Purification of an exo-beta-D-glucanase from cell-free extracts of Candida utilis.
ABSTRACT: beta-Glucanase present in cell-free extracts from Candida utilis was isolated and purified 562-fold by procedures that include adsorption on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and filtration through columns of Sephadex G-50, G-100 and G-200, Bio-Gel P-10, and Concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B. The purified enzyme appeared homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and in ultracentrifugation studies (S20,w = 1.74S). The enzyme behaved as an acidic glycoprotein (pI4.1) with 68% carbohydrate and a high content of acidic amino acids. The mol.wt. was estimated to be 20000 from gel filtration and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and 36000 from sedimentation experiments. Studies on the hydrolysis of different substrates showed that the enzyme is an unspecific beta-glucanase able to break down both (1 leads to 3)-eta- and (1 leads to 6)-beta-linkages by an exo-splitting mechanism. Glucono-delta-lactone, Zn2+ and Hg2+ inhibited the enzyme activity.
Project description:The endo-1,3-beta-glucanase (EC 22.214.171.124) secreted into the culture medium by cells of Candida utilis was isolated and purified to homogeneity on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and in ultracentrifugation studies (s20,w = 1.97S). The purified enzyme represented only 0.001% of the total 1,3-beta-glucanase activity, the remainder being due to an exo-1,3-beta-glucanase enzyme, and behaved as an acidic glycoprotein (pI 3.3) in isoelectric-focusing experiments. The mol.wt. was estimated to be 21 000 by gel filtration and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Studies on the hydrolysis of different substrates showed that the enzyme was only able to break down (1 leads to 3)-beta-linkages, by an endo-splitting mechanism. Glucono-delta-lactone, D-glucoronolactone and heavy metal ions such as Hg2+ were inhibitors of the enzyme activity. The function of this endo-beta-glucanase in C. utilis is discussed.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidases A and B were purified to homogeneity from human placenta. In the initial step of purification, the enzymes were adsorbed on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and eluted from the column with alpha-methyl D-mannosides. Subsequent purification steps included DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, QAE-Sephadex [diethyl-(2-hydroxypropyl)aminoethyl-Sephadex] column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and preparative disc polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by another QAE-Sephadex chromatography for the hexosaminidase A preparation, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, calcium phosphate gel chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, QAE-Sephadex chromatography and CM-cellulose chromatography for the hexosaminidase B preparation. The purified preparations, particularly hexosaminidase A, had significantly higher specific enzyme activities than previously reported. The preparations moved on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis as single protein bands, which also stained for enzyme activity. Sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation indicated homogenous dispersion of the enzymes, and the molecular weight was estimated as about 110000 for both enzymes. Complete amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the two isoenzymes were determined, and, in contrast with previous suggestions, no sialic acid was found in the enzymes.
Project description:Alkaline phosphatase from human liver was purified to homogeneity. The purification procedure included solubilization with butanol, fractionation with acetone, and chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. Purity was established by standard and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the protein was determined to be 4.0. Sephadex-gel filtration gave a mol.wt. of 146000, although a higher value was obtained in the presence of 100mM-NaC1. The subunit mol.wt. 76700, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Neuraminidase treatment resulted in two enzyme-activity bands on isoelectric-focused gels with isoelectric points of 6.6 and 6.8. The desialylated enzyme gave only one protein band on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular weight indistinguishable from that of the non-neuraminidase-treated protein. The desialylated enzyme was more readily denatured by sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of mercaptoethanol than was the native enzyme.
Project description:1. A cellobiohydrolase component was isolated from a Penicillium funiculosum cellulase preparation by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex, and purified by isoelectric focusing. 2. Purified in this way, the enzyme was homogeneous as judged by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels and isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. 3. Acting in isolation, the enzyme had little hydrolytic activity to highly ordered celluloses such as cotton fibre, but, when recombined in the original proportions with the other components [endo-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-glucanase and beta-D-glucosidase] of the complex, 98% of the original activity was recovered. 4. Synergistic effects were also observed when the enzyme was acting in concert with endo-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-glucanase from other fungal sources. 5. Less-well-ordered celluloses, such as that swollen in H3PO4, were extensively hydrolysed, the principal product being cellobiose. 6. Attack on carboxymethyl-cellulose (CM-cellulose), which is the substrate normally used to assay for endo-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-glucanase activity, was minimal. 7. The enzyme was associated with 9% of neutral sugar, 88% of which was mannose. It was isoelectric at pH 4.36 (4 degrees C) and had a mol.wt. of 46 300 (determined by gel chromatography on a calibrated column of Ultrogel). 8. The enzyme was specific for the beta-(1 leads to 4)-linkage.
Project description:Pantothenase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Pseudomonas fluorescens UK-1 was purified to homogeneity as judged by disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purification procedure consisted of four steps: DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34 was used to determine the molecular weight, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to study the subunit molecular weight. The enzyme appeared to be composed of two subunits with mol.wts. of approx. 50000 each. The total mol.wt. of the enzyme was thus about 100000. The isoelectric point was 4.7 at 10 degrees C.
Project description:An enzyme catalysing the O-methylation of isobutyraldoxime by S-adenosyl-L-methionine was isolated from Pseudomonas sp. N.C.I.B. 11652. The enzyme was purified 220-fold by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and chromatography on calcium phosphate gel. Homogeneity of the enzyme preparation was confirmed by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a narrow pH optimum at 10.25, required thiol-protecting agents for activity and was rapidly denatured at temperatures above 35 degrees C. The Km values for isobutyraldoxime and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were respectively 0.24 mM and 0.15 mM. Studies on substrate specificity indicated that attack was mainly restricted to oximes of C4-C6 aldehydes, with preference being shown for those with branching in the 2- or 3-position. Ketoximes were not substrates for the enzyme. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 gave an Mr of 84 000 for the intact enzyme, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated an Mr of 37 500, suggesting the presence of two subunits in the intact enzyme. S-Adenosylhomocysteine was a powerful competitive inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine, with a Ki of 0.027 mM. The enzyme was also susceptible to inhibition by thiol-blocking reagents and heavy-metal ions. Mg2+ was not required for maximum activity.
Project description:Dihydropteridine reductase (EC 188.8.131.52) was purified from human liver obtained at autopsy by a three-step chromatographic procedure with the use of (1) a naphthoquinone affinity adsorbent, (2) DEAE-Sephadex and (3) CM-Sephadex. The enzyme was typically purified 1000-fold with a yield of 25%. It gave a single band on non-denaturing and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and showed one spot on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be 50000 by sedimentation-equilibrium analysis and 47500 by gel filtration. On sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, a single subunit with mol.wt. 26000 was observed. A complex of dihydropteridine reductase with NADH was observed on gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated to be pH 7.0. Amino acid analysis showed a residue composition similar to that seen for the sheep and bovine liver enzymes. The enzyme showed anomalous migration in polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A Ferguson plot indicated that this behaviour is due to a low net charge/size ratio of the enzyme under the electrophoretic conditions used. The kinetic properties of the enzyme with tetrahydrobiopterin, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine, NADH and NADPH are compared, and the effects of pH, temperature and a number of different compounds on catalytic activity are presented.
Project description:1. The high-activity form of aminolaevulinate synthetase has been prepared from extracts of semi-anaerobically grown cells of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, which were allowed to become activated in air. Specific activity was 130 000--170 000 nmol of aminolaevulinate/h per mg of protein at 37 degree C. 2. Enzyme fraction Ia prepared on DEAE-Sephadex was a mixture of four active enzymes, pI5.55, 5.45, 5.35 and 5.2, when prepared in either Tris or phosphate buffers and when extracts were activated by air or by cystine trisulphide. 3. The enzyme was further purified by preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in imidazole/veronal buffer, pH 7.6, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and concentration with DEAE-Sephadex. 4. The most active enzyme, pI 5.55, ran as a single protein band, mol.wt. 49 000, in sodium dodecyl sulphate and 2-mercaptoethanol. The apparent molecular weight under non-denaturing conditions was 62 000--68 000 on Sephadex G-100 or G-200, pH 7.5, and on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, pH 8.5, at enzyme concentrations below 10 000 units/ml, i.e. less than 60 microgram of protein/ml, and the enzyme was mainly monomeric. 5. The enzyme was homogeneous by gel disc electrophoresis at pH 8.9 and 7.6, but a slightly more diffuse band of protein was obtained during electrophoresis in glycine buffer, pH 7.4. 6. Enzyme samples possessed an intrinsic yellow fluorescence when viewed under u.v. light and this fluorescence coincided exactly with enzymic activity on gel electrophoresis. Fluorescence maxima were 420 nm (excitation) and 495 nm (emission). 7. Radioactive 35S-labelled enzyme had 14 atoms of sulphur/mol of protein (or/40 leucine residues) of which 5--6 residues were cyst(e)ine and 8--9 residues were methionine. 8. Mo carbohydrate was detected apart from glucose, which prevented accurate determination of tryptophan with methanesulphonic acid and tryptamine.
Project description:Chick serum contains two cholecalciferol-binding proteins, one of which binds mainly cholecalciferol (cholecalciferol-binding protein) and the other binds 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol-binding protein). By means of Cohn fractionation, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and an additional gel-filtration step on Sephadex G-100, these two binding proteins were purified. Both proteins possess beta-globulin mobility on analytical polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, a sedimentation coefficient of 3.5S and approximate molecular weights of 60000 for the cholecalciferol-binding protein and 54000 for the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-binding protein. Sera obtained from rat, pig, human and monkey were shown to contain a single binding protein that is responsible for the transport of both cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. In the toad the lipoproteins are used for the transport of these two steroids.
Project description:Hydroxymethylbilane synthase from human erythrocytes was purified 47,000-fold to greater than 95% homogeneity and 7.5% yield by a simple and rapid procedure using heat treatment (80 degrees C, in the presence of proteinase inhibitors, to convert one of two chromatographically separable forms into the other), DEAE-cellulose and Cibacron Blue F3G-A-Sepharose chromatographies and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purified enzyme was similar to the enzyme purified from other species in showing hyperbolic dependence of velocity on substrate concentration, a non-linear progress curve for uroporphyrinogen appearance, and was monomeric, having an Mr of 44,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and h.p.l.c. and an Mr of 45,000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a sharp pH profile for Vmax, and various folates were shown to accelerate neither the enzymic formation of hydroxymethylbilane nor ring-closure of hydroxymethylbilane.