The V-region sequence of the H chain from a third rabbit anti-pneumococcal antibody.
ABSTRACT: The amino acid sequence of the V (variable) region of the heavy (H) chain of rabbit antibody BS-1, raised against type III pneumococcal vaccine, is reported. Together with the sequence data of the V region of the light (L) chain previously determined [Jaton (1974a) Biochem. J. 141, 1-13], the present work completes the analysis of the V domain of the homogeneous antibody BS-1. The V domains (VL + VH regions) of this antibody are compared with those of two other anti-(type III) pneumococcal antibodies BS-5 and K-25 [Jaton (1975) Biochem. J. 147, 235-247]. Except for the second hypervariable section of the L chains, these antibodies have very different sequences in the hypervariable segments of the V domains. Within the third hypervariable region of the H chain, each antibody has a different length: BS-1 is three amino acids shorter than K-25 and two amino acids shorter than BS-5. When the sequences in that section are aligned for maximal homology, only two residues, glycine-97 and leucine-101, are common to the three antibodies. On the basis of the amino acid sequences of these three anti-pneumococcal antibodies, the results do not support the concept of a simple correlation between primary structure in the hypervariable sections (known to determine the shape of the combining site) and antigen-binding specificity.
Project description:The amino acid sequence between residues 70 and 116 of the V (variable) region of the H (heavy) chain derived from rabbit antibody BS-5, specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide, was determined. The sequence of this section of the H chain which includes the hypervariable residues 94 to about 112 was unique, although minor variant sequences present in the H chain preparation would not have been detected by the techniques used in this work. Taken together with the known sequences of the N-terminal 69 residues of H chain BS-5 (Jaton & Braun, 1972) and of the V region of the light chain (Jaton, 1974b), the data establish the complete sequence of the V domain of a rabbit immunoglobulin G. The V region of H chain BS-5 is compared with the basic sequences of the three human V region subgroups known to date, with one mouse H chain, and with guinea-pig pooled H chains. Even though chains from guinea pig and mouse clearly belong to the subgroup III of variability (V(HIII)), rabbit H chain BS-5 (allotypic variant a(1)) appears more closely related to the subgroup V(HII) than to the subgroups V(HIII) or V(HI). The homology between V(L) and V(H) regions of antibody BS-5 (28%) is not greater than that observed between the V(H) region of antibody BS-5 and the V(L) regions of different rabbit antibodies.
Project description:The amino acid sequences of the V (variable) regions of the H (heavy) and L (light) chains derived from rabbit antibody K-25, specific for type III pneumococci, were determined; this is the second homogeneous rabbit antibody besides antibody BS-5 whose complete sequence of the V domain has been established (Jaton, 1974d). The V regions of L chains BS-5 and K-25 (both of allotype b4) differ from each other by 19 amino acid residues; 11 of these 19 substitutions are located within the three hypervariable sections of the V region. On the basis of seven amino acid differences within the N-terminal 28 positions, it is suggested that L chain K-25 belongs to a different subgroup of rabbit K chains and L chain BS-5. H chain K-25 (allotype a2) differs from another H chain of the same allotype by one amino acid substitution within the N-terminal 70 positions in addition to interchanges occurring in the first two hypervariable sections. H chain K-25 was compared with H chain BS-5 (allotype a1) and with the known V-region rabbit sequences. Allotype-related differences between a1, a2 and a3 chains appear to occur within the N-terminal 16 positions and possibly in scattered positions throughout the V-region. In the hypervariable positions, variability between the two antibodies is remarkably more pronounced within the third hypervariable section of both H and L chains than within the first two.
Project description:The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal 139 residues of the L (light) chain derived from a homogeneous rabbit antibody to type III pneumococci was determined. This L chain, designated BS-5, exhibits a greater degree of homology with the basic sequence of human kappa chains of subgroup I (72%) than with subgroups II and III. L-chain BS-5 differs from another L chain (BS-1), also derived from an antibody to type III pneumococci (Jaton, 1974), by eight amino acid residues, even though the chains are identical within the N-terminal 30 residues. Six of these eight substitutions are located within the three hypervariable sections of the variable half: Asn/Ser in position 31, Glu/Ala in position 55, Asx/Thr, Thr/Gly, Thr/Gly and Val/Tyr in positions 92, 94, 96 and 97 respectively. The two anti-pneumococcal L chains BS-1 and BS-5 are much more similar to each other than to an anti-azobenzoate L chain (Appella et al., 1973), from which they differ by 30 and 29 residues respectively. Of these interchanges 13-15 are confined to the three hypervariable sections, and 11 occur within the N-terminal 27 positions. The three chains have an identical sequence from residue 98 to residue 139, except for a possible inversion of two residues in positions 130-131 of the anti-azobenzoate chain.
Project description:The sequence of the N-terminal 69 residues of heavy chain from a homogeneous rabbit antibody to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide was determined. The sequence is similar to that found in heavy chains of normal pooled rabbit immunoglobulins of the same allotype Aa1. Two regions of the homogeneous heavy chain (residues 35-46 and 62-69) are very similar to corresponding regions of heavy chains from rabbit Aa2 immunoglobulin, as well as from mouse, guinea-pig and human immunoglobulins. In contrast, residues 47-62 appear to be variable. Comparison in this section with another homogeneous anti-pneumococcal antibody (Strosberg et al., 1972) of related specificity and of the same allotype indicates sequence variation in at least three positions. An antibody to group C streptococcal carbohydrate of allotype Aa2 (Fleischman, 1971) differs by five amino acids in the same region of the heavy chain. Sequence variability between these three antibodies does not occur in homologous positions within this variable section. Allotype-related sequences could not be identified in section 34-65.
Project description:Single-domain antibodies derived from the unique New Antigen Receptor found in sharks have numerous potential applications, ranging from diagnostic reagents to therapeutics. Shark-derived single-domain antibodies possess the same characteristic ability to refold after heat denaturation found in single-domain antibodies derived from camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies. Recently, two shark derived single-domain antibodies specific for the nucleoprotein of Ebola virus were described. Our evaluation confirmed their high affinity for the nucleoprotein, but found their melting temperatures to be low relative to most single-domain antibodies. Our first approach towards improving their stability was grafting antigen-binding regions (complementarity determining regions) of one of these single-domain antibodies onto a high melting temperature shark single-domain antibody. This resulted in two variants: one that displayed excellent affinity with a low melting temperature, while the other had poor affinity but a higher melting temperature. These new proteins, however, differed in only 3 amino acids within the complementarity determining region 2 sequence. In shark single-domain antibodies, the complementarity determining region 2 is often referred to as hypervariable region 2, as this segment of the antibody domain is truncated compared to the sequence in camelid single-domain antibodies and conventional heavy chain variable domains. To elucidate which of the three amino acids or combinations thereof were responsible for the affinity and stability we made the 6 double and single point mutants that covered the intermediates between these two clones. We found a single amino acid change that achieved a 10°C higher melting temperature while maintaining sub nM affinity. This research gives insights into the impact of the shark sdAb hypervariable 2 region on both stability and affinity.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies bind with high specificity to a wide range of diverse antigens, primarily mediated by their hypervariable complementarity determining regions (CDRs). The defined antigen binding loops are supported by the structurally conserved ?-sandwich framework of the light chain (LC) and heavy chain (HC) variable regions. The LC genes are encoded by two separate loci, subdividing the entity of antibodies into kappa (LC?) and lambda (LC?) isotypes that exhibit distinct sequence and conformational preferences. In this work, a diverse set of techniques were employed including machine learning, force field analysis, statistical coupling analysis and mutual information analysis of a non-redundant antibody structure collection. Thereby, it was revealed how subtle changes between the structures of LC? and LC? isotypes increase the diversity of antibodies, extending the predetermined restrictions of the general antibody fold and expanding the diversity of antigen binding. Interestingly, it was found that the characteristic framework scaffolds of ? and ? are stabilized by diverse amino acid clusters that determine the interplay between the respective fold and the embedded CDR loops. In conclusion, this work reveals how antibodies use the remarkable plasticity of the beta-sandwich Ig fold to incorporate a large diversity of CDR loops.
Project description:Antibodies are critical components of the human adaptive immune system, providing versatile scaffolds to display diverse antigen-binding surfaces. Nevertheless, most antibodies have similar architectures, with the variable immunoglobulin domains of the heavy and light chain each providing three hypervariable loops, which are varied to generate diversity. The recent identification of a novel class of antibody in humans from malaria endemic regions of Africa was therefore surprising as one hypervariable loop contains the entire collagen-binding domain of human LAIR1. Here, we present the structure of the Fab fragment of such an antibody. We show that its antigen-binding site has adopted an architecture that positions LAIR1, while itself being occluded. This therefore represents a novel means of antigen recognition, in which the Fab fragment of an antibody acts as an adaptor, linking a human protein insert with antigen-binding potential to the constant antibody regions which mediate immune cell recruitment.
Project description:Infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. To gain insight into structure-function relationships for human antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS), we studied the response of transgenic mice reconstituted with human immunoglobulin loci, XenoMouse, to PPS antigens in a pneumococcal vaccine. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of sera from mice vaccinated with a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine revealed that they produced serotype-specific human antibodies, with the greatest response being to the PPS of serotype 3 (PPS 3). Molecular sequence analysis of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to PPS 3 generated from lymphoid cells from mice vaccinated with a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine or a PPS 3-bovine serum albumin conjugate revealed that they all used heavy-chain immunoglobulin genes from the V(H)3 family, two expressed light chain genes from the human Vkappa1 family, and one expressed a mouse lambda light chain. The protective efficacy of the two MAbs was examined in mice. A 10-microgram dose of both, and a 1-microgram dose of one, significantly prolonged survival from a lethal serotype 3 infection in CBA/N mice. Our data show that XenoMouse mice produced protective, serotype-specific human antibodies to PPS 3, and they lend support to the proposal that these animals represent a useful model to study the human antibody response to PPS antigens.
Project description:Human antibodies consist of a heavy chain and one of two possible light chains, kappa (?) or lambda (?). Here we tested how these two possible light chains influence the overall antibody response to polysaccharide and protein antigens by measuring light chain usage in human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells obtained following vaccination with Pneumovax23. Remarkably, we found that individuals displayed restricted light chain usage to certain serotypes and that lambda antibodies have different specificities and modes of cross-reactivity than kappa antibodies. Thus, at both the monoclonal (7 kappa, no lambda) and serum levels (145?g/mL kappa, 2.82?g/mL lambda), antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide were nearly always kappa. The pneumococcal reference serum 007sp was analyzed for light chain usage to 12 pneumococcal serotypes for which it is well characterized. Similar to results at the monoclonal level, certain serotypes tended to favor one of the light chains (14 and 19A, lambda; 6A and 23F, kappa). We also explored differences in light chain usage at the serum level to a variety of antigens. We examined serum antibodies to diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA-1. These responses tended to be kappa dominant (average kappa-to-lambda ratios of 4.52 and 9.72 respectively). Responses to the influenza vaccine were more balanced with kappa-to-lambda ratio averages having slight strain variations: seasonal H1N1, 1.1; H3N2, 0.96; B, 0.91. We conclude that antigens with limited epitopes tend to produce antibodies with restricted light chain usage and that in most individuals, antibodies with lambda light chains have specificities different and complementary to kappa-containing antibodies.
Project description:The isolation of specific rabbit antibodies for the haptenic group 4-azido-2-nitrophenyl, is described. These antibodies bind 1.8-2.0mol of hapten [in-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-l-lysine]/mol with an association constant of nearly 10(7)m(-1) at 4 degrees C. On photolysis of the antibody-hapten complex, resulting in the formation of an aryl nitrene at the binding site, hapten was covalently bound to the antibody, and the antibody binding site was blocked. The ratio of labelling of heavy- and light-chains was 2.5:1. Two small peptides were isolated from digests of labelled heavy-chain, indicating that some 13% of the label in the antibody was attached to cysteine-92 and to alanine-93. These residues are adjacent to the major hypervariable region in rabbit heavy-chain (residues 95-105).