Studies on the cholesterol ester hydrolase of Trogoderma (Coleoptera).
ABSTRACT: The enzyme cholesterol ester hydrolase (EC 22.214.171.124) was detected in the larvae of the khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts). The pH and temperature optima for the enzyme were 6.6 degrees and 37 degrees C respectively. The mol.wt. of the enzyme was 76000-80000. The enzyme was equally effective in hydrolysing cholesteryl acetate, stearate and oleate. Cholesterol derivatives, namely the chloride and the methyl ether, inhibited the enzyme activity almost completely. It was also inhibited completely by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. This inhibition was reversed by the addition of dithiothreitol, reduced glutathione or cysteine. The enzyme activity was associated predominantly with the 104000 g fraction.
Project description:The inhibition of lactose synthetase A protein by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate at pH7.5 and 25 degrees C, which involves the reaction of one molecule of inhibitor with each molecule of enzyme, was decreased in rate by UDP-galactose, especially in the presence of Mn(2+). Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the reaction between 0.1mm-p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and free enzyme, the enzyme-UDP-galactose complex and the enzyme-Mn(2+)-UDP-galactose complex were 4.4x10(-2), 1.9x10(-2) and 0.3x10(-2)min(-1) respectively. The results also indicated that dissociation constants for UDP-galactose in the enzyme-UDP-galactose and enzyme-Mn(2+)-UDP-galactose complexes were 313 and 16mum respectively, the latter value being similar to the K(m) for UDP-galactose in the lactose synthetase reaction. The protective effect of UDP-galactose and the role of Mn(2+) ions in lactose synthetase are discussed.
Project description:Cholesterol esterase (EC 126.96.36.199) was identified in a bacterium, Burkholderia stabilis strain FERMP-21014. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. stabilis FERMP-21014, which has been used in the commercial production of cholesterol esterase. The genome sequence information may be useful for improving production levels of cholesterol esterase.
Project description:1. Argininosuccinate lyase (EC 188.8.131.52) from jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC] seeds was purified 532-fold from an acetone-butanol-dried powder. 2. The enzyme functions reversibly and exhibits maximum stability at 16 degrees . 3. At 16 degrees it has a half-life (t((1/2))) of 263min. 4. The enzyme is both cold-labile (t((1/2)) 131min. at 0 degrees ) and heat-inactivated (t((1/2)) 74min. at 38 degrees ); inactivation appears to be irreversible. 5. Treatment of the acetone-butanol-extracted powder with sodium dodecyl sulphate increased the sensitivity of the enzyme to temperature (t((1/2)) 70min. at 0 degrees ; t((1/2)) 23min. at 38 degrees ). 6. Addition, to the purified enzyme, of a fraction containing lipid from the seed increased the half-life to about 510min. at either 0 degrees or 38 degrees . 7. Arginine or homoarginine, and to a smaller extent some other amino acids or fumarate, protected the enzyme from cold-inactivation. 8. Reactivation attempts with both the cold- and heat-inactivated enzyme failed. 9. The K(m) value for argininosuccinate at pH7.5 is 1.3x10(-4). 10. The enzyme was inactivated completely within 15min. at 16 degrees by 0.5mm-p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and subsequent exposure to 5mm-cysteine had no restorative effect.
Project description:The invasive dermestid khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is an important pest of stored products that is subject to strict phytosanitary measures. In this study, we conducted a demographic analysis of this species at 30, 35 and 40°C, combining deterministic and stochastic approaches. The net reproductive rate, the intrinsic rate of increase, the finite rate of increase and the doubling time did not differ significantly between 30 and 35°C, while at 40°C we detected negative values of the intrinsic rate of increase and the doubling time. The Briere model fit the data well with respect to the intrinsic rate of increase. Females of roughly 63, 42 and 21 days old reached their maximum reproductive potential at 30, 35 and 40°C, respectively. The stochastic models of this study allowed for checking model fit and the characterization of the most suitable distribution for each component of the process. We expect these results to have bearing on the management of T. granarium since they could be combined with models related to international trade and climatic change, alerting specialists towards early detection strategies against this species.
Project description:The properties and subcellular distribution of the enzymes involved with the synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters were investigated in skin of normal and essential fatty acid-deficient rats. Most of the activity of the cholesterol-esterifying enzyme(s) is associated with the 12000g and 105000g particulate fractions. The dependence of the enzyme reaction on ATP and CoA suggests that the esterification of cholesterol by rat skin is mediated by a fatty acyl-CoA-cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.-). On the other hand, most of the activity of the cholesteryl ester hydrolase (EC 184.108.40.206) is localized in the 105000g supernatant fraction. Although the activity of the cholesterol-esterifying enzyme(s) was elevated in skin preparations from essential fatty acid-deficient rats, the activity of the hydrolase was significantly decreased. These observations may explain in part the elevated concentrations of sterol esters in the skin of these animals. Prostaglandin E(2) at low concentrations exerted marked inhibitory effect on the activity of the cholesterol-esterifying enzyme(s), whereas no effect was observed on the activity of the hydrolase at similar concentrations. However, at high concentrations prostaglandin E(2) exerted moderate stimulatory effect on the activity of the hydrolase. These results suggest a possible physiological role of this substance in regulating the production of sterol esters in this tissue.
Project description:1. The purification and crystallization of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from extracts of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides is described. 2. The molecular weight was calculated to be 85000 by sedimentation equilibrium. 3. Although the enzyme is stable at 0-4 degrees , dilute solutions are rapidly inactivated at 37 degrees ; NADH(2) or Ca(2+) ions prevent this inactivation. 4. The enzyme is extremely sensitive to mercurials, but can be protected by NADH(2) or Ca(2+) ions. 5. From studies on p-hydroxymercuribenzoate binding it is estimated that the enzyme contains 5-6 moles of rapidly reacting thiol groups/mole. 6. d-Lactate and dl-2-hydroxybutyrate are competitive inhibitors of d-3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. 7. The properties of the crystalline enzyme are compared with those of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase preparations from other sources.
Project description:1. The inhibitory effects of iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and sarkomycin were studied in a partially purified preparation of deoxyribonucleic acid nucleotidyltransferase from Landschutz ascites-tumour cells. All of these agents inhibited the activity of the enzyme, and it was shown that the inhibition exerted by the last three compounds obeyed non-competitive kinetics. 2. Inclusion of glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol in the enzyme assays did not prevent the inhibition by iodoacetate or iodoacetamide, but did prevent inhibition by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Inhibition by sarkomycin could be partially prevented by glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol. 3. The enzyme fraction also catalysed incorporation in the presence of only one triphosphate (thymidine 5'-triphosphate), and the limited incorporation observed in these circumstances was more resistant to the inhibitory action of iodoacetamide and p-hydroxy-mercuribenzoate than was the standard nucleotidyltransferase reaction (four triphosphates present). Levels of inhibition imposed on the standard reaction were achieved in the limited incorporation reaction with 2.5-fold higher concentrations of the two inhibitors. 4. The addition of certain bivalent cations to the standard system resulted in severe inhibition of the reaction: Zn(2+) ions (10mum) gave 50% inhibition; ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (0.4mm) in the reaction mixture gave essentially complete protection against this inhibitory effect of Zn(2+) ions. 5. Deoxyribonucleic acid-nucleotidyltransferase fractions prepared in the presence of a thiol and ethylenediaminetetra-acetate could be stored without loss of activity for 2 months at 0 degrees or for 1 year at -70 degrees .
Project description:Local potential competitor species are important determinants of the invasibility of an environment even when widely recognized invasive species are concerned since it may compromise its establishment. Thus, the outcome of the direct competition among the invasive khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, and the cosmopolitan species lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and thus the likelihood of establishment of T. granarium under their co-occurrence, was here explored in paddy rice and wheat, at temperatures between 25 and 35°C and through 200 days of storage. Insect infestations were higher in wheat rather than in paddy rice. Trogoderma granarium was unable to displace any of the competing species under two and three-species competition experiments retaining lower adult population than both local competitors at the lowest temperature level. Rhyzopertha dominica prevailed in paddy rice, while S. oryzae prevailed in wheat. Paradoxically, T. granarium adults retained low population growth but contributed more for the total frass production and grain loss, much more than that recorded for R. dominica. Nonetheless, T. granarium larvae exhibited high population numbers 130 days after the introduction of the parental individuals. At higher temperature levels (30 and 35°C) the numbers of T. granarium larvae were extremely high even after 65 days, while the numbers of the other two species rapidly declined. Interestingly, the simultaneous presence of R. dominica and S. oryzae was beneficial for the population growth of T. granarium. Consequently, T. granarium has the ability to outperform other primary stored-product insects at high temperatures, while its presence at low temperatures remains for long periods apparently unaffected by other co-occurring species. Hence, T. granarium, in wheat, is able to outcompete other major species of stored-product insects at elevated temperatures, while at 25°C this species can maintain low numbers of individuals for long periods, which can rapidly produce population outbursts when the prevailing conditions are suitable for its development.
Project description:Human liver 1-aspartamido-beta-N-acetylglucosamine amidohydrolase (aspartylglucosylaminase, EC 220.127.116.11) was purified 17 500-fold to apparent homogeneity as judged from polyacrylamide-gel disc electrophoresis. A pH optimum of 7.7-9.0 was found. The Km value was pH- and temperature-dependent. At 37 degrees C and pH 7.7, Km was 0.16 mM and it increased to 0.29 at pH 6.0 and 0.23 at pH 9.0. At 25 degrees C and pH 7.7, a Km value of 0.99 mM was obtained. When the substrate concentration was varied, apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetics were obtained. p-Hydroxymercuribenzoate, glutathione or cysteine had no effect on the enzyme activity; 5 mM-N-acetylcysteine inhibited about 47% of the total enzyme activity. Apart from Cu2+, other bivalent ions were virtually ineffective at 1 mM. The kinetic study differentiates this enzyme from aspartylglucosylaminase from other sources.