N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase component A. Different forms in human tissues and fluids.
ABSTRACT: 1. Hexosaminidase A of human serum was resolved into two components, a minor form with properties identical with those of the single hexosaminidase A component of human liver, and a major form with significantly different properties. 2. The major serum hexosaminidase A form was eluted from a DEAE-cellulose column at a lower salt concentration than that required to elute the liver form. 3. A multiple-pass technique was used to elute the major serum enzyme A from a Sephadex G-150 column before that of liver enzyme A. 4. Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase converted the major component of serum hexosaminidase A into a form that was held less tightly by DEAE-cellulose, but the minor component of the A enzyme of serum, and the A enzyme of liver were not affected. 5. The hexosaminidase A from tears was similar to the A enzyme from serum, whereas those from several human tissues and from urine and lymph were similar to the liver form. 6. The A enzyme from serum may be derived from the A enzyme from liver by glycosylation before secretion.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidases A and B were purified to homogeneity from human placenta. In the initial step of purification, the enzymes were adsorbed on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and eluted from the column with alpha-methyl D-mannosides. Subsequent purification steps included DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, QAE-Sephadex [diethyl-(2-hydroxypropyl)aminoethyl-Sephadex] column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and preparative disc polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by another QAE-Sephadex chromatography for the hexosaminidase A preparation, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, calcium phosphate gel chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, QAE-Sephadex chromatography and CM-cellulose chromatography for the hexosaminidase B preparation. The purified preparations, particularly hexosaminidase A, had significantly higher specific enzyme activities than previously reported. The preparations moved on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis as single protein bands, which also stained for enzyme activity. Sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation indicated homogenous dispersion of the enzymes, and the molecular weight was estimated as about 110000 for both enzymes. Complete amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the two isoenzymes were determined, and, in contrast with previous suggestions, no sialic acid was found in the enzymes.
Project description:Those proteins of human liver that cross-reacted with antibodies raised to apparently homogenous hexosamindases A and B were detected by immunodiffusion. Cross-reacting proteins with high molecular weights (greater than 2000000) and intermediate molecular weights (70000--200000) were present both in the unadsorbed fraction and in the 0.05--0.2M-NaCl eluate obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography at pH7.0. The unadsorbed fraction also contained a cross-reacting protein of low molecular weight (10000--70000). The possible structural and functional relationships between hexosaminidase and the cross-reacting proteins are discussed. An apparently cross-reacting protein present in the 0.05M-NaCl eluate from the DEAE-cellulose column was serologically unrelated to hexosaminidase, but it gave a reaction of immunological identify with one of the apparently cross-reacting proteins having the charge and size characteristics of hexosaminidase A. It is suggested that immunochemical methods may provide criteria for the homogeneity of enzyme preparations superior to those of conventional methods.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activities were determined in homogenates of marmoset kidney, in serum and in urine by using the 4-methylumbelliferyl substrate. The enzyme activity was separated into several components by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, starch-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The kidney contained two major forms of the enzyme, A and B, which had similar pH optima and Km values. The A-form bound to DEAE-cellulose at pH 6.8, migrated towards the anode on starch-gel electrophoresis and had a pI of 5.0. The B-form did not bind to DEAE-cellulose at pH 6.8, remained near the origin on starch-gel electrophoresis and had a pI of 7.64. The isoenzymes also differed in heat stability, the B-form being the more stable. Serum contained B-form activity and, in addition, two intermediate forms (I1 and I2) were loosely bound to DEAE-cellulose. The serum A-form activity was less firmly bound to DEAE-cellulose than was the tissue A-form and was designated As. Serum from a pregnant marmoset contained a form which may be analogous to the human P-isoenzyme. Urine contained only a small amount of B-form activity, the majority being present in the A-form. The kidney A- and B-forms both had mol.wts. of 96000--100000 and the activity was predominantly lysosomal. Partial purification of the kidney A isoenzyme was undertaken. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated a relationship between marmoset kidney A-form and human liver A-form activity.
Project description:beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase I2 was purified from human liver by a combination of concanavalin A chromatography, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography on 2-acetamido-N-(6-aminohexanoyl)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Its specific activity was 130 mumol/min per mg of protein compared with values of 150 and 320 mumol/min/mg of protein for beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases A and B purified from the same tissue. Km values for I2, A and B were 1.0 mM, 0.8 mM and 0.74 mM respectively. On gradient gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions, hexosaminidase I2 behaved similarly to A and appeared to have an Mr between 100 000 and 110 000. beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase I2 was resolved into two major polypeptides, of Mr 56 000 and 29 000, on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. Immunoblotting with anti-(hexosaminidase alpha-subunit) serum confirmed that the 56 000-Mr component was the alpha-subunit and anti-(hexosaminidase B) serum reacted with the 29 000 Mr component. beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase I2 more closely resembles form A than B, but the features of its structure that allow it to be separated from A on the basis of net charge have not yet been found.
Project description:Soluble extracts prepared from bovine thymus contain an angiotensin-I-phosphorylating activity that is activated several-fold by high concentrations of NaCl. Fractionation of this protein-tyrosine kinase activity by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose yields a major diffuse peak of activity. The enzymes responsible for this activity are found at much higher levels in extracts from bovine thymus than from bovine spleen. The peak of activity from the DEAE-cellulose column can be further separated into two major peaks by chromatography on heparin-agarose. The second peak to elute from the heparin-agarose column was previously purified through several chromatographic steps to yield a 40 kDa protein-tyrosine kinase (p40). We have now partially purified the early-eluting peak of kinase activity by chromatography on columns of butyl-agarose, protamine-agarose and Sephacryl S200. The enzyme was identified following covalent modification with 5'-fluorosulphonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA) by reactivity with anti-FSBA antibodies. This procedure labelled a series of 52-56 kDa proteins. These proteins were also recognized by polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies raised against the C-terminal 33 amino acids of p56lck, a major T lymphocyte protein-tyrosine kinase. Peptide maps of the partially purified enzyme were identical to maps generated from p56lck obtained from LSTRA cells. These data suggest that bovine thymus p56lck is responsible for the activity found in the early-eluting peak from heparin-agarose. Antibodies raised against a peptide corresponding to amino acids 39-64 of p56lck, a sequence found near the N-terminus, recognized the slower-migrating, but not the faster-migrating, form of the enzyme, indicating that a fraction of the protein had been proteolysed near the N-terminus during purification. The partially purified bovine enzyme exhibited a restricted substrate specificity in vitro and did not readily phosphorylate human erythrocyte band 3, casein or histone, but was able to phosphorylate acid-treated enolase. The dilute enzyme present in fractions eluting from chromatography columns was unable to catalyse an autophosphorylation reaction. Autophosphorylation could be detected in more concentrated enzyme samples and was readily observed in immune-complex assays. The phosphorylation of angiotensin I by bovine thymus p56lck was weakly activated by polyionic compounds such as heparin and polylysine, and was strongly activated by high concentrations of NaCl.
Project description:Hexosaminidase C was separated from human brain supernatant by immunoadsorption of the A and B forms on to a column of immobilized antibody followed by preparative starch-block electrophoresis. There were some differences in the properties of hexosaminidase C preparations after each of these stages, shown by comparison of their heat-inactivation characteristics and filtration through Bio-Gel P-200. The C form prepared by both separation steps had properties which differed markedly from those of the A and B isoenzymes; its molecular weight was much larger, greater than 200000, it had optimum activity between pH6 and 7 and could not be successfully eluted from DEAE-cellulose, even with high salt concentrations, or from Sephadex G-200. These results seem to support the proposal that the C form is under a separate genetic control from the others.
Project description:Hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase of the frog Rana temporaria was partially purified by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose DE-52, Ultrogel AcA-34, DEAE-cellulose DE-52 again and, finally, hydroxyapatite. During the last step, the enzyme activity separated into two fractions; traces of a third fraction were also found. The major form was purified 6000-fold to a specific activity of 200 units/mg of protein; it was about 50% pure by electrophoretic criteria. It had mol.wt. about 85 000 as determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. It was not activated by added pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The enzyme was, however, inactivated by the pyridoxal phosphate reactants canaline and amino-oxyacetate. The enzyme was specific for 2-oxoglutarate as the amino group acceptor. Homogentisate inhibited the enzyme and adrenaline was an activator; both effects were seen at low concentrations of the effectors. The relationship between initial rate and tyrosine or 2-oxoglutarate concentration was abnormal and complex. Form-2 enzyme had similar or identical molecular weight, cofactor requirements, oxo acid specificity and kinetics.
Project description:Rabbit liver UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity was resolved into two separate fractions on DEAE-cellulose, one containing most of the transferase activity toward oestrone and the other most of the activity toward p-nitrophenol. These two activities were completely separated by rechromatography of each fraction on a second DEAE-cellulose column.
Project description:Two forms of a 6-methyladenine mRNA methyltransferase have been partially purified using a T7 transcript coding for mouse dihydrofolate reductase as an RNA substrate. Both enzyme forms modify internal adenine residues within the RNA substrate. The enzymes were purified 357- and 37-fold respectively from nuclear salt extracts prepared from HeLa cells using DEAE-cellulose and phosphocellulose chromatography. The activity of the first form of the enzyme eluted from DEAE-cellulose (major form) was at least 3-fold greater than that of the second (minor form). H.p.l.c. analysis of the hydrolysed, methylated mRNA substrates demonstrated that both forms of the enzyme produced only 6-methyladenine. The two forms of the enzyme differed in their RNA substrate specificity as well as in the dependence for a 5' cap structure. The 6-methyladenine mRNA methyltransferase activity was found to be elevated in HeLa nuclei as compared with nuclear extracts from rat kidney and brain. Enzymic activity could not be detected in nuclei from either normal rat liver or regenerating rat liver. In the case of the HeLa cell, activity could only be detected in nuclear extracts, with a small amount in the ribosomal fraction. Other HeLa subcellular fractions were void of activity.
Project description:1. An improved radioassay for glutathione synthetase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase was developed. 2. Xenopus laevis liver gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase was purified 324-fold by saline-bicarbonate extraction, protamine sulphate precipitation, CM-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and gel filtration. 3. Rat liver gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase was purified 11400-fold by a procedure similar to that employed for the Xenopus laevis enzyme. 4. Rat liver gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity was inhibited by GSH and activated by glycine. These effects, which were not found in the enzyme from Xenopus laevis, may have a regulatory significance. 5. Isotope-exchange experiments revealed fundamental differences in the partial reactions catalysed by the rat and Xenopus laevis synthetases. The enzyme from Xenopus laevis appears to follow a Bi Bi Uni Uni Ping Pong mechanism, with glutamyl-enzyme as intermediate before the addition of cysteine and the release of gamma-glutamylcysteine. The results for the rat liver enzyme are consistent with a Tri Tri sequential mechanism.