Isolation and characterization of dihydropteridine reductase from human liver.
ABSTRACT: Dihydropteridine reductase (EC 22.214.171.124) was purified from human liver obtained at autopsy by a three-step chromatographic procedure with the use of (1) a naphthoquinone affinity adsorbent, (2) DEAE-Sephadex and (3) CM-Sephadex. The enzyme was typically purified 1000-fold with a yield of 25%. It gave a single band on non-denaturing and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and showed one spot on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be 50000 by sedimentation-equilibrium analysis and 47500 by gel filtration. On sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, a single subunit with mol.wt. 26000 was observed. A complex of dihydropteridine reductase with NADH was observed on gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated to be pH 7.0. Amino acid analysis showed a residue composition similar to that seen for the sheep and bovine liver enzymes. The enzyme showed anomalous migration in polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A Ferguson plot indicated that this behaviour is due to a low net charge/size ratio of the enzyme under the electrophoretic conditions used. The kinetic properties of the enzyme with tetrahydrobiopterin, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine, NADH and NADPH are compared, and the effects of pH, temperature and a number of different compounds on catalytic activity are presented.
Project description:Alkaline phosphatase from human liver was purified to homogeneity. The purification procedure included solubilization with butanol, fractionation with acetone, and chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. Purity was established by standard and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the protein was determined to be 4.0. Sephadex-gel filtration gave a mol.wt. of 146000, although a higher value was obtained in the presence of 100mM-NaC1. The subunit mol.wt. 76700, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Neuraminidase treatment resulted in two enzyme-activity bands on isoelectric-focused gels with isoelectric points of 6.6 and 6.8. The desialylated enzyme gave only one protein band on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular weight indistinguishable from that of the non-neuraminidase-treated protein. The desialylated enzyme was more readily denatured by sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of mercaptoethanol than was the native enzyme.
Project description:An enzyme catalysing the O-methylation of isobutyraldoxime by S-adenosyl-L-methionine was isolated from Pseudomonas sp. N.C.I.B. 11652. The enzyme was purified 220-fold by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and chromatography on calcium phosphate gel. Homogeneity of the enzyme preparation was confirmed by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a narrow pH optimum at 10.25, required thiol-protecting agents for activity and was rapidly denatured at temperatures above 35 degrees C. The Km values for isobutyraldoxime and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were respectively 0.24 mM and 0.15 mM. Studies on substrate specificity indicated that attack was mainly restricted to oximes of C4-C6 aldehydes, with preference being shown for those with branching in the 2- or 3-position. Ketoximes were not substrates for the enzyme. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 gave an Mr of 84 000 for the intact enzyme, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated an Mr of 37 500, suggesting the presence of two subunits in the intact enzyme. S-Adenosylhomocysteine was a powerful competitive inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine, with a Ki of 0.027 mM. The enzyme was also susceptible to inhibition by thiol-blocking reagents and heavy-metal ions. Mg2+ was not required for maximum activity.
Project description:Pantothenase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Pseudomonas fluorescens UK-1 was purified to homogeneity as judged by disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purification procedure consisted of four steps: DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34 was used to determine the molecular weight, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to study the subunit molecular weight. The enzyme appeared to be composed of two subunits with mol.wts. of approx. 50000 each. The total mol.wt. of the enzyme was thus about 100000. The isoelectric point was 4.7 at 10 degrees C.
Project description:The plasminogen activator secreted by calcitonin-treated pig kidney cells was purified, characterized and compared with human urinary urokinase. The purification procedure was based on the following steps: sulphopropyl-Sephadex chromatography, p-aminobenzamidine-Sepharose chromatography, preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing. The purified enzyme was obtained from the conditioned medium with a yield of 13% and a purification factor of 390-fold. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions showed one closely spaced doublet with an Mr of 50 000; in the presence of reducing agents, two additional bands of Mr 30 000 and 20 000 appeared. The purified enzyme resembles the 53 000-Mr components of human urinary urokinase in amino acid composition and two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps and in its catalytic properties, and the two enzymes cross-react immunologically with rabbit antibodies raised against either. The enzyme appears to be different from tissue plasminogen activator secreted by HeLa cells.
Project description:CoA-transferase (succinyl-CoA-3-oxo acid CoA-transferase, EC 188.8.131.52) isolated from sheep kidney was purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme has a specific activity of approx. 200 units/mg. A mol.wt. of 110000 was obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and a lower mol.wt. of 102000 was determined by analytical ultracentrifugation. A sedimentation coefficient of 5.6S was also determined. A subunit mol.wt. of 56000 was obtained by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing of sheep kidney extracts indicated the presence of a single band of CoA-transferase activity with pI9.0. However, isoelectric focusing of purified CoA-transferase showed the presence of two peaks of CoA-transferase activity with pI values of 8.7 and 8.4, suggesting the presence of proteolytic activity during purification. Evidence for sheep kidney CoA-transferase being a dimer of two identical subunits has been obtained from sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the amino acid composition, peptide 'mapping' and N-terminal analysis.
Project description:1. A strain of the fungus Fusarium solani able to use benzonitrile as sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated by elective culture. 2. Respiration studies indicate that the nitrile, after degradation to benzoate, is catabolized via catechol or alternatively via p-hydroxybenzoate and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. 3. Cell-free extracts of benzonitrile-grown cells contain an enzyme mediating the conversion of benzonitrile into benzoate and ammonia. 4. The nitrilase enzyme was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The homogeneity of the purified enzyme preparation was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel. 5. The enzyme showed a broad pH optimum between pH7.8 and 9.1 and a K(m) with benzonitrile as substrate of 0.039mm. The activation energy of the reaction deduced from an Arrhenius plot was 48.4kJ/mol. 6. The enzyme was susceptible to inhibition by thiol-specific reagents and certain heavy metal ions. 7. Gel filtration gave a value of 620000 for the molecular weight of the intact enzyme. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the enzyme was composed of eight subunits of mol.wt. 76000. 8. Rates of enzymic attack on various substrates indicated that the nitrilase has a fairly broad specificity and that the fungus probably plays an important role in the biodegradation of certain nitrilic herbicides in the environment.
Project description:A high-affinity riboflavin -binding protein was isolated and characterized for the first time from pregnant-rat sera by affinity chromatography on a lumiflavin-agarose column. The purified protein was homogeneous by the criteria of analytical polyacrylamide-gel disc electrophoresis, gel-filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. It had a molecular weight of 90000+/-5000 and interacted with [14C]riboflavin with a 1:1 molar ratio with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.42 micron.
Project description:Protein disulphide-isomerase from bovine liver was purified to homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal amino acid analysis. The preparative procedure, a modification of that of Carmichael, Morin & Dixon [(1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 7163-7167], is much faster and higher-yielding than previous procedures, and the final purified material is of higher specific activity. The enzyme has Mr 57 000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, both in the presence and in the absence of thiol compounds. Gel-filtration studies on Sephadex G-200 indicate an Mr of 107 000, suggesting that the native enzyme is a homodimer with no interchain disulphide bonds. Ultracentrifugation studies give a sedimentation coefficient of 3.5S, implying that the enzyme sediments as the monomer. The isoelectric point, in the presence of 8 M-urea, is 4.2, and some microheterogeneity is detectable. The amino acid composition is comparable with previous analyses of this enzyme from bovine liver and of other preparations of thiol:protein disulphide oxidoreductases whose relation to protein disulphide-isomerase has been controversial. The enzyme contains a very high proportion of Glx + Asx residues (27%). The N-terminal residue is His. The pure enzyme has a very small carbohydrate content, determined as 0.5-1.0% by the phenol/H2SO4 assay. Unless specific steps are taken to remove it, the purified enzyme contains a small amount (5 mol/mol of enzyme) of Triton X-100 carried through the purification.
Project description:1. Extraction of a mouse liver plasma-membrane fraction with a detergent buffer, N-dodecylsarcosinate-Tris buffer (sarcosyl-Tris buffer), solubilized 90% of the protein and 70% of the 5'-nucleotidase activity. 2. The proteins of the sarcosyl-Tris buffer extract were fractionated by a rate-zonal centrifugation in a sucrose-detergent gradient. The major protein peak sedimented ahead of phospholipids, which mainly remained in the overlay. Glycoproteins were separated ahead of the protein peak. 3. The 5'-nucleotidase activity peak was associated with 5% of the protein applied to the gradient, and contained relatively few protein bands. 4. The 5'-nucleotidase was purified further by gel filtration on Sepharose and Sephadex columns equilibrated with sarcosyl-Tris buffer, to give a single glycoprotein band on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme was lipid-free. 5. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels in sarcosyl-Tris buffers showed that the enzymic activity was coincident with the protein band. 6. The molecular weight suggested for the enzyme activity by gel filtration or centrifugation in sucrose gradients was 140000-150000. Sometimes, a minor enzyme peak of lower molecular weight was obtained. 7. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that as the polyacrylamide concentration was increased from 5 to 15%, the apparent molecular weight of the enzyme decreased from 130000 to 90000. 8. The evidence that 5'-nucleotidase is composed of two active and similar, if not identical, glycoprotein subunits and the role of detergent in effecting the separation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins are discussed. 9. Substrate requirements, pH optima and the nature of inhibition by an analogue of adenosine diphosphate are reported.
Project description:1. The high-activity form of aminolaevulinate synthetase has been prepared from extracts of semi-anaerobically grown cells of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, which were allowed to become activated in air. Specific activity was 130 000--170 000 nmol of aminolaevulinate/h per mg of protein at 37 degree C. 2. Enzyme fraction Ia prepared on DEAE-Sephadex was a mixture of four active enzymes, pI5.55, 5.45, 5.35 and 5.2, when prepared in either Tris or phosphate buffers and when extracts were activated by air or by cystine trisulphide. 3. The enzyme was further purified by preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in imidazole/veronal buffer, pH 7.6, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and concentration with DEAE-Sephadex. 4. The most active enzyme, pI 5.55, ran as a single protein band, mol.wt. 49 000, in sodium dodecyl sulphate and 2-mercaptoethanol. The apparent molecular weight under non-denaturing conditions was 62 000--68 000 on Sephadex G-100 or G-200, pH 7.5, and on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, pH 8.5, at enzyme concentrations below 10 000 units/ml, i.e. less than 60 microgram of protein/ml, and the enzyme was mainly monomeric. 5. The enzyme was homogeneous by gel disc electrophoresis at pH 8.9 and 7.6, but a slightly more diffuse band of protein was obtained during electrophoresis in glycine buffer, pH 7.4. 6. Enzyme samples possessed an intrinsic yellow fluorescence when viewed under u.v. light and this fluorescence coincided exactly with enzymic activity on gel electrophoresis. Fluorescence maxima were 420 nm (excitation) and 495 nm (emission). 7. Radioactive 35S-labelled enzyme had 14 atoms of sulphur/mol of protein (or/40 leucine residues) of which 5--6 residues were cyst(e)ine and 8--9 residues were methionine. 8. Mo carbohydrate was detected apart from glucose, which prevented accurate determination of tryptophan with methanesulphonic acid and tryptamine.