Transport of Ca2+ and Na+ across the chromaffin-granule membrane.
ABSTRACT: Bovine chromaffin-granule ghosts accumulate 45Ca2+ in a temperature- and osmotic-shock-sensitive process; the uptake is saturable, with Km 38 microM and Vmax. 28 nmol/min per mg at 37 degrees C. Entry occurs by exchange with Ca2+ bound to the inner surface of the membrane. It is inhibited non-competitively by Na+, La3+ and Ruthenium Red (Ki 10.7 mM, 7 microM and 2 microM respectively), and competitively by Mg2+ (ki 0.9 mM). Uptake was not stimulated by ATP. Na+ induces Ca2+ efflux; Ca2+ can re-enter the ghosts by a process of Ca2+/Na+ exchange. La3+ inhibits Ca2+ efflux during Ca2+-exchange, and Ca2+ efflux induced by Na+, suggesting that Ca2+ uptake and efflux, and Ca2+/Na+ exchange, are catalysed by the same protein. Na+ enters ghosts during CA2+ efflux, but the kinetics of its entry are not exactly similar to the kinetics of Ca2+ efflux. Initially 1-2 Na+ enter per Ca2+ lost, but at equilibrium 3-4 Na+ have replaced each Ca2+. There is no evidence that either Ca2+ uptake or efflux by Ca2+/Na+ exchange is electrogenic, suggesting that the stoichiometry of exchange is Ca2+/2Na+. This exchange reaction may have a role in depleting cytoplasmic Ca2+ after depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry through the adrenal medulla plasma membrane; there is some evidence that there may be an additional entry mechanism for Na+ across the granule membrane.
Project description:Compound YS 035 [NN-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-N-methylamine] is a new synthetic compound capable of inhibiting Ca2+ uptake by different cells. The inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by muscle cells isolated from chicken embryo is dose-dependent in the compound YS 035 concentration range 10-30 microM. The new compound also inhibits Ca2+ entry into rat brain synaptosomes and less effectively into baby-hamster kidney cells. Compound YS 035 partially inhibits the slow Ca2+ release induced by Ruthenium Red and the rapid Na+-dependent efflux from heart mitochondria. The inhibition of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange appears to be of a non-competitive type with an apparent Ki of 28 microM. The new Ca2+ antagonist totally inhibits the Ca2+ efflux from liver mitochondria induced by Ruthenium Red, but it does not affect the release induced by uncoupler, respiratory inhibitor or chelator, nor the mitochondrial ATP synthesis and membrane potential. The properties shown by the new compound indicate it to be a Ca2+ antagonist and a useful tool for studies on the mitochondrial Ca2+ transport.
Project description:Inside-out plasma-membrane vesicles isolated from rat liver [Prpic, Green, Blackmore & Exton (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 1382-1385] accumulated a substantial amount of 45Ca2+ when they were incubated in a medium whose ionic composition and pH mimicked those of cytosol and which contained MgATP. The Vmax of the initial 45Ca2+ uptake rate was 2.9 +/- 0.6 nmol/min per mg and the Km for Ca2+ was 0.50 +/- 0.08 microM. The ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake by inside-out plasma-membrane vesicles was about 20 times more sensitive to saponin than was the ATP-dependent uptake by a microsomal preparation. The 45Ca2+ efflux from the inside-out vesicles, which is equivalent to the Ca2+ influx in intact cells, was increased when the free Ca2+ concentration in the medium was decreased. The Ca2+ antagonists La3+ and Co2+ inhibited the 45Ca2+ efflux from the vesicles. Neomycin stimulated the Ca2+ efflux in the presence of either a high or a low free Ca2+ concentration. These results confirm that polyvalent cations regulate Ca2+ fluxes through the plasma membrane.
Project description:The existence of Na+ -dependent Ca2+ transport was investigated in microsomal fractions from the longitudinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig ileum and from the rat aorta, and its activity was compared with that of the plasmalemmal ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump previously identified in these preparations. The rate of Ca2+ release from plasmalemmal vesicles previously loaded with Ca2+ through the ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump was transiently faster in the presence of 150 mM-NaCl in the medium than in the presence of 150 mM-KCl or -LiCl or 300 mM-sucrose. Na+-loaded vesicles took up Ca2+ when an outwardly directed Na+ gradient was formed across the membrane. The Ca ionophore A23187 induced a rapid release of 85% of the sequestered Ca2+, whereas only 15% was displaced by La3+. Ca2+ accumulated by the Na+-induced Ca2+ transport was released by the addition of NaCl, but not KCl, to the medium. Ca2+ uptake in Na+-loaded vesicles was inhibited in the presence of increasing NaCl concentration in the medium. Half-maximum inhibition was observed with 28 mM-NaCl. Data fitted the Hill equation, with a Hill coefficient (h) of 1.9. Na+-induced Ca2+ uptake was a saturable function of Ca2+ concentration in the medium. Half-maximum activity was obtained with 18 microM-Ca2+ in intestinal-smooth-muscle microsomal fraction and with 50 microM-Ca2+ in aortic microsomal fraction. The results suggest that in these membrane preparations a transmembrane movement of Ca2+ can be driven by a Na+ gradient. However, the Na+-induced Ca2+ transport had a lower capacity, a lower affinity and a slower rate than the ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump.
Project description:Electrically active atypical smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) within the renal pelvis have long been considered to act as pacemaker cells driving pelviureteric peristalsis. We have investigated the role of Ca2+ entry and uptake into and release from internal stores in the generation of Ca2+ transients and spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs) in ASMCs.The electrical activity and separately visualized changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in typical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs), ASMCs and interstitial cells of Cajal-like cells (ICC-LCs) were recorded using intracellular microelectrodes and a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fluo-4.In 1 microM nifedipine, high frequency (10-30 min(-1)) Ca2+ transients and STDs were recorded in ASMCs, while ICC-LCs displayed low frequency (1-3 min(-1)) Ca2+ transients. All spontaneous electrical activity and Ca2+ transients were blocked upon removal of Ca2+ from the bathing solution, blockade of Ca2+ store uptake with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and with 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB). STD amplitudes were reduced upon removal of the extracellular Na+ or blockade of IP3 dependent Ca2+ store release with neomycin or U73122. Blockade of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release blocked ICC-LC Ca2+ transients but only reduced Ca2+ transient discharge in ASMCs. STDs in ASMCS were also little affected by DIDS, La3+, Gd3+ or by the replacement of extracellular Cl(-) with isethionate.ASMCs generated Ca2+ transients and cation-selective STDs via mechanisms involving Ca2+ release from IP3-dependent Ca2+ stores, STD stimulation of TSMCs was supported by Ca2+ entry through L type Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive stores.
Project description:The Na+-induced efflux of Ca2+ catalysed by the Na+/Ca2+ carrier of cardiac mitochondria is strongly inhibited by extramitochondrial Ca2+. The nature of this inhibition was investigated as follows. (a) The apparent association of external Na+ and the Ca2+ analogue Sr2+ with substrate-binding sites (i.e. those sites involved in cation translocation) is promoted markedly by K+. The inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ exchange by external Ca2+ is affected little by K+. (b) There is a competitive relationship between the binding of external Na+ and external Ca2+ to substrate-binding sites, whereas at low concentrations (less than 4 microM) extramitochondrial Ca2+ is a partial non-competitive inhibitor with respect to external Na+. (c) This inhibiton by external Ca2+ is characterized by a maximal decrease of about 70% in the Vmax of Na+/Ca2+ exchange and by cooperative binding of external Ca2+ to sites that are half saturated by 0.7-0.8 microM free Ca2+. The binding of Ca2+ and Sr2+ to substrate-binding sites shows no co-operativity. These criteria suggest that the Na+/Ca2+ carrier may contain regulatory sites that render the carrier sensitive to changes in extramitochondrial [Ca2+] within the physiological range.
Project description:1. Two processes of Ruthenium Red-insensitive Ca2+ efflux exist in liver and in heart mitochondria: one Na+-independent, and another Na+-dependent. The processes attain maximal rates of 1.4 and 3.0 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 for the Na+-dependent and 1.2 and 2.0 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 for the Na+-independent, in liver and heart mitochondria, respectively. 2. The Na+-dependent pathway is inhibited, both in heart and in liver mitochondria, by the Ca2+ antagonist diltiazem with a Ki of 4 microM. The Na+-independent pathway is inhibited by diltiazem with a Ki of 250 microM in liver mitochondria, while it behaves as almost insensitive to diltiazem in heart mitochondria. 3. Stretching of the mitochondrial inner membrane in hypo-osmotic media results in activation of the Na+-independent pathway both in liver and in heart mitochondria. 4. Both in heart and liver mitochondria the Na+-independent pathway is insensitive to variations of medium pH around physiological values, while the Na+-dependent pathway is markedly stimulated parallel with acidification of the medium. The pH-activated, Na+-dependent pathway maintains the diltiazem sensitivity. 5. In heart mitochondria, the Na+-dependent pathway is non-competitively inhibited by Mg2+ with a Ki of 0.27 mM, while the Na+-independent pathway is less affected; similarly, in liver mitochondria Mg2+ inhibits the Na+-dependent pathway more than it does the Na+-independent pathway. In the presence of physiological concentrations of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, the Na+-independent and the Na+-dependent pathways operate at rates, respectively, of 0.5 and 1.0 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 in heart mitochondria and 0.9 and 0.2 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 in liver mitochondria. It is concluded that both heart and liver mitochondria possess two independent pathways for Ca2+ efflux operating at comparable rates.
Project description:Ca2+ transport was studied by using basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from rat parotid gland prepared by a Percoll gradient centrifugation method. In these membrane vesicles, there were two Ca2+ transport systems; Na+/Ca2+ exchange and ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport. An outwardly directed Na+ gradient increased Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+ efflux from Ca2+-preloaded vesicles was stimulated by an inwardly directed Na+ gradient. However, Na+/Ca2+ exchange did not show any 'uphill' transport of Ca2+ against its own gradient. ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport exhibited 'uphill' transport. An inwardly directed Na+ gradient also decreased Ca2+ accumulation by ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. The inhibition of Ca2+ accumulation was proportional to the external Na+ level. Na+/Ca2+ exchange was inhibited by monensin, tetracaine and chlorpromazine, whereas ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport was inhibited by orthovanadate, tetracaine and chlorpromazine. Oligomycin had no effect on either system. These results suggest that in the parotid gland cellular free Ca2+ is extruded mainly by an ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport system, and Na+/Ca2+ exchange may modify the efficacy of that system.
Project description:Vasopressin caused a 40% inhibition of 45Ca uptake after the addition of 0.1 mM-45Ca2+ to Ca2+-deprived hepatocytes. At 1.3 mM-45Ca2+, vasopressin and ionophore A23187 each caused a 10% inhibition of 45Ca2+ uptake, whereas La3+ increased the rate of 45Ca2+ uptake by Ca2+-deprived cells. Under steady-state conditions at 1.3 mM extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o), vasopressin and La3+ each increased the rate of 45Ca2+ exchange. The concentrations of vasopressin that gave half-maximal stimulation of 45Ca2+ exchange and glycogen phosphorylase activity were similar. At 0.1 mM-Ca2+o, La3+ increased, but vasopressin did not alter, the rate of 45Ca2+ exchange. The results of experiments performed with EGTA or A23187 or by subcellular fractionation indicate that the Ca2+ taken up by hepatocytes in the presence of La3+ is located within the cell. The addition of 1.3 mM-Ca2+o to Ca2+-deprived cells caused increases of approx. 50% in the concentration of free Ca2+ in the cytoplasm [( Ca2+]i) and in glycogen phosphorylase activity. Much larger increases in these parameters were observed in the presence of vasopressin or ionophore A23187. In contrast with vasopressin, La3+ did not cause a detectable increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity or in [Ca2+]i. It is concluded that an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ inflow does not by itself increase [Ca2+]i, and hence that the ability of vasopressin to maintain increased [Ca2+]i over a period of time is dependent on inhibition of the intracellular removal of Ca2+.
Project description:1. Protoveratrine A increased the release of gamma-amino[3H]butyrate from small slices of rat cerebral cortex. This effect increased with increasing protoveratrine concentration, reaching a maximum at 100 microM. 2. Removal of Ca2+ from the superfusing medium did not change the increase in release due to 10 microM-protoveratrine; however, the Ca2+ antagonists, compound D-600, La3+, Mn2+, Mg2+ and also high Ca2+ concentration inhibited the effect of the alkaloid, as did procaine. 3. Protoveratrine A increased the uptake of 22Na+ into the slices with a similar dose-response curve to that found for gamma-aminobutyrate release. For the most part, the substances that inhibited protoveratrine-stimulated gamma-aminobutyrate release also inhibited 22Na+ uptake, although the correlation was not perfect. 4. Although extracellular Ca2+ is not required for protoveratrine-induced gamma-aminobutyrate release, an increase in Na+ influx that is susceptible to inhibition by some Ca2+ antagonists does appear to be associated with this phenomenon. However, the possibility remains that changes in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration may be important for transmitter release induced by depolarizing veratrum alkaloids.
Project description:LaCl3 stimulated the initial rate of 45Ca2+ exchange measured under steady-state conditions in isolated liver cells. Cu2+ greater than La3+ = Fe3+ greater than Fe2+ = Zn2+ greater Ni2+ greater than Mn2+ also stimulated 45Ca2+ exchange. Compartmental analysis of 45Ca2+-exchange curves obtained in the presence or absence of La3+, and in the presence or absence of adrenaline, showed that the predominant effect of La3+ is to stimulate the inflow of Ca2+ to the cell from the medium. No evidence for an inhibition of Ca2+ outflow from the cell was obtained. In the presence of La3+, adrenaline caused no further stimulation of Ca2+ inflow to the cell. In the absence of adrenaline, La3+ increased the uptake of Ca2+ (measured by atomic-absorption spectroscopy) by isolated hepatocytes incubated at 1 degree C. The proposal that La3+ stimulates Ca2+ inflow to the liver cell by inducing a conformational change in the Ca2+-inflow transporter of the plasma membrane is briefly discussed.