Two-step affinity-chromatographic purification of cathepsin D from pig myometrium with high yield.
ABSTRACT: Cathepsin D was purified by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-- and pepstatin--Sepharose. The main purification was achieved by washing the enzyme bound to the pepstatin--Sepharose column with buffered 6 M-urea. This step separated cathepsin D from all low- and high-molecular-weight impurities. Although the 1700-fold purified acid proteinase was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, it still showed microheterogeneity.
Project description:The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. J. 197, 519-522]. In this paper, chemical and physical properties of the proteinase are presented. The purified enzyme showed three bands on SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, one main band corresponding to an Mr of 31 000 and two minor bands with Mr values of 43 000 and 15 000 respectively. Gel filtration on Bio-gel P-150 and sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium studies give an Mr for the main band of about 35 000. The pI of the enzyme was determined to be 7.2. Haemoglobin was the best substrate, with a Km value of 6.4 X 10(-6)M. It was hydrolysed with a pH optimum between 3.0 and 3.3 for a substrate concentration of 100 microM. The proteinase was stable over the pH range of 3.5-6.5. At pH 6 the enzyme showed stability up to a temperature of 50 degrees C; at pH 3 the activity was already decreased below 40 degrees C. Carbohydrate studies resulted in the staining of all three bands on an SDS/polyacrylamide gel by thymol/H2SO4. After treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, all three bands were shifted to a region of lower Mr. Of various inhibitors tested, only pepstatin was strongly inhibiting, with a Ki of 2.1 X 10(-9)M.
Project description:Cathepsin H was purified from human liver by a method involving autolysis and acetone fractionation, and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Ultrogel AcA 54, hydroxyapatite and concanavalin A-Sepharose. The procedure allowed for the simultaneous isolation of cathepsin B and cathepsin D. Cathepsin H was shown to consist of a single polypeptide chain of 28 000 mol.wt., and affinity for concanavalin A-Sepharose indicated that it was a glycoprotein. The enzyme existed in multiple isoelectric forms, the two major forms having pI values of 6.0 and 6.4; it hydrolysed azocasein (pH optimum 5.5), benzoylarginine 2-naphthylamide (Ba-Arg-NNap), leucyl 2-naphthylamide (Arg-NNap), (pH optimum 6.8). Arg-NNap and Arg-NMec, unlike Bz-Arg-NNap-, were not hydrolysed by human cathepsin B. Cathepsin H was similar to cathepsin B in being irreversibly inactivated by exposure to alkaline pH. Sensitivity to chemical inhibitors by 1 microM-leupeptin, which gave essentially complete inhibition of the other lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L.
Project description:Cathepsin L was purified from rabbit liver by a method involving whole-tissue homogenization, pH precipitation, ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50, phenyl-Sepharose and Sephadex G-75. Pure enzyme was obtained without the necessity of laborious subcellular fractionation techniques. The Mr of the enzyme was determined to be 29 000 by gel filtration, and affinity for concanavalin A-Sepharose indicated that it was a glycoprotein. A novel technique for detection of enzyme activity in agarose isoelectrofocusing gels showed that the enzyme existed in multiple isoenzymic forms with pI values ranging from 5.0 to 5.9. The enzyme catalysed the hydrolysis of azocasein, collagen and Z-Phe-Arg-NMec (where Z and NMec indicate benzyloxycarbonyl and N-methylcoumarin derivative respectively) optimally at pH 5.2, 3.3 and 6.0 respectively. In addition, cathepsin L was found to degrade benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-NMec and 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Phe-Lys-NMec. However, cathepsin B also cleaved all of these substrates. One major difference between these two enzymes was in their Michaelis constants for Z-Phe-Arg-NMec; cathepsin B had Km 75 microM whereas that of cathepsin L was 0.7 microM. Cathepsin L was inhibited by all of the usual chemical inhibitors of thiol proteinases as well as the more specific inhibitors Z-Phe-Phe-CHN2, Z-Phe-Ala-CHN2, compound E-64 and compound Ep-475. Active-site titration with compound E-64 showed that the purified sample contained 80% active protein, which had kcat. 20s-1 for the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NMec. Antibodies were raised to active cathepsin L, and these did not cross-react with cathepsin B, thus demonstrating that these two enzymes are immunologically distinct.
Project description:Procathepsin D is a rapidly processed precursor form of the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin D. The enzymic properties of procathepsin D have been studied by examining the pepstatin-binding characteristics of both the precursor and the mature enzyme. Procathepsin D bound to immobilized pepstatin at 4 degrees C in pH 3.5 buffer but not in pH 5.3 buffer, whereas mature forms of cathepsin D bound to immobilized pepstatin at both pH values. These characteristics of procathepsin D were exploited to isolate the proenzyme from mature forms and to determine whether activation of the proenzyme is an autocatalytic process. After incubation at 37 degrees C in pH 3.5 buffer, the proenzyme underwent pepstatin-inhibitable proteolysis resulting in a dramatically increased affinity of purified procathepsin D for pepstatin at pH 5.3. The low concentration of enzyme used in these studies suggests that procathepsin D cleavage to single-chain cathepsin D may occur via a unimolecular mechanism.
Project description:S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase has been purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver by means of affinity chromatography on 8-(3-aminopropylamino)adenosine linked to Sepharose. The purified enzyme was free from adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase activities and was homogeneous on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis which gave a subunit mol.wt. of 47 000. The native enzyme showed some microheterogeneity on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under increased-resolution conditions but was homogeneous on isoelectric focusing (pI 5.6). The molecular weight of the native enzyme was about 220 000 as judged by pore-gradient electrophoresis. The native enzyme bound adenosine tightly and showed Km values of 0.6 microM, 0.9 microM and 60 microM for adenosine, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and L-homocysteine respectively. The enzyme was rapidly inactivated when incubated in the presence of adenosine, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine or several adenosine derivatives or analogues. Inactivation took place both at 0 and 37 degrees C. Freezing in the absence of glycerol resulted in the appearance of dissociation products of the oligomeric protein. Multimer formation was observed at low thiol concentrations.
Project description:Cysteine-proteinase activity was observed in homogenates of human-cadaver renal cortex. This activity co-purified with renin enzymic activity until separation by aminohexyl-Sepharose--pepstatin affinity chromatography. The cysteine proteinase was purified 1780-fold after the following successive chromatographic procedures: Sephadex G-75, DEAE-cellulose DE-52, and an organomercurial affinity resin. The proteinase activity was dependent upon activation by thiol-containing compounds such as dithiothreitol, as well as by EDTA, and was inhibited by the thiol-group-specific alkylating reagents iodoacetic acid and N-ethylmaleimide. DE-52 cellulose chromatography resolved the cysteine proteinase into two components. On the basis of molecular size (26 000 daltons), activity as a function of pH, stability as a function of pH, substrate specificity and thermal lability, the major component (95%) has been identified as cathepsin B. The DE-52 cellulose elution pattern of the minor component (5%) is suggestive of cathepsin H [Schwartz & Barrett (1980) Biochem. J. 191, 487-497] Enzymic activity was determined with synthetic substrates, in particular alpha-N-benzoyl-DL-arginine 2-naphthylamide (Bz-Arg-NNap), thus precluding the detection of cathepsin L [Kirschke, Langner, Wiederanders, Ansorge, Bohley & Broghammer (1976) Acta Biol. Med. Germ. 35, 285-299]. Inhibition by dimethyl sulphoxide was observed in the determination of Km = 7.0 +/- 0.4 mM for the substrate Bz-Arg-NNap, and care must therefore be taken in the preparation of substrate solutions.
Project description:Human cathepsin B was purified by affinity chromatography on the semicarbazone of Gly-Phe-glycinal linked to Sepharose 4B, with elution by 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide at pH 4.0. The product obtained in high yield by the single step from crude starting material was 80-100% active cathepsin B. The possibility that this new form of affinity chromatography may be of general usefulness in the purification of cysteine proteinases is discussed.
Project description:1. The procedure of Barrett [(1973) Biochem. J.131, 809-822] for isolating cathepsins B and D from human liver was modified for use with rat liver and skeletal muscle. The purified enzymes appeared to be similar to those reported in other species. 2. Sephadex G-75 chromatography of concentrated muscle extract resolved two peaks of cathepsin B inhibitory activity, corresponding to molecular weights of 12500 and 62000. 3. The degradation of purified myofibrillar proteins by cathepsins B and D was clearly demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. After incubation with enzyme, the polypeptide bands representing the substrates decreased in intensity and lower molecular weight products appeared. 4. Cathepsins B and D, purified from either rat liver or skeletal muscle, were shown to degrade myosin, purified from either rabbit or rat muscle. Soluble denatured myosin was degraded more extensively than insoluble native myosin. Degradation by cathepsin B was inhibited by lack of reducing agent, or by myoglobin, iodoacetic acid and leupeptin, but not by pepstatin. The same potential modifiers were applied to cathepsin D, and only pepstatin produced inhibition. 5. Rat liver cathepsin B had a pH optimum of 5.2 on native rabbit myosin. The pH optimum of cathepsin D was 4.0, with a shoulder of activity about 1pH unit above the optimum. 6. Rat liver cathepsins B and D were demonstrated to degrade rabbit F-actin at pH5.0, and were inhibited by leupeptin and pepstain, respectively. 7. The degradation of myosin and actin by cathepsin D was more extensive than that by cathepsin B.
Project description:Procollagen type III N-proteinase, of Mr about 70,000, was detected in human placental tissue and purified from this source more than 5800-fold. It was found to be a glycoprotein, which was bound to both concanavalin A-Ultrogel and heparin-Sepharose affinity columns. Binding to a type III pN-collagen-Sepharose affinity column was used as the final step in purification. The purified enzyme accepted only native type III procollagen or [14C]carboxymethylated type III pN-collagen as its substrate; type I, type II and type IV procollagen and heat-denatured type III pN-collagen were not cleaved by the enzyme. Antibodies against this purified enzyme protein raised in rabbits demonstrated a high inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity. Immunoblotting of the denatured protein and immunoelectrophoresis of the native enzyme showed only one major antigenic component, again with an Mr of about 70,000. The antibodies cross-reacted with the enzyme preparation from foetal-calf aorta smooth-muscle cells.
Project description:The alpha 1-macroglobulin-proteinase complex endocytosed into rat liver lysosomes was purified by a series of column chromatographic steps on concanavalin A-Sepharose, Sephacryl S-300, DEAE-cellulose and TSK gel DEAE-5PW columns. The complex contained no detectable alpha 2-macroglobulin. Studies on the substrate specificity indicated that the complex had tryptase-like activities towards various synthetic substrates, but no elastase, chymotrypsin, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-L activities. The proteinase activity was completely inhibited by di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, leupeptin and antipain, indicating that the proteinase bound to alpha 1-macroglobulin is a serine proteinase. Two protein bands (62 and 59 kDa) of the complex were labelled with [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate and both bands cross-reacted with anti-(mast-cell tryptase)antibody. These results suggest that mast-cell tryptase is a major targeting proteinase for alpha 1-macroglobulin in vivo. The main alpha-macroglobulin-proteinase complex in the adjuvant-treated rats was also the alpha 1-macroglobulin-tryptase complex, even though the plasma level of alpha 2-macroglobulin was elevated.