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Activities and some properties of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase in muscle, liver and nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates in relation to the control of the concentration of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate.


ABSTRACT: 1. The basal and fluoride-stimulated activities of adenylate cyclase, and the maximal activities of 3':5'-cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and 3':5'-cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, together with the Km values for their respective substrates, were measured in muscle, liver and nervous tissues from a large range of animals to provide information on the mechanism of control of cyclic AMP concentrations in these tissues. High activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP diesterase are found in nervous tissues and in the more aerobic muscles (e.g. insect flight muscles, cardiac muscle and some vertebrate skeletal muscles). The activities of these enzymes in liver are similar to those in the heart of the same animal. The Km values for the enzymes from different tissues and animals are remarkably similar. 2. The comparison of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities suggests that in vertebrate tissues only one enzyme (the high-Km enzyme), which possesses dual specificity, exists, whereas in invertebrate tissues there are at least two phosphodiesterases with separate specificities. 3. A simple quantitative model to explain the control of the steady-state concentrations of cyclic AMP is proposed. The maximum increase in cyclic AMP concentration predicted by comparison of basal with fluoride-stimulated activities of adenylate cyclase is compared with the maximum increases in concentration produced in the intact tissue by hormonal stimulation: reasonable agreement is obtained. The model is also used to predict the actual concentrations and the rates of turnover of cyclic AMP in different tissues and, where possible, these values are compared with reported values. Reasonable agreement is found between predicted and reported values. The possible physiological significances of different rates of turnover of cyclic AMP and the different ratios of high- and low-Km phosphodiesterases in different tissues are discussed.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC1164016 | BioStudies | 1976-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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