Preparation and characterization of armadillo submandibular glycoproteins.
ABSTRACT: The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus mexicanus Peters) was chosen for this study so that a comparison could be made of the salivary mucus glycoproteins of an ancient mammalian species with those derived from previously studied, more highly evolved species. Two mucus glycoproteins, armadillo submandibular glycoprotein A and armadillo submandibular glycoprotein B, were prepared from the armadillo submandibular gland by a modification of the method of Tettamanti & Pigman (1968) (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 124, 41-50). The composition of glycoprotein A is the simplest one among the known mucus glycoproteins. Six amino acids constitute 98.5 mol/100mol of the protein of glycoprotein A and 82 mol/100 mol of that of glycoprotein B. These are serine and threonine (which make up 40-50% of the molar amino acid composition), glutamic acid, glycine alanine and valine. Proline is absent from glycoprotein A and comprises only 2.3% of glycoprotein B. For both glycoproteins, the protein content, as determined by the method of Lowry, Rosebrough, Farr & Randall (1951) (J. Biol. Chem 193, 265-275), with bovine serum albumin as standard, was nearly 60% higher than when determined by the sum of the amino acids. The ratios of total mol of amino acid/total mol of carbohydrate are 1:0.63 for glycoprotein A and 1:0.68 for glycoprotein B, N-Acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, in a molar ratio of about 0.35:1.00, are the principal carbohydrates present in both glycoproteins. Neutral sugars seem to be absent from glycoprotein A, but galactose and fucose are present in glycoprotein B. The carbohydrate side chains in glycoprotein A are composed of about two-thirds monosaccharide and one-third disaccharide residues, whereas those of glycoprotein B are more complex. For both glycoproteins, essentially all of the N-acetylgalactosamine was attached O-glycosidically to the hydroxyamino acid residues of the protein core. The linkage of N-acetylneuraminic acid glycoprotein A was extremely sensitive to dilute acid and neuraminidase. Glycoprotein B has chemical properties similar to those of glycoprotein A. However, whereas glycoprotein A was susceptible to both Clostridium perfringens and Vibrio cholerae neuraminidases, only the latter enzyme had an effect on glycoprotein B at pH 4.75. Both glycoproteins were homogeneous by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and ultracentrifugal analyses. The apparent mol.wts. of glycoprotein A and glycoprotein B were 7.8 X 10(4) and 3.1 X 10(4) respectively.
Project description:Mucus glycoproteins from newborn and adult rat small intestine were radiolabelled in vivo with Na2 35SO4 and isolated from mucosal homogenates by using Sepharose 4B column chromatography followed by CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation. Non-covalently bound proteins, lipids and nucleic acids were not detected in the purified glycoproteins. Amino acid, carbohydrate and sulphate compositions were similar to chemical compositions reported for other intestinal mucus glycoproteins, as were sedimentation properties. There were, however, important differences in the chemical and physical characteristics of the mucus glycoproteins from newborn and adult animals. The buoyant density in CsCl was higher for the glycoproteins from newborn rats (1.55 g/ml versus 1.47 g/ml). On sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide/agarose-gel electrophoresis, the glycoprotein from newborn rats had a greater mobility than the adult-rat sample. Although both preparations had similar general amino acid compositions, variations were observed for individual amino acids. The total protein content was greater in the glycoprotein from newborn animals (27%, w/w, versus 18%, w/w). The molar ratio of carbohydrate to protein was less in the newborn, primarily owing to a decreased fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine content. Comparison of the molar ratio of fucose and sialic acid to galactose for both glycoproteins demonstrated a reciprocal relationship similar to that described by Dische [(1963) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 106, 259-270]. The sulphate content was greater in the glycoprotein from newborn rats (5.5%, w/w, versus 0.9%, w/w). Both had similar sedimentation coefficients in a dissociative solvent. These results suggest an age-related difference in the types of mucus glycoproteins synthesized by small intestine.
Project description:Rat submandibular mucin (RSM) was purified by acid precipitation, then alcohol precipitation of the 30000g supernatant of gland homogenate, followed by column chromatography on Sephadex G-200. The mucin, which was eluted in the void volume, had an amino acid profile typical of a salivary mucus glycoprotein with high proportions of threonine, serine and proline (48.8% of total amino acids), and low proportions of aromatic and basic amino acids. It consisted of 63% (w/w) carbohydrate, which was shown by g.l.c. analysis to contain N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, sialic acid and fucose in the proportions 1.0:3.4:2.6:3.1:1.2. After staining of the mucin with periodic acid/Schiff reagent, analytical equilibrium ultracentrifugation in a CsCl density gradient produced a symmetrical peak of buoyant density 1.449g/ml, without evidence of protein contaminants. Sedimentation velocity centrifugation revealed a major periodate/Schiff-positive component (S(0) (20,w) 5.06) with an associated shoulder of slower sedimenting material, suggesting polydispersity in the size of the mucin. Our findings suggest that the RSM purified in these studies has a molecular weight between 200000 and 1x10(6). Antibody to RSM was prepared in a rabbit and produced a single precipitin line on immunoelectro-osmophoresis with the mucin. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the antibody localized only to submandibular acinar cells and confirmed that these cells were the source of RSM. The antibody was not directed towards the blood-group-A determinant (terminal N-acetylgalactosamine) present in the mucin.
Project description:1. Purified ovomucin was isolated as an insoluble glycoprotein complex from thick egg white. 2. A homogeneous glycoprotein, designated alpha-ovomucin, of molecular weight 210000 and containing N-acetylglucosamine (6.7%, w/w), N-acetylgalactosamine (0.6%, w/w), galactose (1.8%, w/w), mannose (4.6%, w/w), N-acetylneuraminic acid (1.0%, w/w) and sulphate (0.7%, w/w), was isolated from preparations of reduced ovomucin by sedimentation equilibrium in a density gradient of caesium chloride formed in the presence of 4m-guanidine hydrochloride. 3. A carbohydrate-rich fraction, designated beta-ovomucin (which is homogeneous by sedimentation-velocity analysis in 5m-guanidine hydrochloride but which is heterogeneous by analytical sedimentation equilibrium in a density gradient of caesium chloride in the presence of 4m-guanidine hydrochloride), containing N-acetylglucosamine (11.0%, w/w), N-acetylgalactosamine (8.7%, w/w), galactose (19.2%, w/w), mannose (4.1%, w/w), N-acetylneuraminic acid (13.8%, w/w) and sulphate (2.7%, w/w), was also obtained from preparations of reduced ovomucin by the density-gradient method. 4. Mild acid hydrolysis of the unfractionated ovomucin complex showed that N-acetylneuraminic acid occupied a terminal position of the oligosaccharide chains. 5. Alkaline beta-elimination reactions with the unfractionated ovomucin complex indicated that N-acetylgalactosamine was linked by alkali-labile bonds to hydroxy amino acids.
Project description:Mucus glycoproteins (mucins) were extracted from human cervical pregnancy mucus by 6 M-guanidinium chloride in the presence of proteinase inhibitors. Purification was subsequently achieved by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in CsCl/ guanidinium chloride gradients. The purified macromolecules represented approx. 85% of the total and were devoid of nucleic acids and proteins, as judged by analytical density-gradient centrifugation, disc electrophoresis and u.v. spectroscopy. Sedimentation-velocity centrifugation revealed a single unimodal peak with S20,W 50.1S in 0.2M-NaCl and 37.0S in 6 M-guanidinium chloride. Molecular weights obtained by light-scattering were 9.7 X 10(6) and 5.9 X 10(6) in 0.2M-NaCl and 6 M-guanidinium chloride respectively. The chemical analyses were typical of those of epithelial mucins. The macromolecules contained approx. 20% (w/w) of protein, and 65% (w/w) was accounted for as carbohydrate. Serine and threonine constituted 32 mol/100 mol and proline 10 mol/100 mol of the amino acids. The major sugars found were N-acetylglucosamine (12.8%), N-acetylgalactosamine (9.7%), galactose (18.7%), sialic acid (15.0%) and fucose (7.5%).
Project description:We isolated mucin-like glycoproteins from the conditioned medium of primary hamster tracheal epithelial (HTE) cell culture and characterized them biochemically and immunologically. These glycoproteins were purified on Sepharose CL-4B after Streptomyces hyaluronidase treatment and then by CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation in the presence of 4 M-guanidinium chloride. The purified glycoproteins were resistant to digestion by chondroitin AC lyase, heparinase, heparitinase and endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases A, D and H, but susceptible to endo-beta-galactosidase and keratanase. SDS/PAGE demonstrated no contamination by low-molecular-mass proteins. The purified glycoproteins showed a peak buoyant density of 1.56 g/ml in CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation, and contained 10% peptide and 90% carbohydrate by weight. Carbohydrates in these glycoproteins contained N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, fucose, sialic acid and a trace amount of mannose, but no uronic acid. Serine and threonine together accounted for 27% of the total amino acid residues. In addition, the mucin-like glycoproteins exhibited blood-group A and B activities, and very strong inhibitory activity for influenza A virus haemagglutination. With the use of the purified glycoprotein as an antigen, six monoclonal antibodies that stained mucus granules in hamster tracheal epithelium were obtained. We characterized the antibody produced by one of the clones, HM D46. We conclude that HTE cells cultured in the serum-free medium secrete a glycoprotein with physicochemical properties similar to those known in various airways mucins.
Project description:Myelin was found to contain five major glycoproteins with molecular weights of 120000, 95000, 88000, 43000 and 38000. Light myelin contained only 5-7% of the amount of these glycoproteins in whole myelin, whereas heavy myelin and the membrane fraction contained amounts nearly identical with whole myelin. Since all the major and minor glycoproteins, with the exception of 120000-mol-wt. glycoprotein, were detected only after treating the myelin membrane with neuraminidase, N-acetylneuraminic acid is a terminal sugar residue in these glycoproteins.
Project description:Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membranes from a blood-group-B individual with the rare Cad phenotype indicates a lower-than-normal mobility of the main sialoglycoproteins, suggesting an increase in apparent molecular mass of 3kDa and 2kDa respectively for glycoprotein alpha (synonym glycophorin A) and glycoprotein delta (synonym glycophorin B). Since the chief structural determinant of Cad specificity is N-acetylgalactosamine, the membrane receptors have been isolated by affinity binding on immobilized Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) lectin. The predominant species eluted from the gel was the abnormal glycoprotein alpha, whereas in control experiments no material could be recovered from the adsorbent incubated with group-B Cad-negative erythrocyte membranes. After partition of the membranes with organic solvents, the blood-group-Cad activity was found in aqueous phases containing the sialoglycoproteins, but not in the organic phases containing simple or complex glycolipids, which, however, retained the blood-group-B activity. The carbohydrate composition of highly purified lipid-free glycoprotein alpha molecules prepared from Cad and control erythrocytes was determined. Interestingly the molar ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine was equal to 2:1 in the case of controls and equal to 1:1 in the case of Cad erythrocytes. Taken together these results suggest that Cad specificity is defined by N-acetylgalactosamine residues carried by the alkali-labile oligosaccharide chains attached to the erythrocyte membrane sialo-glycoproteins.
Project description:The time course for the partial deglycosylation of blood-group-specific glycoproteins from human ovarian-cyst fluids with 0.25 M-H2SO4/acetic acid and 6 M-HCl in methanol was studied. Either reagent readily removed about 80% of the carbohydrate from the glycoproteins to leave non-diffusible glycopeptides that contain N-acetylgalactosamine as the predominant sugar. Some changes in amino acid distribution were observed during the deglycosylation, which were attributed to an accelerated break-up of the nonglycosylated regions of the parent glycoprotein. The N-acetylgalactosaminyl-peptides isolated were judged to be polydisperse by gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography divided the glycopeptide population into several fractions with differing amino acid compositions. A Lumbricus terrestris hexosaminidase preparation was successful in removing almost all the remaining sugar from the glycopeptides, but caused further rupture of the peptide. When a per O-acetylated glycoprotein was treated with the H2SO4/acetic acid reagent the glycopeptide contained, in addition to N-acetylgalactosamine, about 50% of the sialic acid present in the parent glycoprotein, indicating that most of this sugar is located near the peptide end of the carbohydrate chains.
Project description:The 660 epitope was defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against rat gastric surface epithelium scrapings. This epitope, a marker of goblet cell differentiation, shows oncofetal behaviour in the colonic mucosa. We found that it co-purified with gastric mucin glycoproteins. We isolated rat gastric mucus glycoproteins using standard techniques: gastric scrapings in PBS were submitted to isopycnic density gradient centrifugation in CsCl in the presence of proteinase inhibitors. Fractions of relative density 1.4-1.45 with a high neutral sugar/protein ratio were chromatographed on an Ultrogel A4 column. According to the usual criteria, the high-molecular mass glycoproteins recovered in the excluded volume were purified mucins; when stained with periodic acid/Schiff reagent, they showed little migration on 4-15% gradient gel acrylamide electrophoresis. Serine+threonine+proline residues accounted for 35% of the total amino acids; the carbohydrate composition consisted of galactose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. These mucus glycoproteins carried the 660 epitope. After disulphide bond reduction, the remaining high-molecular-mass subunits were retained by the Ultrogel A4 column; amino acid and saccharide compositions were generally similar to those of the unreduced fraction. Trypsin digestion of the 660 epitope glycoprotein carrier did not modify its chromatographic and electrophoretic patterns, nor its chemical composition. The 660 epitope was still present after these treatments. However, trypsin digestion of subunits gave rise to smaller components that were retained by an Ultrogel A4 column. The saccharide composition of these fragments was unchanged, but the proportion of serine+threonine+proline residues rose to 46% of the total. These digested subunits had lost nearly all reactivity with monoclonal antibody 660. Our results fit well with the macromolecular model of Carlstedt, Lindgren and Sheehan [(1983) Biochem. J. 213, 427-435]: mucin glycoproteins are homopolymers of subunits assembled end-to-end via disulphide bonds into very large linear macromolecules. After disulphide bond reduction, proteolytic attack sites are uncovered and trypsin digestion results in glycopeptides bearing the typical oligosaccharidic units and with enhanced amounts of serine, threonine and proline, the characteristic amino acids of this hyperglycosylated region of the peptide core. These digested subunits have lost virtually all 660 epitope reactivity. We thus show that the 660 epitope, a determinant of a mucin molecule, is probably associated with the peptide core of the glycoprotein.
Project description:The present study has utilized the iodinatable cross-linking agent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidosalicylic acid (ASA) to examine the specific interaction between the proline-rich glycoprotein (PRG) of human parotid saliva and Streptococcus sanguis G9B. The binding of 125I-ASA-PRG to Streptococcus sanguis G9B displayed saturation kinetics, reversibility and was inhibited by unlabelled PRG. Inhibition studies with other glycoproteins and saccharides indicated that binding was mediated by a bacterial adhesin with specificity towards N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine. After cross-linking, the 125I-ASA-PRG-adhesin complex could be extracted with SDS and separated from uncoupled 125I-ASA-PRG by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-6B. Approx. 1% of the 125I-ASA-PRG was cross-linked to the bacterial surface. Examination of the 125I-ASA-PRG-adhesin complex by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis/fluorography on 5% -(w/v)-polyacrylamide gels revealed that PRG was bound to two bacterial components. These findings support our previous suggestion that human salivary glycoproteins can specifically interact with oral streptococci and that these interactions occur between the glycoprotein's carbohydrate units and lectin(s) on the bacterial cell surface.