Restoration of beta-galactosidase to Escherichia coli M15. Complementation studies.
ABSTRACT: Carboxymethylated beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli was dissociated at 100 degrees C to form carboxymethylated fragments A and B. The mol.wts. of carboxymethylated fragments A and B were determined by gel filtration to be 64300 and 22400 respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of carboxymethylated fragments A and B that had been pretreated with 2-mercaptoethanol and sodium dodecyl sulphate yielded mol.wts. of 64000 and 22100 respectively. Carboxymethylated fragments A and B had arginine as their C-terminal amino acid. When a crude extract of E. coli M15 was filtered through a column of Sepharose 6B, it was found that carboxymethylated fragment B could restore beta-galactosidase activity when added to fractions having mol.wts. estimated to be 123000, 262000 and 506000. These fractions are referred to as ;complementable fractions'. Similarly, it was found that carboxymethylated fragment A could restore enzyme activity to tractions having mol.wts. estimated to be 63000, 253000 and 506000. Estimates of the molecular weights of the beta-galactosidase activity obtained by restoration with carboxymethylated fragments A and B were made by filtering the active enzyme through another column of Sepharose 6B. The enzyme obtained by complementation with carboxymethylated fragment B, i.e. the complemented enzyme, had mol.wt. 525000, and that obtained with carboxymethylated fragment A had mol.wts. of 525000, 646000 and 2000000. The latter finding suggests that multiple forms of complemented beta-galactosidase can exist.
Project description:Our studies with purified human liver acid beta-D-galactosidases (EC 184.108.40.206) indicate that 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactosidase and G(M1)-ganglioside beta-D-galactosidase activities are identical with lactosylceramidase II activity. Evidence for this includes co-purification of all enzyme activities by affinity chromatography to yield a single band on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and coincident elution from Sepharose 6B of all three enzyme activities.
Project description:Relatively homogeneous fractions of proteoglycan fragments were prepared from tryptic digests of the 4M-guanidinium chloride extract of bovine nasal cartilage. Glycosaminoglycan-containing fragments were separated from non-proteoglycan contaminants by ion-exchange chromatography and fractionated by equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation under dissociative conditions. The fractions of highest buoyant density were chromatographed on a column of Sepharose 4B, digested with chondroitinase ABC and chromatographed on a column of Sepharose 6B, yielding two distinct fractions: fraction B/6B-4 contained fragments from the chondroitin sulphate-bearing region of the proteoglycan monomer, and fraction B/6B-2 fragments from the keratan sulphate-rich region, most probably including a chondroitin sulphate-bearing monomer segment. By dansyl chloride analysis, fraction B/6B-2 had alanine and leucine as sole and fraction B/6B-4 had isoleucine and leucine as greatly predominant N-terminal amino acids, indicative of the relative homogeneity of these preparations of cartilage proteoglycan monomer fragments.
Project description:Investigation of the binding characteristics of acid beta-D-galactosidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-D-galactosidase and alpha-L-fucosidase from patients with mucolipidosis II and mucolipidosis III to concanavalin A--Sepharose 4B revealed a 2--10-fold decrease in the proportion of enzyme activities from patients with mucolipidoses II and III that adsorbed on the lectin. Neuraminidase treatment of the unadsorbed enzyme fraction did not significantly increased the proportion of enzyme activities that bound to the concanavalin A--Sepharose 4B. Characterization of acid beta-D-galactosidase from the adsorbed and unadsorbed enzyme fractions of mucolipidosis II and mucolipidosis III patients demonstrated identical apparent Km values of 0.22 mM with respect to 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, altered pH--activity profiles and heterogeneous isoelectric-focusing patterns. The results of this study support the suggestion of an alteration of a post-translational modification (possibly glycosylation) occurring in mucolipidosis II and mucolipidosis III common to the lysosomal hydrolases that affects the mannoserelated properties of these enzymes.
Project description:1. Human liver acid beta-galactosidase A2 and A3 were isolated by chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B, Sepharose 6B, and Sepharose 4B-6-aminohexyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase A2 and A3 were purified to final specific activities of 45.5 and 20.6 mumol/min per mg respectively with 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. 2. Form A2 had a mol.wt. of 150000 +/- 15000 (gel filtration) and appeared as a single band of protein (mol.wt 65000 +/- 1000) on electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. Form A3 had a mol.wt. (gel filtration) of 660000 +/- 66000. On electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, form A3 appeared as a major band of protein (72% of total) of mol.wt. 65000 +/- 1000 and minor protein bands of mol.wt. 44000 +/- 1000 and 26,000 +/- 1000 and 22000 +/- 1000. 4. Gel-filtration chromatography of purified beta-galactosidase A3 generated approximately equal amounts of forms A3 and A2. beta-Galactosidase A1 was not detected by gel-filtration chromatography of partially or highly purified preparations of forms A2 and A3. 5. Both forms A2 and A3 had identical isoelectric points of 4.42 +/- 0.02. The data suggest that forms A2 and A3 are dimeric and multimeric forms of beta-galactosidase A1. 6. Amino acid analysis of beta-galactosidase A2 gave a ratio of acidic to basic amino acids of 2.6:1. 7. beta-Galactosidase A2 contained 7.5% carbohydrate by weight and sialic acid, D-galactose, D-glucosamine and D-mannose were present in the molar proportions 1.1:1.0:1.7:2.7.
Project description:1. The subunits were isolated of modeccin (subsequently referred to as modeccin 4B), the toxin purified from the roots of Adenia digitata by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B [Gasperi-Campani, Barbieri, Lorenzoni, Montanaro, Sperti, Bonetti & Stirpe (1978) Biochem J. 174, 491-496]. They are an A subunit (mol.wt. 26 000), which inhibits protein synthesis, and a B subunit (mol.wt. 31 000), which binds to cells. Both sununits, as well as intact modeccin, gave single bands on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, but showed some heterogeneity on isoelectric focusing and on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 9.5. 2. A second form of modeccin, not retained by Sepharose 4B, was purified by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 6B: this form is subsequently termed modeccin 6B 3. Modeccin 6B has a molecular weight indistinguishable from that of modeccin 4B, and consists of two subunits of mol.wts. 27 000 and 31 000, joined by a disulphide bond. The subunits were not isolated because of their high insolubility in the absence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 4. As compared with modeccin 4B, modeccin 6B is slightly less toxic to animals, does not agglutinate erythrocytes, and is a more potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, giving 50% inhibition at the concentration of 0.31 microgram/ml.
Project description:Aminoethylated beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli was cleaved by CNBr. The fragment C4a was purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the fragment C4a was determined to be 9000 +/- 600. The N-terminal amino acid was found to be isoleucine. Qualitative examination of homogeneity was carried out by disc-gel electrophoresis. The fragment C4a was shown to be active as an alpha donor in complementation of beta-galactosidase activity in vitro with E. coli mutant M15, which has a deletion in the alpha region of the z gene. The molecular weights of complementable fractions from mutant M15 were found to be 123 000 +/- 2500 and 507 000 +/- 11 000, and of the complemented enzyme 522 500 +/- 11 400.
Project description:1. Erabutoxin b was reduced, S-carboxymethylated and hydrolysed with trypsin. Seven tryptic fragments were isolated by column chromatography and paper electrophoresis. Some of the fragments were further hydrolysed with alpha-chymotrypsin, pepsin, Nagarse, Proctase A or Proctase B. The amino acid sequences of the fragment peptides were determined by subtractive Edman degradation. 2. From the tryptic digest of reduced, S-carboxymethylated and trifluoroacetylated erabutoxin b two fragments were isolated. From the amino acid composition of the fragments and from the terminal sequence studies on the reduced and S-carboxymethylated erabutoxin b, the sequence of the above seven tryptic fragments was elucidated. 3. The tryptic digestion of reduced and S-carboxymethylated erabutoxin a gave fragments, only one of which was different from the corresponding fragment from erabutoxin b. The amino acid sequence analysis of the fragment peptide showed that the only difference between erabutoxins a and b was that the former had asparagine and the latter had histidine at position 26.
Project description:Synaptic-membrane fragments from ox cerebral cortex contain basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase(s) that transfer 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP to hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine residues in membrane-protein substrates. In the present work, labelled membrane fragments were partitioned into soluble and insoluble fractions with Triton X-100, Nonidet P. 40, sodium deoxycholate and urea, and the distribution of 32P-labelled protein in the fractions was determined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and radioautography. A high percentage of phosphorylated protein sustrates remained insoluble, including those whose phosphorylation was most highly stimulated by cyclic AMP. Whole membrane fragments and samples prepared by detergent extraction were fractionated on Sepharose 6B columns in the presence of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate and pooled fractions were analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and radioautography. Phosphorylated proteins were fractionated on the basis of their molecular weight, but homogeneous protein was not obtained. The results are discussed in relation to the techniques used and the results obtained in other laboratories.
Project description:We have characterized a new psychrotrophic Arthrobacter isolate which produces beta-galactosidase isozymes. When DNA from this isolate was transformed into an Escherichia coli host, we obtained three different fragments, designated 12, 14, and 15, each encoding a different beta-galactosidase isozyme. The beta-galactosidase produced from fragment 12 was of special interest because the protein subunit was smaller (about 71 versus 116 kDa) than those typically encoded by the lacZ family. The isozyme encoded by fragment 12 was purified, and its activity and thermostability were examined. Although the enzyme is highly specific towards beta-D-galactoside substrates, its levels in the isolate do not increase in cells grown with lactose. Nucleotide sequence determination showed that the gene encoding isozyme 12 is not similar to the other members of the lacZ family but has regions similar to beta-galactosidase isozymes from Bacillus stearothermophilus and B. circulans. Addition of the isozyme 12 sequence to the database made it possible to examine these enzymes as possible members of a new, separate family. Our analysis of this new family showed some conserved amino acids corresponding to the lacZ acid-base catalytic region but no homology with the nucleophilic region. On the basis of these comparisons, we designated this a new lacG family.
Project description:A more than 20000-fold purification of human serum lipoamidase is described. This was accomplished by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose CL-6B and phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, followed by preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) and finally by gel-permeation chromatography. Co-precipitation and co-chromatography of lipoamidase and biotinidase activities with equal yields and purification were obtained in all the purification steps, indicating that lipoamidase and biotinidase activities in human serum are due to the same enzyme protein. After preparative IEF, two fractions with both lipoamidase activity and biotinidase activity were found at pI 4.0 and pI 4.4 respectively. The molecular mass of the enzyme was found to be 76 kDa. When 2-mercaptoethanol was used instead of cysteine as stabilizer during the purification procedure, only one major form (pI 4.0) of the enzyme was obtained after preparative IEF. By addition of cysteine, this form was transformed to an enzyme with pI 4.4, indicating that this latter form is a cysteine adduct, produced during the IEF procedure.