Stable thiobarbituric acid chromophore with dimethyl sulphoxide. Application to sialic acid assay in analytical de-O-acetylation.
ABSTRACT: With dimethyl sulphoxide instead of butanol in the thiobarbituric acid assay for sialic acid, a non-fading chromophore with lambdamax. = 549 nm was produced in a homogeneous solution, allowing dilution of the test mixture in case of high colour yield. This test adapted well to studies on alkaline de-O-acetylation. Bovine and rat submaxillary mucins, and rabbit Tamm-Horsfall urinary sialoproteins contain O-acetyl isomers of neuramine acid that are resistant to the thiobarbituric acid assay. Alkaline de-O-acetylation converted resistant O-acetylneuraminic acid into thiobarbituric acid-reactive sialic acid, and such conversion paralleled de-O-acetylation as measured by the ferric hydroxamate method. The colour increment was similar when the alkaline treatment of bovine submaxillary mucin either preceded or followed the acid hydrolysis. Only alkaline preptreatment was effective with rat submaxillary mucin. By selecting optimal conditions for alkaline de-O-acetylation, O-acetyl isomers can be accurately assessed by the thiobarbituric acid assay.
Project description:Rabbit Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and bovine submaxillary glycoprotein were both found to contain sialic acid residues which are released at a slow rate by the standard conditions of acid hydrolysis. These residues are also resistant to neuraminidases from Vibrio cholerae and Clostridium perfringens. This behaviour was attributed to the presence of O-acetylated sialic acid, since the removal of O-acetyl groups by mild alkaline treatment normalized the subsequent release of sialic acid from rabbit Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein by acid and by enzymic hydrolysis. Determination of the O-acetyl residues in rabbit Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein indicated that on average two hydroxyl groups of sialic acid are O-acetylated, and these were located on the polyhydroxy side-chain of sialic acid or on C-4 and C-8. These findings confirm the assumption that certain O-acetylated forms of sialic acid are not substrates for bacterial neuraminidases. Several explanations have been suggested to explain the effect of O-acetylation of the side-chain on the rate of acidcatalysed hydrolysis of sialic acid residues.
Project description:We provide here evidence that supports the occurrence of a biologically dormant form of selectin ligand carbohydrate, the sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X containing modified sialic acid, in human leukocytes. The modification of sialic acid involves first de-N-acetylation of sialic acid moiety through ubiquitous de-N-acetylation/re-N-acetylation cycle, followed by the dehydrative cyclization of de-N-acetyl sialic acid to form "cyclic sialic acid." The enzyme involved in the dehydration of de-N-acetyl sialic acid is a calcium-dependent enzyme having neutral-alkaline pH optimum. De-N-acetyl sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X retained selectin binding activity as well as parental sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X, but cyclic sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X was devoid of selectin binding activity. Sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X carrying the cyclic sialic acid is specifically recognized by the newly generated mAb, G159. The determinant was distributed widely among normal human leukocytes, especially on monocytes and subsets of lymphocytes including NK cells, helper memory T cells, Tcr-gammadelta T cells, and a part of B cells. The determinant was detected also on several cultured lymphocytic leukemia cell lines and O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-activated lymphoid cells. Cyclic sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X is efficiently formed by the action of the partly membrane-bound calcium-dependent enzyme, tentatively called "sialic acid cyclase," and a possible physiological significance of this reaction could be a rapid inactivation of selectin binding activity at the cell surface. Conversely, the accumulated intracellular cyclic sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X determinant may function as a dormant pool of selectin ligands, which, on appropriate stimulation, is hydrolyzed and becomes active in selectin-dependent cell adhesion.
Project description:The role of sialic acid in the gel-filtration behaviour of sialoglycoproteins was investigated by using the separated isoenzymes of purified human liver alpha-L-fucosidase and several other well-known sialic acid-containing glycoproteins (fetuin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, thyroglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin). For each glycoprotein studied, gel filtration of its desialylated derivative gave an apparent molecular weights much less than that expected just from removal of sialic acid. For the lower-molecular-weight glycoproteins (fetuin and alpha1-acid glyocprotein), gel filtration of the sialylated molecules led to apparent molecular weights much larger than the known values. The data indicate that gel filtration cannot be used for accurately determining the molecular weights of at least some sialoglycoproteins.
Project description:1. Glycosidic linkage of carbohydrate to the primary hydroxyl groups of threonine and serine has been established in human blood-group A and Le(a) substances, bovine submaxillary-gland mucin and human pseudomyxomatous mucin. 2. Treatment of these substances in 0.09n-lithium hydroxide at 100 degrees for 1hr. led to beta-elimination at these glycosidic linkages with the resultant formation of alpha-oxobutyric acid and glycine from threonine linkages, and pyruvic acid from serine linkages. Though most of the threonine was destroyed in every case, about one-third to one-half of the serine residues resisted alkaline cleavage. Such results, indicative of the presence of unbound serine residues, allow, in submaxillary mucin, for a close correlation between the remaining serine, threonine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid and the available sialyl-(2-->6)-N-acetylgalactosamine prosthetic groups. 3. The stoichiometry of the beta-eliminations has been demonstrated for pseudomyxomatous mucin. The alpha-oxo acids were separated and determined as their quinoxalinol derivatives by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel. Reaction at the threonine centres favoured alpha-oxobutyric acid formation (70%, via the intermediary dehydropeptide) over the alternative pathway to glycine (30%). 4. 100% of the hexosamine was destroyed in submaxillary-gland mucin, 85% in pseudomyxomatous mucin and about 60% in the blood-group substances. In the latter cases, the glucosamine/galactosamine ratio was increased from about 4:1 to 8-10:1, suggesting a preferential destruction of galactosamine. Evidence was obtained, however, for a further destruction of hexosamine, in addition to that which could be theoretically attached to peptide at possible known binding sites. 5. The major part of the alkali-resistant hexosamine in the blood-group substances was non-diffusible and was accompanied by the constituent carbohydrates in similar molar proportions to the native materials.
Project description:In this study we investigated the structure of an acidic fucose-containing pentasaccharide released from bovine submaxillary-gland mucin by alkaline-borohydride treatment. The structure, determined by a combination of one-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., was as follows: Fuc alpha(1----2)Gal beta(1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----3)[NeuAc alpha(2----6)]GalNAcol This pentasaccharide is a novel structure and is the first report of a blood-group-H type 2 determinant on a submaxillary-gland mucin.
Project description:Treatment of rabbit spermatozoa with 50mM-MgCl2 removes the plasma and the outer acrosomal membranes. Subsequent treatment with the detergents Hyamine 2389 and Triton X-100 solubilizes spermatozoal neuraminidase bound to the inner acrosomal membrane. The enzyme was further purified by DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-150 and Bio-Gel P-300 column chromato. The enzyme showed a single major band, with the possibility of some minor contaminants, on disc-gel electrophoresis. It had a specific activity of 0.37 micronmal of sialic acid released/min per mg with purified boar Cowper's-gland mucin as the substrate. The enzyme had marked specificity for 2 leads to 6'-linked sialic acid in glycoproteins. The Km of spermatozoal neuraminidase was 1.72 X 10(-6)M with Cowper's-gland mucin, 1.17 X 10(-5)M with fetuin and 8.8 X 10(-4)M with sialyl-lactose as a substrates. The Vmax. was 0.112 micronmol/min per mg with the Cowper's-gland mucin, 0.071 micronmol/min per mg with fetuin and 0.033 micronmol/min per mg with sialyl-lactose as substrate. The enzyme hydrolysed sheep submaxillary-gland mucin as readily as the Cowper's-gland mucin. The optimum of enzyme activity was at pH 5.0 on the Cowper's-gland mucin and at pH4.3 on sialyl-lactose. The enzyme activity was unaffected by 20mM-Na+ and-K+, but was inhibited by 20mM-Ca2+,-Mn2+,-Co2+ and -Cu2+. The enzyme was unstable in dilute solutions, but could be stored indefinitely freeze-dried at --20 degrees C.
Project description:Mucins are multifunctional glycosylated proteins that are increasingly investigated as building blocks of novel biomaterials. An attractive feature is their ability to modulate the immune response, in part by engaging with sialic acid binding receptors on immune cells. Once assembled into hydrogels, bovine submaxillary mucins (Muc gels) were shown to modulate the recruitment and activation of immune cells and avoid fibrous encapsulation in vivo. However, nothing is known about the early immune response to Muc gels. This study characterizes the response of macrophages, important orchestrators of the material-mediated immune response, over the first 7 days in contact with Muc gels. The role of mucin-bound sialic acid sugar residues was investigated by first enzymatically cleaving the sugar and then assembling the mucin variants into covalently cross-linked hydrogels with rheological and surface nanomechanical properties similar to nonmodified Muc gels. Results with THP-1 and human primary peripheral blood monocytes derived macrophages showed that Muc gels transiently activate the expression of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cell surface markers, for most makers with a maximum on the first day and loss of the effect after 7 days. The activation was sialic acid-dependent for a majority of the markers followed. The pattern of gene expression, protein expression, and functional measurements did not strictly correspond to M1 or M2 macrophage phenotypes. This study highlights the complex early events in macrophage activation in contact with mucin materials and the importance of sialic acid residues in such a response. The enzymatic glyco-modulation of Muc gels appears as a useful tool to help understand the biological functions of specific glycans on mucins which can further inform on their use in various biomedical applications.
Project description:O-Acetylation of sialic acid in protein N-glycans is an important modification and can occur at either 4-, 7-, 8- or 9-position in various combinations. This modification is usually labile under alkaline reaction conditions. Consequently, a permethylation-based analytical method, which has been widely used in glycomics studies, is not suitable for profiling O-acetylation of sialic acids due to the harsh reaction conditions. Alternatively, methylamidation can be used for N-glycan analysis without affecting the base-labile modification of sialic acid. In this report, we applied both permethylation and methylamidation approaches to the analysis of O-acetylation in sialic acids. It has been demonstrated that methylamidation not only stabilizes sialic acids during MALDI processing but also allow for characterization of their O-acetylation pattern. In addition, LC-MS/MS experiments were carried out to distinguish between the O-acetylated glycans with potential isomeric structures. The repeatability of methylamidation was examined to evaluate the applicability of the approach to profiling of O-acetylation in sialic acids. In conclusion, the combination of methylamidation and permethylation methodology is a powerful MALDI-TOF MS-based tool for profiling O-acetylation in sialic acids applicable to screening of N-glycans.
Project description:Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 encodes the single chromosomal 9-O-acetylesterase NanS, and several copies of prophage-encoded 9-O-acetylesterases (NanS-p). These enzymes have recently been shown to cleave 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) to yield de-O-acetylated Neu5Ac, the latter of which may serve as a carbon and/or nitrogen source. In the current study, we investigated the NanS- and NanS-p-mediated digestion of synthetic O-acetylated neuraminic acids and bovine submaxillary glands mucin (BSM)-derived O-acetylneuraminic acids by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and nano electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI MS). Initial HPTLC analyses showed the expected activity of NanS and NanS-p variants for Neu5,9Ac2. However, all tested enzymes were unable to de-O-acetylate 5-N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,4?Ac2) in our test system. The nanoESI MS analysis of neuraminic acids after treatment of BSM with NanS-p gave evidence that NanS-p variants of EHEC O157:H7 strain EDL933 cleave off O-acetyl groups from mono-, di-, and tri-O-acetylated Neu5Ac and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), regardless of the carbon positions C7, C8 or C9 of the acetate esters. This enzyme activity leads to neuraminidase-accessible Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc on mucin glycans. Moreover, we could demonstrate by HPTLC analyses that recombinant Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron sialidase (BTSA-His) was able to cleave Neu5Ac and Neu5,9Ac2 from BSM and that the combination of BTSA-His with both NanS-His and NanS-p-His derivatives enhanced the release of de-O-acetylated core Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc from mammalian mucin O-glycans. Growth experiments with EHEC wildtype strain EDL933, its nanS and nanS/nanS-p1a-p7 mutant and exogenous BTSA-His in BSM demonstrated that the presence of BTSA-His enhanced growth of EDL933 and the nanS deletion mutant but not the nanS/nanS-p1a-p7 mutant. Thus, we hypothesize that the expression of sialic acid O-acetylesterases with a broad specificity could be an advantage in competition with the gut microbiota for nutrients and facilitate EHEC colonization in the human large intestine.
Project description:A unique sialic acid-binding lectin, achatininH (ATNH) was purified in single step from the haemolymph of the snail Achatina fulica by affinity chromatography on sheep submaxillary-gland mucin coupled to Sepharose 4B. The homogeneity was checked by alkaline gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Amino acid analysis showed that the lectin has a fairly high content of acidic amino acid residues (22% of the total). About 1.3% of the residues are half-cystine. The glycoprotein contains 21% carbohydrate. The unusually high content of xylose (6%) and fucose (2.7%) in this snail lectin is quite interesting. The protein was subjected to various chemical modifications in order to detect the amino acid residues and carbohydrate residues present in its binding sites. Modification of tyrosine and arginine residues did not affect the binding activity of ATNH; however, modification of tryptophan and histidine residues led to a complete loss of its biological activity. A marked decrease in the fluorescence emission was found as the tryptophan residues of ATNH were modified. The c.d. data showed the presence of an identical type of conformation in the native and modified agglutinin. The modification of lysine and carboxy residues partially diminished the biological activity. The activity was completely lost after a beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to the glycoprotein's protein moiety. This result confirms that the carbohydrate moiety also plays an important role in the agglutination property of this lectin.