Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in adipose tissue in vivo by glucocorticoids and insulin.
ABSTRACT: 1. The regulation of the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 188.8.131.52) in epididymal adipose tissue, liver and kidney in vivo was studied immunochemically. 2. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) synthesis in adipose tissue is increased by starvation, diabetes and noradrenaline, and decreased by re-feeding and insulin. These changes were also seen in adrenalectomized rats and are qualitatively similar to those observed for the liver enzyme. This indicates the involvement of cyclic AMP as an inducer and insulin as a de-inducer in the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in both tissues. (Induction and de-induction are defined as selective increase and decrease respectively in the rate of enzyme synthesis, regardless of the mechanism involved.)3. Adrenalectomy had little effect on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) synthesis in liver and kidney, but increased the synthesis rate of the adipose-tissue enzyme. Starvation and adrenalectomy had additive effects in increasing the synthesis rate of adipose-tissue phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). In adrenalectomized diabetic rats glucocorticoids increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) synthesis in liver and kidney while decreasing enzyme synthesis in adipose tissue. De-induction of adipose tissue phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) is therefore regulated independently by glucocorticoids and insulin. 4. Although liver, kidney and adipose-tissue phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases (GTP) are seemingly identical, there is an apparent tissue-specific differentiation in regulatory systems for the enzyme.
Project description:1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was assayed by three methods: (i) incorporation of H(14)CO(3) (-) into oxaloacetate: (ii) conversion of oxaloacetate into phosphoenolpyruvate, subsequently assayed enzymically; and (iii) transfer of (32)P from [gamma-(32)P]GTP to oxaloacetate. 2. Enzyme activity is increased in liver and epididymal adipose tissue in alloxan-diabetes and starvation, and in kidney in starved, acidotic and steroid-treated animals. 3. The ratios of the ;back' to the ;forward' reactions in liver, kidney and epididymal adipose tissue are different and characteristic of each tissue; they differ markedly from values reported for the purified mitochondrial enzyme. 4. The ratio of the ;back' to ;forward' reaction in any one tissue is constant in adrenalectomized, diabetic, acidotic and steroid-treated animals. 5. In starved animals, the ratio is increased in liver and kidney, but decreased in epididymal adipose tissue. 6. Administration of l-tryptophan results in an acute (1h) increase in activity measured in the ;forward' direction alone in liver and epididymal adipose tissue, but not in kidney.
Project description:The effect glucocorticoids on the synthesis and degradation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP)(EC184.108.40.206) in rat liver and kidney in vivo was studied immunochemically. The glucocorticoid analogue triamcinolone (9alpha-fluoro-11beta, 21-dihydroxy-16alpha,17alpha-isopropylidenedioxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione) increased the synthesis rate of the kidney enzyme in starved animals. Both triamcinolone and cortisol decreased the synthesis rate of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in fed and starved rats, but were without effect on the degradation rate of the enzyme. This effect of triamcinolone in liver was reversed by injection of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. However, in diabetic animals glucocorticoids increased the synthesis rate of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Triamcinolone administration to starved rats in vivo is shown to cause an increase in the portal blood concentrations of insulin and glucose. Since the physiological de-inducer of liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) is insulin, this is the probable cause of the decrease in the synthesis rate of the hepatic enzyme noted when glucocorticoids are administered to non-diabetic animals.
Project description:The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, ;malic enzyme', citrate-cleavage enzyme and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assayed in homogenates of rumen mucosa, liver and adipose tissue of cattle. Rumen mucosa cytoplasm contained activities of ;malic enzyme' approximately sevenfold those of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, suggesting that the conversion of propionate into lactate by rumen mucosa involves ;malic enzyme'. Neither starvation for 8 days nor feeding with a concentrate diet for at least 3 months before slaughter produced enzyme patterns in the tissues different from those in cattle given only hay, except that the all-concentrate diet caused increased activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ;malic enzyme' in adipose tissues. Rumen mucosa, liver and adipose tissue contained phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. ;Malic enzyme' was absent in liver. Citrate-cleavage enzyme activity was present in liver and adipose tissue but was quite low in rumen mucosa. Liver contained much less glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity than rumen mucosa or adipose tissue.
Project description:1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 220.127.116.11) was synthesized by postmitochondrial supernatants of rat liver in the presence of appropriate salts, an energy supply and [(3)H]leucine. Synthesis of enzyme released from polyribosomes was detected by immunoprecipitation with specific antibody followed by electrophoresis of the dissolved antibody-antigen precipitates on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels in the presence of a (14)C-labelled enzyme marker. 2. Enzyme synthesis in vitro occurs predominantly on free rather than bound polyribosomes. 3. Starved animals in which de-induction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) had been initiated by re-feeding for 2h had a markedly decreased rate of enzyme synthesis, whether the measurements were made after injection of radioactive leucine into the intact animal or if synthesis was determined in vitro. 4. The low rate of enzyme synthesis by liver polyribosomes from re-fed animals was not due to the absence of soluble factors, nor could it be increased by the addition of cyclic AMP to the protein synthesis system. 5. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) synthesis in vitro is diminished relative to total protein synthesis when the postmitochondrial supernatant is kept at 0 degrees C for several hours before measurement of protein synthesis. Since this effect is blocked by heparin, it is probably caused by selective ribonuclease attack on enzyme mRNA. 6. De-induction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) is tentatively explained as being due to a transcriptional block in specific mRNA synthesis, followed by rapid degradation of existing message.
Project description:1. Epididymal adipose tissue from the rat was maintained in culture for periods of up to 96h. 2. After an initial decrease in protein synthesis during the first 24h of culture, the adipose tissue recovered its capacity to synthesize and accumulate proteins of a relatively large size. 3. The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase decreased in a parallel manner, but increased again after 24h of incubation of the tissue in culture, to a value twice that noted in the tissue in vivo. This increase in enzyme activity was due to an increase in its rate of synthesis. 4. Both insulin and dexamethasone (9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-11beta,17,-21-trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione) inhibited phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase synthesis, but dexamethasone also decreased total protein synthesis. 5. The half-life of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in adipose tissue cultured in vitro was 5--7h and was not altered by insulin or dexamethasone. 6. It is concluded that both insulin and glucocroticoids lower the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in rat adipose tissue by decreasing its rate of synthesis.
Project description:1. mRNA was extracted from the livers of starved rats and incubated in a heterologous cell-free protein-synthesizing system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. The presence of newly synthesized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) was detected by immunoprecipitation with a specific antibody to the enzyme and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. The synthesis of the enzyme was dependent on the addition of rat liver RNA, whereas RNA isolated from rat spleen was inactive. If ovalbumin and anti-ovalbumin were used to form the immunoprecipitates, no radioactivity that migrated as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was detected. 3. The optimal concentrations of magnesium acetate and KCl for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase synthesis were determined. 4. When polyribosomal RNA was separated by sucrose-gradient centrifugation, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA migrated between 20 and 26 S in keeping with the high mol. wt. of the protein (85 000). 5. The presence of poly(A) in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA was suggested by retention of mRNA activity on oligo(dT)-cellulose columns. 6. It was concluded that the cell-free synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase can serve as a bioassay for intracellular phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA.
Project description:1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in the cytosol fraction of liver was labelled in young rats by the injection of [(3)H]leucine and then isolated with specific antibody. Antibody-antigen precipitates from ;pulse'-labelled animals and from animals in which the content of radioactive enzyme had been decreased by a period of degradation were separated by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels. No radioactive breakdown products were found. 2. (3)H-labelled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) was purified from rat liver and used to measure degradation in vitro. There was first a loss of catalytic activity, then a disappearance of immunological activity and finally a loss of solubility before any evidence of proteolytic cleavage. Proteolytic-cleavage fragments, when found, were also insoluble. 3. An analysis of the subcellular location of enzyme inactivation showed that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) was stable when incubated with liver cytosol fraction and was inactivated most rapidly by the microsomal fraction. 4. We propose that denaturation of the enzyme is the rate-limiting step in degradation in vivo, and precedes proteolytic cleavage when the enzyme is incubated with liver preparations in vitro.
Project description:1. Measurements are presented of the activity and intracellular distribution of phosphoenolypruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase in rat, guinea-pig and rabbit liver and kidney cortex, together with previously obtained measurements of these enzymes in adipose tissue. 2. In all three tissues pyruvate carboxylase activity was greatest in the rat and lowest in the rabbit. 3. Guinea pig and rabbit were very similar to each other with respect to the extramitochondrial-mitochondrial distribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in all three tissues. 4. NADP-malate dehydrogenase was present in all three tissues in the rat, present in kidney cortex and adipose tissue in the guinea pig and absent from all tissues examines in the rabbit.
Project description:1. A method for the assay of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is presented, based on the enzymic determination of the phosphoenolpyruvate produced by the enzyme reaction. 2. The subcellular distribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the kidney of several animal species resembled the distribution in the liver. 3. The rise in enzyme activity in the kidney cortex of rats made acidotic by feeding with ammonium chloride was not prevented by administration of ethionine or actinomycin. 4. The possibility is suggested that in the kidney acidosis causes activation of an inactive form of the enzyme already present.
Project description:2-Oxoglutarate was found to inhibit purified rat liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase when the assay was performed in the direction of either phosphoenolpyruvate or oxaloacetate synthesis. The inhibition was competitive with respect to oxaloacetate or phosphoenolpyruvate, the Ki values being 0.32 +/- 0.04 mM 0.63 +/- 0.19 mM respectively. 2-Oxoglutarate inhibited non-competitively when tested against GTP or Mn2+. The reported cytosolic concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate in rat hepatocytes are such that the enzyme is likely to be significantly inhibited under basal conditions. The cytosolic concentration of 2-oxoglutarate is known to fall precipitously under the influence of glucagon and other hormones that stimulate gluconeogenesis, and it is suggested that the hormone-induced decrease in 2-oxoglutarate content would alleviate the inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and stimulate flux from oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate. The implications of this finding to the rationalization of the role of pyruvate kinase in the stimulation of gluconeogenesis in the fasted state are discussed.