The androgenic regulation of prostate proteins with a high affinity for deoxyribonucleic acid. Evidence for a prostate deoxyribonucleic acid-unwinding protein.
ABSTRACT: 1. When testosterone is injected into castrated rats in vivo, a significant increase in the incorporation of [35S]methionine into prostate proteins may be detected under conditions in vitro. 2. Studies based on DNA-cellulose chromatography show that the synthesis of prostate proteins with a high affinity for DNA is particularly enhanced by androgenic stimulation. 3. These changes in protein synthesis are negated when the anti-androgen, cyproterone acetate, is administered concomitantly with testosterone in vivo. 4. Two assays were developed for measuring the strand separation of prostate DNA; first, the retention of 3H-labelled native DNA on nitrocellulose membranes, and second, the activation of native DNA as a template for 9S prostate DNA polymerase. On the basis of these criteria, DNA-unwinding activity is present in the prostate gland and it is regulated by androgens in a steroid-and tissue-specific manner. 5. The results are discussed in the context of the mechanism of action of androgens, particularly since the changes provoked in DNA-unwinding activity by androgens precede the onset of DNA replication and mitosis.
Project description:The restoration of mitosis and growth of the prostate gland of castrated animals by androgens provides a favourable experimental system for studying the hormonal regulation of enzymes engaged in DNA replication. 2. Many DNA polymerase activities were identified in the prostate gland, but only a 9S form with a particular preference for denatured DNA as template was conspicuously enhanced by androgenic stimulation. 3. Thymidine kinase also provided a sensitive indicator of the hormonal regulation of DNA replication, and on electrophoretic criteria, one discrete form of the enzyme appeared precisely with the onset of mitoris. 4. Evidence is presented to support the view that DNA ligase activity is intimately associated in the process of DNA replication in the prostate gland. 5. A spectrum of deoxyribonuclease activities is present in the prostate gland, but only one form (pI7.0) can safely be said to be implicated in the process of DNA replication. 6. Androgenic stimulation of the prostate gland leads to the appearance of a component capable of denaturing or unwinding prostate DNA. This component is seemingly distinct from RNA or DNA polymerase activities on the basis of several distince physicochemical characteristics. 7. The conspicuous feature of all the changes in enzyme activities evoked by androgens in the prostate gland is their acute tissue- and steroid-specificity. Such changes could not be mimicked in liver or spleen and the regulatory role of androgens could not be simulated by other classes of steroid hormones. Particularly on the basis of studies with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate, it is concluded that the changes are initially mediated by the androgen-receptor system and the high-affinity binding of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the prostate gland. 8. The results are discussed in the context of the mechanism of action of androgens.
Project description:Hyperplastic and adenocarcinomatous human prostatic tissue was superfused in vitro with radioactively labelled androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one), with and without addition of the anti-androgens cyproterone and cyproterone acetate. Cyproterone competitively inhibited the entry of the androgens into the majority of the tissues, whereas cyproterone acetate increased this entry. These findings indicated that transport of androstenedione, testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone into prostatic tissue is performed by a specific mechanism, possibly involving a carrier situated in the cell membrane. The extent of metabolism of the three androgens was also modified: formation of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone from testosterone, and of the latter from androstenedione, was decreased by cyproterone and increased by the acetate. Acetate was more effective than cyproterone in decreasing the ;uptake' of the perfused androgens by the tissue; at the same time, it increased the androgen clearance from the tissue. As cyproterone acetate is the more potent of the two anti-androgens, the possibility that these findings in vitro are related to the different anti-androgenic potency exhibited by the two compounds in vivo is discussed. ;Uptake' of the two anti-androgens and the response to their action on androgen dynamics were similar in adenocarcinomatous and hyperplastic glands.
Project description:Recent reports have indicated that the prior metabolism of testosterone by the secondary sexual tissues may be necessary for its androgenic effect. The effects of two anti-androgens, diethylstilboestrol and cyproterone acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-6-chloro-1,2alpha-methylenepregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione) used in the chemotherapy of human prostatic carcinoma, have been examined on both the metabolism of testosterone and the retention of its metabolites by the rat ventral prostate gland. Cyproterone acetate was found to inhibit the retention of labelled metabolites of [(3)H]-testosterone by prostatic nuclei, both in vivo and in vitro. This inhibition appeared to be competitive. In contrast with its effect on nuclear retention of metabolites of testosterone, cyproterone acetate had no significant effect on the metabolism of [(3)H]testosterone by rat ventral prostate tissue. Diethylstilboestrol similarly had little effect on the metabolism of [(3)H]testosterone by prostatic tissue, although it did appear partially to inhibit its initial metabolism in all the incubation systems used. Diethylstilboestrol inhibited the nuclear retention of dihydrotestosterone when both [(3)H]testosterone and diethylstilboestrol were injected intraperitoneally in vivo, but had no effect on dihydrotestosterone retention when both testosterone and diethylstilboestrol were supplied directly to the prostate either in vivo or in vitro. It was concluded that if diethylstilboestrol has an anti-androgenic effect at the level of the target organ as distinct from its effect on androgen production by the testes, then it is probably due to a mechanism differing from that of cyproterone acetate.
Project description:The inflammatory tissue microenvironment can be an active promoter in preneoplastic cancer lesions. Altered steroid hormone metabolism as induced by the inflammatory microenvironment may contribute to epithelial cancer progression. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant endogenous steroid hormone present in human serum and can be metabolized to DHEA, androgens and/or estrogens in peripheral tissues. We have previously reported that TGF?1-induced reactive prostate stromal cells increase DHEA metabolism to active androgens and alter prostate cancer cell gene expression. While much of the focus on mechanisms of prostate cancer and steroid metabolism is in the epithelial cancer cells, this study focuses on TGF?1-induced effects on DHEA metabolic pathways and enzymes in human prostate stromal cells. In DHEA-treated primary prostate stromal cells, TGF?1 produced time- and dose-dependent increases in metabolism of DHEA to androstenedione and testosterone. Also TGF?1-treated prostate stromal cells exhibited changes in the gene expression of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism including up-regulation of 3? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), and down-regulation of 17?HSD5, and 17?HSD2. These studies suggest that reactive prostate stroma and the inflammatory microenvironment may contribute to altered steroid metabolism and increased intratumoral androgens.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PC) is both an age- and an androgen-dependent disease. Paradoxically, systemic levels of androgens decline with age as the risk of PC rises. While there is no correlation between systemic androgen levels and the risk of PC, systemic androgen levels do not reflect the levels of androgens in prostate tissue. In metastatic PC, changes in the androgen biosynthesis pathway during hormone therapy result in increased levels of androgens in cancer tissue and contribute to continued androgen receptor (AR) signaling. It is possible that similar changes occur in normal prostate tissue as androgen levels decline with age and that this contributes to tumorigenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the rat prostate is able to maintain functional levels of androgens despite low serum testosterone levels. Rats were castrated and implanted with capsules to achieve castrate, normal, sub-physiological, and supra-physiological levels of testosterone. After 6 weeks of treatment, LC-MS/MS was used to quantify the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and prostate tissue. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to quantify the expression of genes involved in the androgen/AR signaling axis. Despite significantly different levels of testosterone and DHT being present in the serum, testosterone and DHT concentrations in prostate tissue from different testosterone-treatment groups were very similar. Furthermore, the expression of androgen-regulated genes in the prostate was similar among all the testosterone-treatment groups, demonstrating that the rat prostate can maintain a functional level of androgens despite low serum testosterone levels. Low-testosterone treatment resulted in significant alterations in the expression of androgen biosynthesis genes, which may be related to maintaining functional androgen levels.
Project description:Androgens are thought to cause prostate cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Data from animal studies suggest that for androgens to cause prostate cancer, they must be aromatized to estrogen and act in concert with estrogen metabolites. We tested the hypothesis that androgen-receptor and estrogen receptor-mediated effects of androgen and estrogen are necessary, as well as genotoxicity of estrogen metabolites. NBL rats were treated with androgenic and estrogenic compounds for 16-75 weeks through slow-release silastic implants or pellets. Testosterone alone induced cancer in the prostate of 37% of rats. 5?-Dihydrotestosterone, which cannot be converted to estradiol or testosterone, did not cause a significant prostate cancer incidence (4%). Addition of estradiol to 5?-dihydrotestosterone treatment did not markedly enhance prostate cancer incidence (14%), unlike adding estradiol to testosterone treatment which induced a 100% tumor incidence. Testosterone plus estradiol treatment induced a DNA adduct detectable by 32P-postlabeling, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxyguanosine), and lipid peroxidation at the site within the prostate where this treatment causes cancers, preceding later cancer formation. The non-estrogenic 4-hydroxy metabolite of estradiol, when combined with testosterone, induced prostatic dysplasia within 16 weeks and, after long-term treatment, a very low incidence of prostate cancer (21%). When an estrogen that cannot be hydroxylated (2-fluoroestradiol) was added to this combined treatment with testosterone and 4-hydroxyestradiol, dysplasia frequency after 16 weeks was doubled. These results strongly support the hypothesis, but additional definitive studies are needed which may identify new targets to interfere with these mechanisms that are clinically feasible in humans.
Project description:The presence of three major proteins alpha, beta and gamma in rat ventral prostate was demonstrated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Their regulation by androgens was studied by measuring the rates of synthesis of the proteins in minced prostatic tissue by using L-[35S]methionine. The three proteins account for 30-40% of the proteins synthesized in the gland. After castration, their rates of synthesis rapidly decline to about 1% that of normal animals, and this cannot be accounted for by the accompanying decrease in general protein synthesis. Testosterone reverses these changes in castrated animals, so that after 4 days normal synthesis is restored. The regulation is specific for androgens, since cyproterone acetate, an anti-androgen, is inhibitory and oestradiol-17beta and corticosterone are without effect. Preliminary characterization of the proteins indicates that protein alpha (mol.wt. 22000, pI unknown) is a glycoprotein containing glucose and/or mannose residues and occurs in both the mitochondrial and cytosol fractions. Protein beta (mol.wt. 12000, pI5.4) is also a glycoprotein, but is found exclusively in the cytosol fraction. Protein gamma (mol.wt. 8000, pI5.4) is also a glycoprotein, but is found exclusively in the cytosol fraction. Protein gamma (mol.wt. 8000, pI5.4) is also found exclusively in the cytosol fraction.
Project description:The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-?-difluromethylornithine (DFMO) to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effect in mediating prostatic bud induction, and are required for the expression of a subset of prostatic developmental regulatory genes including Notch1 and Nkx3.1.
Project description:1. Aldolase was selected as a suitable marker for following the androgenic regulation of mRNA synthesis in the prostate gland. 2. Antibodies raised in rabbits against crystalline prostate aldolase were used to monitor the synthesis of this androgen-induced enzyme after hormonal stimulation of castrated animals, by using procedures in vivo and in vitro for the translation of prostate poly(A)-rich mRNA. 3. After androgenic stimulation in vivo the poly(A)-rich mRNA was isolated from the prostate gland and other tissues of castrated rats, and added to a protein-synthesizing system in vitro derived from Krebs II ascites-tumour cells. By using this approach it was found that androgens regulate the synthesis of aldolase mRNA in a highly tissue-specific manner. Stimulation of aldolase mRNA synthesis reached a maximum after 8h of androgenic treatment and then declined. 4. The androgenic control of aldolase mRNA synthesis was also investigated in vivo. After treatment of castrated animals with various steroids in vivo [(35)S]methionine was injected directly into the prostate gland, and labelled aldolase was selectively precipitated from isolated polyribosomes with anti-aldolase serum. The regulation of aldolase mRNA synthesis in the prostate gland was stringently steroid-specific and could only be evoked by androgens. After a single injection of testosterone, aldolase synthesis reached a maximum after 16h of hormonal stimulation and then declined. 5. Although androgens exert significant control over transcriptional processes in the prostate gland, and appear to regulate the synthesis of aldolase mRNA de novo, the possibility exists for additional means of control at the translational level of aldolase synthesis. The results are discussed in the context of the overall mechanism of action of androgens.
Project description:The kinetics of polyribonucleotide-chain elongation by rat ventral-prostate RNA polymerase B with homologous chromatin as a template were investigated. Chain elongation was measured under conditions wherein all initiation had occurred, no reinitiation took place and the reaction rate was constant. The kinetic behaviour of prostate RNA polymerase B was consistent with a mathematical model formulated for the multisubstrate enzyme. The addition of each nucleoside triphosphate was independent of the other three. The overall rate of chain elongation was lower when prostate chromatin from castrated rats was used than with prostate chromatin from normal rats. The inclusion of dihydrotestosterone-receptor complexes stimulated the rate of elongation. Androgenic effects did not appear to be directed towards the addition of individual nucleoside triphosphates, but probably towards one of the other major events in RNA-chain elongation, i.e., unwinding of DNA or movement of the enzyme along the template.