A steady-state kinetic study of the reaction catalysed by the secondary-amine mono-oxygenase of Pseudomonas aminovorans.
ABSTRACT: 1. Secondary-amine mono-oxygenase (proposed EC group 1.14.99.-) was partially purified from trimethylamine-grown Pseudomonas aminovorans by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography on 5-aminopentylamino-Sepharose, and affinity chromatography on Sepharose-bound NADH. 2. Some problems in the affinity-chromatography step are discussed. 3. A steady-state kinetic analysis varying substrate, oxygen and electron-donor concentrations was performed, which, over the concentration range studied, gave a series of families of approximately parallel double-reciprocal plots. From secondary and tertiary plots, Michaelis constants of 0.160 mM, 0.086 mM and 0.121 mM were obtained for dimethylamine, NADPH and oxygen respectively. 4. Product-inhibition studies supported the postulated Hexa Uni Ping Pong (triple-transfer) reaction mechanism.
Project description:1. A mono-oxygenase, which oxidizes trimethylamine and other tertiary amines bearing methyl or ethyl groups, was partially purified sixfold from Pseudomonas aminovorans grown on trimethylamine as sole carbon source. 2. The preferred electron donor was NADPH. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.0-9.4 for trimethylamine oxidation, and 8.8-9.2 for dimethylamine oxidation. 3. The oxidation product of trimethylamine was shown to be trimethylamine N-oxide. Other tertiary amines were probably also converted into N-oxides. 4. The enzyme also oxidized secondary amines. 5. The oxidation of trimethylamine was only slightly inhibited by CO and not at all by KCN or proadifen hydrochloride (SKF 525-A), but was inhibited by trimethylsulphonium chloride, tetramethylammonium chloride, 2,4-dichloro-6-phenylphenoxyethylamine (Lilly 53325) and its NN-diethyl derivative (Lilly 18947). 6. The oxidation of dimethylamine showed a similar response to inhibitors and a parallel loss in activity on heating at 35 degrees C. 7. The activities of the trimethylamine mono-oxygenase, trimethylamine N-oxide demethylase and the secondary-amine mono-oxygenase increased severalfold during adaptation of succinate-grown bacteria to growth on trimethylamine, and the trimethylamine mono-oxygenase was the first enzyme to show an increase in activity. It is concluded that all three enzymes are involved in growth on trimethylamine by this organism.
Project description:Aminobacter aminovorans is a Gram-negative, pleomorphic rod-shaped, flagellated, and obligately aerobic bacterium that was isolated from soil. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of A. aminovorans KCTC 2477T, which degrades nitrilotriacetate-metal complexes and iminodiacetate, a metabolic intermediate of nitrilotriacetate.
Project description:1. Crude extracts of Pseudomonas aminovorans grown on methylamine, di-methylamine, trimethylamine or trimethylamine N-oxide contain an enzyme or enzyme system catalysing the NADH- or NADPH- and oxygen-dependent oxidation of dimethylamine to methylamine and formaldehyde. 2. The enzyme has been partially purified about five-fold. It is unstable, but can be stabilized by addition of 5% (v/v) ethanol. 3. The partially purified enzyme will utilize either NADH (K(m) 6.5mum) or NADPH (K(m) 13.2mum): The following secondary amines have been shown to be substrates: dimethylamine, ethylmethylamine, diethylamine, methyl-n-propylamine, ethyl-n-propylamine, n-butylmethylamine and N-methylethanolamine. The K(m) values and comparative reaction rates for each substrate have been determined. Where the alkyl groups are different, the aldehyde products are derived from both groups. 4. The enzyme system has a pH optimum of 6.8 and is inhibited by mercurials, thiol compounds, cyanide and carbon monoxide. 5. The partially purified preparation had a spectral maximum at 412nm with shoulders at 427 and 550nm. Reduction with dithionite or NAD(P)H bleached the 412nm peak, and the shoulder at 427nm became a peak. Additional peaks appeared at 550 and 580-588nm. Reduction of a preparation bubbled with carbon monoxide enhanced and sharpened the Soret peak and caused it to shift to 422nm. 6. Analysis of the preparation showed the presence of flavin, acid-extractable iron and non-acid-extractable iron in the proportion 1.1:1.9:1. On reduction with dithionite or NADPH the preparation showed an electron-paramagnetic-resonance signal at around g=1.946.
Project description:1. Halobacterium cutirubrum alkaline phosphatase is associated in crude extracts with a phosphodiesterase. 2. The enzymes were stabilized in buffers containing both (NH4)2SO4 and 10 mM-Mn2+. 3. Adsorption chromatography on Sepharose 6B/agarose-gel columns in the presence of 1.4M-(NH4)2SO4 gave a phosphatase-free phosphodiesterase and the alkaline phosphatase associated with some phosphodiesterase activity. 4. Further chromatography of the separated enzymes gave a good recovery of greater than 600-fold purified phosphodiesterase and greater than 3000-fold purified alkaline phosphatase. 5. The requirements of these enzymes and their relationship to each other was examined. 6. A detailed study showed that the alkaline phosphatase was adsorbed at least partially to agarose and dextran columns at all (NH4)2SO4 concentrations from 0.25 to 2M. 7. In contrast, no adsorption of the enzyme or protein standards was evident in 2.5M-KCl/l M-NaCl or 0.25 M-KCl/0.1 M-NaCl, in agreement with previous studies by Louis, Peterkin & Fitt [(1971) Biochem. J. 121, 635-641], thus confirming the validity of gel filtration in 2.5 M-KCl/1 M-NaCl as a method for determining the approximate molecular weights of extremehalophile proteins.
Project description:1. Extracts of amine-grown Pseudomonas aminovorans contained a particle-bound N-methylglutamate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124). The enzyme was not present in succinate-grown cells, and activity appeared before growth began in succinate-grown cells which had been transferred to methylamine growth medium. 2. Membrane-containing preparations from methylamine-grown cells catalysed an N-methylglutamate-dependent uptake of O2 or reduction of cytochrome c, which was sensitive to inhibitors of the electron-transport chain. 3. N-Methylglutamate dehydrogenase activity with phenazine methosulphate or 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol as electron acceptor could be solubilized with 1% (w/v) Triton X-100. The solubilized enzyme was much less active with cytochrome c as electron acceptor and did not sediment in 1 h at 150000g. Solubilization was accompanied by a change in the pH optimum for activity. 4. The solubilized enzyme was partially purified by Sepharose 4B and hydroxyapatite chromatograpy to yield a preparation 22-fold increased in specific activity over the crude extract. 5. The partially-purified enzyme was active with sarcosine, N-methylalanine and N-methylaspartate as well as with N-methylglutamate. Evidence suggesting activity with N-methyl D-amino acids as well as with the L-forms was obtained. 6. The enzyme was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, iodoacetamide and by both ionic and non-ionic detergents. 2-Oxoglutarate and formaldehyde were also inhibitors. 7. Kinetic analysis confirmed previous workers' observations of a group transfer (Ping Pong) mechanism. 8. Spectral observations suggested that the partially purified preparation contained flavoprotein and a b-type cytochrome. 9. The role of the enzyme in the oxidation of methylamine is discussed.
Project description:Plastocyanin is soluble at high concentrations (greater than 3 M) of (NH4)2SO4 but under these conditions will adsorb tightly to unsubstituted Sepharose beads. This observation was utilized to purify plastocyanin from pea (Pisum sativum) in two chromatographic steps. Sepharose-bound plastocyanin was eluted with low-ionic-strength buffer and subsequently purified to homogeneity by DEAE-cellulose chromatography.
Project description:The resolution and reconstitution of the Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester oxidative cyclase system into a supernatant and a pellet fraction was accomplished by a procedure involving salt treatment followed by osmotic shock. Recombination of pellet and supernatant fractions was required for cyclase activity. This restoration effect could be demonstrated using either Mg-protoporphyrin IX or Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester as the cyclase substrate in the presence or absence of S-adenosylmethionine. Pretreatment of the pellet fraction with either 8-hydroxyquinoline or desferal mesylate inhibited cyclase activity, indicating that there is a heavy-metal-ion requirement in this fraction. The cyclase supernatant protein(s) was not internalized by Sephadex G-50 and did not bind to Blue Sepharose, suggesting that it has a molecular mass of over 30 kDa and that it does not bind the cofactor NADPH. The cyclase supernatant protein did bind to MgProtoMe2-bound Sepharose and could be eluted by raising the pH to 9.7 in the presence of 4 mM-n-octyl glucoside. The pH optimum of the cyclase was 9.0. About a 40-fold purification of the cyclase supernatant protein was achieved by a combination of (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography.
Project description:Mouse brain ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) was purified to near-homogeneity by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, pyridoxamine phosphate-agarose and DEAE-cellulose. On SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the final preparation gave one protein band similar to that obtained for purified mouse kidney enzyme, corresponding to an Mr of 53.000. The overall yield of the purification exceeded about 50-fold the total activity of the enzyme in the starting material. By affinity chromatography on ODC-bound Sepharose, the extra enzyme activity was shown to originate, at least partly, from the enzyme-antizyme complex. These results demonstrate that ODC in mouse brain occurs mainly in an inactive form and is activated during purification.
Project description:The soluble galactosyltransferase of human plasma catalysed the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to high- and low-molecular-weight derivatives of N-acetylglucosamine, forming a beta-1-4 linkage. The enzyme was purified by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and affinity chromatography on an alpha-lactalbumin-Sepharose column. The galactosyltransferase was maximally bound to this column in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine, and the enzyme was eluted by omitting the amino sugar from the developing buffer. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 85000 by gel filtration. The assay conditions for optimum enzymic activity was 30 degrees C and pH7.5. Mn2+ ion was found to be an absolute requirement for transferase activity. The Km for Mn2+ was 0.4 mM and that for the substrate, UDP-galactose, was 0.024 mM. The Km for the acceptors was 0.21 mM for alpha1-acid glycoprotein and 3.9 mM for N-acetylglucosamine. In the presence of alpha-lactalbumin, glucose became a good acceptor for the enzyme and had a Km value of 2.9 mM. Results of the kinetic study indicated that the free enzyme reacts with Mn2+ under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, and the other substrates are added sequentially.
Project description:A more than 20000-fold purification of human serum lipoamidase is described. This was accomplished by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose CL-6B and phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, followed by preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) and finally by gel-permeation chromatography. Co-precipitation and co-chromatography of lipoamidase and biotinidase activities with equal yields and purification were obtained in all the purification steps, indicating that lipoamidase and biotinidase activities in human serum are due to the same enzyme protein. After preparative IEF, two fractions with both lipoamidase activity and biotinidase activity were found at pI 4.0 and pI 4.4 respectively. The molecular mass of the enzyme was found to be 76 kDa. When 2-mercaptoethanol was used instead of cysteine as stabilizer during the purification procedure, only one major form (pI 4.0) of the enzyme was obtained after preparative IEF. By addition of cysteine, this form was transformed to an enzyme with pI 4.4, indicating that this latter form is a cysteine adduct, produced during the IEF procedure.