Independent biosynthesis of soluble and membrane-bound alkaline phosphatases in the suckling rat ileum.
ABSTRACT: Enzymically active intestinal alkaline phosphatase exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms in the suckling rat. Antiserum prepared against purified soluble alkaline phosphatase (anti-AlP) was shown to be monospecific when assessed by Ouchterlony double-diffusion analysis and immunoelectrophoresis. The two forms of alkaline phosphatase were antigenically identical and possessed similar affinities for anti-AlP. To study the biosynthesis of the two forms, 14-day-old rats were injected intraperitoneally with [(3)H]leucine. The labelling kinetics of alkaline phosphatase, extracted from supernatant and brush-border membrane fractions with anti-AlP, was followed over 20h. Incorporation of [(3)H]leucine into membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase was rapid, reaching a plateau at 6h. The soluble enzyme showed slower incorporation of label and maximal radioactivity was not reached until 12h after labelling, a lag of 6h behind the membrane-bound enzyme. Soluble alkaline phosphatase could not have been a precursor of the membrane form, as there was no early peak of radioactivity in the soluble form. To determine if the soluble enzyme was irreversibly derived from the membrane enzyme, a newly developed technique of labelling brush-border membrane proteins in vivo by intraluminal injection of diazotized [(125)I]iodosulphanilic acid was used. The appearance of (125)I in soluble and membrane alkaline phosphatase was then monitored over a 7h period, encompassing the lag between maximal leucine labelling of the two forms. The results failed to show either a proportional transfer of radioactivity from membrane to soluble alkaline phosphatase or an absolute increase in radioactivity of the soluble form during degradation of brush-border alkaline phosphatase. Therefore there does not appear to be a serial precursor/product relationship between the soluble and membrane-bound forms of suckling-rat intestinal alkaline phosphatase.
Project description:We studied (1) the effect of primary modulators of phosphate transport, namely the hypophosphataemic mouse mutant (Hyp) and low-phosphorus diet, on alkaline phosphatase activity in mouse renal-cortex brush-border membrane vesicles and (2) the effect of several primary inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase on phosphate transport. Brush-border membrane vesicles from Hyp-mouse kidney had 50% loss of Na+-dependent phosphate transport, but only 18% decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity. The low-phosphorus diet effectively stimulated Na+/phosphate co-transport in brush-border membrane vesicles (+ 118%), but increased alkaline phosphatase activity only slightly (+13%). Levamisole (0.1 mM) and EDTA (1.0 mM) inhibited brush-border membrane-vesicle alkaline phosphatase activity of 82% and 93% respectively, but had no significant effect on Na+/phosphate co-transport. We conclude that alkaline phosphatase does not play a direct role in phosphate transport across the brush-border membrane of mouse kidney.
Project description:The kinetics of incorporation of [(3)H]lysine and [(14)C]glucosamine into kidney brush borders were studied in vivo. The patterns of incorporation and loss of radioactivity from the brush borders were similar for both radioactively labelled precursors. Maximal labelling occurred 15-20h after injection of the precursors, and then the radioactivity declined rapidly until 50h. The radioactivity of brush borders then remained constant until 120h and thereafter declined slowly. These results are interpreted as indicating that two processes contribute to the turnover of brush-border components, pinocytosis and a slower turnover of the components of the microvilli. Studies of the distribution of radioactivity among glycoprotein components of the brush borders, separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, indicated that the membrane components turned over in unison.
Project description:Rat intestinal surface-membrane glycoproteins were labelled by intraperitoneal injection of [1-(14)C]glucosamine 4h before the animals were killed. At this time, density-gradient centrifugation of disrupted brush borders indicated that glycoprotein radioactivity was distributed identically with sucrase, a plasma-membrane marker. Labelled brush borders were digested by papain for brief time-intervals known to release surface-enzyme particles without disruption of the unit membrane. Digestion for 5min released 90% of the surface sucrase, and almost one-half of the brush-border glycoprotein and label. On Sepharose 4B column chromatography most of the glycoprotein and label emerged as a single peak. This peak contained the most actively labelled glycoprotein in the brush border and was closely associated with maltase, sucrase, beta-naphthylamidase and alkaline phosphatase. The peak was partially resolved on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis into three bands. Each band contained a distinctive enzyme or enzyme pair, and was labelled by [1-(14)C]glucosamine. No periodic acid-Schiff-negative protein was observed in the peak material. Glycoproteins susceptible to brief digestion with papain are therefore closely linked to released surface-enzyme particles. Intestinal surface glycoproteins are heterogeneous with respect to molecular weight, electrophoretic mobility and function.
Project description:Brush borders free of nuclei were isolated by repeated homogenization and centrifugation in iso-osmotic medium. They showed typical morphology under electron microscopy. The mean recovery and enrichment of alkaline phosphatase activity in the brush-border fraction were 50% and 17.5-fold respectively. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase showed a close parallelism with alkaline phosphatase and sucrase in subcellular distribution. Microvillar membranes were purified from isolated brush borders; they showed a further enrichment for alkaline phosphatase and were composed of homogeneous vesicles. Both brush-border and microvillar-membrane preparations were analysed for contamination by basolateral and endoplasmic-reticular membranes. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the microvillar-membrane preparation in six different systems revealed approx. 40 components in the mol.wt. range 15 000-232 000. They were grouped into seven major classes on the basis of molecular weight and electrophoretic patterns.
Project description:Horse kidney brush border membrane proteins were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine vesicles. Structural analysis of proteoliposomes prepared with various lipid:protein ratios showed that: (a) only a few of the proteins present in the crude brush border extract are integrated, (b) all known membrane hydrolases are integrated, and (c) these proteoliposomes are homogeneous vesicles. Papain solubilization of brush border membrane hydrolases, i.e. aminopeptidase M, neutral alpha-glucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, performed in parallel on native membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes, revealed similar kinetics. Analysis of membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes on sucrose density gradients either without any treatment, or after papain treatment showed that: (a) in proteoliposomes, neutral alpha-glucosidase is associated with radiolabelled phosphatidylcholine, and (b) papain-treated vesicles and proteoliposomes released enzyme activity in the same way. These results suggest that the integration mechanism of brush border membrane proteins may be similar in proteoliposomes and native membrane vesicles. Transport experiments under equilibrium exchange conditions showed that the uptake properties of proteoliposomes are similar to those of brush border membrane vesicles.
Project description:1. Homogenates of the mucosa of the small intestine of the guinea pig were separated by fractional sedimentation into seven different fractions. The enzymic properties of some of these subcellular fractions were compared with those obtained from the mucosa of the small intestine of the rabbit and cat. 2. The enzymic properties of the low-speed sediment (15000g-min.) were investigated and it was shown that invertase and alkaline ribonuclease were predominantly located in this subcellular fraction, whereas alkaline phosphatase, aryl-amidase, acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease and phosphoprotein phosphatase, though true constituents of this fraction, occurred to varying degrees in other subcellular structures also. 3. It was shown that the most probable source of the enzymic activities observed in the low-speed sediment was the brush border. Electron micrographs of the purified brush-border fraction indicated vesicles derived from the brush-border membrane. 4. A method is described for the fractionation of mucosal homogenates into a brush border-plus-nuclei fraction, a mitochondrial fraction, a microsomal fraction and a particle-free supernatant. The fractions were shown to be relatively pure, as indicated by the distribution of invertase, DNA, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphatase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. 5. Most of the activity of four lysosomal enzymes present in the nuclei-free homogenate was sedimented at 375000g-min., suggesting the occurrence of lysosomal particles in mucosal homogenates. 6. Further fractionation of the microsomal membranes into three fractions is described. The enzymic composition of the membrane fractions is given and discussed in relation to their structure as seen in electron micrographs.
Project description:Rats were fed either a fat-free diet supplemented with 10% menhaden oil or a control diet for four months. Intestinal brush border membranes were isolated; phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that the membranes from the fish-oil fed animals had higher levels of palmitoleic (C16:1) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acids and lesser levels of stearic (C18:0) linoleic (C18:2) acids compared with controls. The membranes from the fish-oil fed animals had increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity compared with controls but disaccharidase levels were equivalent in the two groups. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis studies revealed that the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity was due to an increase in the specific activity of the enzyme rather than an increase in the amount of enzyme. Membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence anisotropy using diphenylhexatriene and 12-anthroyl stearate as fluorescent probes. The anisotropy of both probes was similar in the two membranes. These studies indicate that fish-oil supplementation alters the fatty acid composition of the intestinal brush border membrane and increases alkaline phosphatase activity without affecting membrane fluidity. Thus the effects of changes in membrane lipid composition on alkaline phosphatase activity appear to result from changes in the local lipid environment of the enzyme rather than from changes in the biophysical characteristics of the membrane.
Project description:A method for the isolation of brush-border membranes from newborn-rat kidney, employing centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis, is described. The composition and purity of the preparation was assessed by determination of enzyme activities specific for various cellular membranes. Free-flow electrophoresis resolves the newborn-rat renal membrane suspension into two populations of alkaline phosphatase-enriched brush-border membranes, designated 'A' and 'B', with the A peak also showing activity of (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase, the basolateral membrane marker enzyme, whereas those of the B peak were enriched 11-fold in alkaline phosphatase and substantially decreased in (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity. Membranes in the A peak showed a 7-fold enrichment of alkaline phosphatase, and (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase activity similar to that of the original homogenate. Proline uptake employed to assess osmotic dependency revealed 7% binding of proline to the B vesicles and 31% to the A vesicles. This contrasts with 60% proline binding to vesicles prepared by centrifugation alone. Unlike vesicles from adult animals, proline uptake by B vesicles did not show an Na+-stimulated overshoot, but did exhibit an Na+-gradient enhanced rate of early proline entry. proline entry.
Project description:Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP's cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 antibody inhibited binding to brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity of Cry11Aa in isolated cultured guts. Two ALP1 Cry11Aa binding regions (R59-G102 and N257-I296) were mapped by characterizing binding of Cry11Aa to nine recombinant overlapping peptides covering the ALP1 sequence. Finally, by using a peptide spot array of Cry11Aa domain III and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the ALP1 R59-G102 region binds Cry11Aa through domain II loop alpha-8 while ALP1 N257-I296 interacts with Cry11Aa through domain III 561RVQSQNSGNN570 located in beta18-beta19. Our results show that Cry11Aa domain II and domain III are involved in the binding with two distinct binding sites in the ALP1 receptor.
Project description:Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.