflect a reduced level of mevalonic acid in the cell under these conditions and is not due to increased ubiquinone biosynthesis, indicating tight regulation of the pathway prior to mevalonate formation.
Project description:A method is described that enables a chromatin fraction containing ribosomal DNA (DNA containing sequences coding for rRNA) to be prepared from the macronuclei of growing or stationary cultures of Tetrahymena pyriformis. This material is obtained in yields of between 25 and 75% of the theoretical maximum. The DNA in this fraction was identified as ribosomal DNA on the basis of its density and molecular weight, and it appears not to be appreciably contaminated by other DNA. The method relies on the approximate assumption that ribosomal DNA is the smallest species of DNA in chromatin in the nucleus, and avoids the use of mechanical force, or enzyme action, to fractionate chromatin.
Project description:The regions between adjacent histone H3 and H4 genes, as well as portions of the genes, from 22 species of Tetrahymena have been amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Both histone genes are transcribed divergently with initiation occurring within the intergenic region, thus 2 sets of 22 homologous Tetrahymena promoters can be compared. A sequence comparison of these regions reveals a single putative promoter element, with a consensus sequence TATCCAATTCARA, present in front of each gene. This sequence contains a 'CCAAT' box, which also occurs at 8 locations preceding other ciliate genes. No other putative promoter sequences are found in front of these sets of histone genes. Sequences searched for include 'TATA' boxes, 'GC' boxes and other sequences suggested as putative promoter elements for ciliate genes. The coding strand immediately preceding ciliate genes is very high in A content and the consensus sequence at the site of protein synthesis is AAAATGG.