Influence of mitochondria on phospholipid synthesis in preparations from rat liver.
ABSTRACT: 1. The addition of mitochondria to an incubation system containing the soluble and microsomal fractions of rat liver enhances severalfold the incorporation of each of ethanolamine, phosphorylethanolamine and CDP-ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine. 2. In the presence of microsomal, mitochondrial and soluble fractions, CDP-ethanolamine exhibits the greatest initial rate of incorporation (approx. 6nmol/h per mg of protein), being slightly faster than that of phosphorylethanolamine (approx. 5nmol/h per mg of protein). Incorporation of ethanolamine proceeds very slowly for the first 20min and only after 30min gives rates approaching those of the other two precursors. 3. By using a substrate ;dilution' technique it was shown that in the reconstituted system the affinity of each of the enzymes for their respective substrates is very high: 10mum for ethanolamine, 25mum for phosphorylethanolamine and 5mum for CDP-ethanolamine. 4. Isolation of the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions from the medium after incubation together with phosphorylethanolamine showed that about 70% of the total radioactivity was present in the microsomal fraction and about 30% in the mitochondria after only 20min. Similar experiments with ethanolamine as precursor revealed that after 20min only about 15% of the total radioactivity was present in the mitochondria but that after 40min about 30% was present in this fraction. 5. Heating and phospholipase treatment of mitochondria, but not freeze-thawing, eliminated the stimulatory effect of mitochondria on phospholipid synthesis. 6. The reconstituted system exhibits an absolute requirement for Mg(2+) (2mm gave maximal rates) and is inhibited by very low concentrations of Ca(2+) (100mum-Ca(2+) produced half-maximal inhibition with 3mm-Mg(2+)). Further addition of Mg(2+) overcame the Ca(2+) inhibition, suggesting that the inhibitory effect is readily reversible. 7. The concept that modification of the Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ratio is a means of controlling the rate of cellular phospholipid synthesis is introduced.
Project description:1. The action of L-thyroxine on the incorporation of radioactive choline or CDP-choline into phosphatidylcholine in vitro was explored in liver and brain microsomal fraction and mitochondria obtained from young adult rats. 2. In liver mitochondria isolated from animals treated with L-thyroxine (40 mg/kg body wt. during 6 days), the incorporation of both radioactive precursors into phosphatidylcholine was significantly decreased compared with normal controls, whereas in the total homogenate and in the microsomal fraction the incorporation was similar in the experimental and control groups. In subcellular fractions isolated from brain, the incorporation of precursors was similar in L-thyroxine-treated and normal animals. 3. Liver mitochondria isolated from normal animals incubated in vitro with CDP-choline, in the presence of different concentrations of L-thyroxine, showed also a marked decrease in the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine, whereas no significant changes were found in the total homogenate and in the microsomal fraction compared with control experiments. 4. The differential effect of L-thyroxine on the incorporation of radioactive precursors into phosphatidylcholine of isolated liver subcellular fractions gives further support to the hypothesis that liver mitochondria can independently synthesize part of their own phospholipids. 5. Possible mechanisms of the action of the hormone at the mitochondrial level are discussed.
Project description:1. The use of ;marker' enzymes for investigating the contamination by endoplasmic reticulum of mitochondrial and synaptosomal (nerve-ending) fractions isolated from guinea-pig brain was examined. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase appeared to be satisfactory. With the synaptosomal preparation there was a non-occluded enzymic activity believed to arise from contaminating microsomes and an occluded form released by detergent, which probably was derived from some type of intraterminal smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 2. Isolated brain mitochondria, both intact and osmotically shocked, could not synthesize more labelled phosphatidylcholine from CDP-[Me-(14)C]choline or phosphoryl[Me-(14)C]choline than could be accounted for by microsomal contamination. They could synthesize only phosphatidic acid and diphosphatidylglycerol from a [(32)P]P(i) precursor and not nitrogen-containing phosphoglycerides or phosphatidylinositol. 3. The synaptosomal outer membrane and the intraterminal mitochondria could not synthesize phosphatidylcholine from CDP-[Me-(14)C]choline but the synaptic vesicles and probably the intraterminal ;endoplasmic reticulum' appeared to be capable of catalysing the incorporation of label from this substrate into their phospholipids. 4. Microsomal fractions and synaptosomes from guinea-pig brain could incorporate [Me-(14)C]choline into their phospholipids by a non-energy-requiring exchange process, which was catalysed by Ca(2+). Fractionation of the synaptosomes after such an exchange had taken place revealed that the label was predominantly in the intraterminal mitochondria and not associated with membranes containing NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. 5. On the intraperitoneal injection of [(32)P]P(i) into guinea pigs, incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid was much faster than into the nitrogen-containing phosphoglycerides. Mitochondria and microsomal fractions showed a roughly equivalent incorporation into individual phospholipids, and that into synaptosomes was appreciably less, whereas the phospholipids of myelin showed little (32)P incorporation up to 10h.
Project description:1. The kinetics of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in rat liver were followed 5-60 min after the intraportal injection of [14-C]choline and [3-H]-ethanolamine. 2. At all time-intervals the specific radioactivity of CDP-choline was only about half that of phosphorylcholine. This indicated that CDP-choline was formed at a similar rate from phosphorylcholine and phosphatidylcholines, the latter probably through the reverse reaction of cholinephosphotransferase (EC 126.96.36.199.). In view of recent data obtained from experiments in vitro this implies a significant role for the cholinephosphotransferase reaction in the turnover of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine. 3. The specific radioactivity of CDP-ethanolamine was about twice that of phosphorylethanolamine at all time-intervals studied. This supports a previous suggestion that the liver phosphorylethanolamine pool is subject to compartmentation and shows that there is no rapid equilibration between different pools. In contrast with a recent study, no evidence was found for any significant methylation of phosphoryl-or CDP-ethanolamine to the corresponding choline derivative. 4. Quantitative data on the biosynthesis of molecular species of phosphoLIPIDS via CDP derivatives were calculated according to simple kinetic models. They were in the same range as those calculated from earlier data on precusors incorporated via diacylglycerols. 5. The proportion of radioactive phosphatidylethanolamines appearing in the plasma was approximately ten times lower than that for phosphatidylcholines. No selectivity was observed in the transfer into plasma of different molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine.
Project description:1. The anaerobic rumen protozoon Entodinium caudatum was incubated either intact or with various radioactive precursors of phospholipids after ultrasonication. 2. Pulse-chase experiments showed a rapid turnover of phosphatidylinositol and much slower turnovers of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. 3. E. caudatum imbibed choline very rapidly; this was immediately and exclusively converted into phosphatidylcholine which was shown by radioautography after 10 min to be distributed throughout the cell membranes. 4. Phosphatidylcholine was synthesized through a phosphorylcholine-CDP-choline pathway, the methylation or base-exchange pathways not being present. 5. Under suitable conditions [Me-14C]choline can be substantially (50-60%) converted into CDP-choline by sonicated E. caudatum and this provides an excellent method of preparing this biosynthetic intermediary. 6. [2-14C]Ethanolamine was taken up much less readily than choline. The former was incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine by the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. 7. Doubly labelled [32P]phosphatidyl[2-3H]ethanolamine was converted into ceramide phosphorylethanolamine and N-(1-carboxyethyl)phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, without change in the isotopic ratio. Ceramide phosphoryl [2-14C]-ethanolamine was converted into phsophatidylethanolamine. 8. Palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were taken by E. caudatum cells and incorporated into phospholipids. By contrast, although stearic acid was taken up it was hardly incorporated into phospholipids.
Project description:1. In order to determine the initial intracellular site of synthesis of cytochrome c in the liver cell, groups of rats were injected with [(14)C]lysine and killed 7.5, 15, 30 and 60min. later. The livers were homogenized in 0.3m-sucrose and subcellular fractions obtained. The mitochondrial fraction was further subfractionated. Pure cytochrome c was isolated from extracts of each fraction, obtained first with water at pH4.0 and then with 0.15m-sodium chloride. 2. A comparison of the kinetics of incorporation of [(14)C]lysine into total protein for each particulate fraction showed the usual two different kinds of kinetics. Incorporation into all the mitochondrial subfractions and the nuclear fraction rose gradually to a plateau value at about 20min., in contrast with that into the two microsomal fractions which rose rapidly to a peak value about seven times that for the mitochondrial fractions. The kinetics for the incorporation into mitochondrial cytochrome c showed a plateau value at 30min. about three times that for the total mitochondrial protein. There was no difference in the specific radioactivity of the mitochondrial cytochrome c extracted with water or 0.15m-sodium chloride or between the different mitochondrial subfractions. In contrast, the cytochrome c isolated from water extracts of the microsomal fractions had a lower specific radioactivity than that obtained from the 0.15m-sodium chloride extract. The specific radioactivity of the latter showed a rapid rise to a peak value about four times that for the mitochondrial cytochrome c, and the shape of the curve was similar to that for the total protein of the microsomal fraction. The results suggest that cytochrome c is synthesized in toto by the morphological components of the microsomal fraction. It seems first to be bound tightly to a microsomal particle, passing then to a looser microsomal binding and being finally transferred to the mitochondria. The newly synthesized cytochrome c in the mitochondrion could not be differentiated from the old by its degree of extractability at pH 4.0.
Project description:We have investigated whether the growth requirement of keratinocytes for ethanolamine is due to defective synthesis of ethanolamine phosphoacylglycerols (EPG) via decarboxylation of serine phosphoacylglycerols. Proliferating keratinocytes readily incorporated [3H]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and [3H]serine into phosphatidylserine (PS) and PE. Non-proliferating keratinocytes in ethanolamine-free medium incorporated [3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine (PC), PS and PE in decreasing order of label incorporated. The order of decreasing incorporation of glycerol after addition of ethanolamine to the medium was PC > PE > PS. Incubation of non-proliferating keratinocytes with [3H]serine resulted in incorporation of label into PS and PE. The extent of incorporation of [3H]serine into PS in non-proliferating keratinocytes was not less than that in proliferating cells. Addition of ethanolamine to the medium of non-proliferating keratinocytes did not change the quantity of label incorporated into PS, but resulted in a decrease of label incorporated into PE. When cells were prelabelled overnight with [3H]serine and subsequently incubated in medium containing ethanolamine, the loss of label from PS was inhibited relative to that of control cells incubated in medium without ethanolamine. The activity of PS decarboxylase activity in keratinocyte mitochondria was inhibited by phosphoethanolamine and PE, but not by ethanolamine or CDP-ethanolamine. Both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes incorporated [3H]serine into ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids. Taken together, the above results suggest that (1) both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes are able to synthesize PE and ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids from serine, and therefore the ethanolamine-requirement of the cells is not due to a defective decarboxylase pathway; (2) any inability of the decarboxylase pathway to meet cellular EPG requirement is not due to decreased synthesis of serine phospholipids; (3) synthesis of PE via decarboxylation, the major route in nonproliferating keratinocytes, appears to decrease when ethanolamine is made available and the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is functioning; (4) phosphoethanolamine and increased PE produced from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway may inhibit PS decarboxylase activity in the cells and provide a means of coordinating the synthesis of PE by the two pathways to prevent excess production.
Project description:Exposure of isolated rat hepatocytes to glucagon or chlorophenylthio cyclic AMP led to an inhibition of the incorporation of [1,2-14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine. Pulse-chase experiments and measurement of the activities of the enzymes involved in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway provided evidence that the inhibitory effect of glucagon on the synthesis de novo of phosphatidylethanolamine was not caused by a diminished conversion of ethanolamine phosphate into CDP-ethanolamine. The observations suggested that the glucagon-induced inhibition of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine is probably due to a decreased supply of diacylglycerols, resulting in a decreased formation of phosphatidylethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine and diacylglycerols.
Project description:1. The regional and subcellular distribution of the incorporation of sn-[(14)C]glycerol 3-phosphate into rat brain lipids in vitro was investigated and compared with the relative specific activity of various chemical and enzyme markers. The similarity between the subcellular distribution of this incorporation and of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity indicated that the synthesis of phosphatidic acid via this route correlated with the presence of endoplasmic reticulum. 2. Experiments in which various amounts of the microsomal fraction were added to fixed amounts of nuclear, myelin, nerve-ending and mitochondrial preparations clearly demonstrated that the endoplasmic-reticulum contamination of these fractions was entirely responsible for the incorporation of sn-[(14)C]glycerol 3-phosphate. 3. The presence of CMP or CTP inhibited the incorporation of sn-[(14)C]glycerol 3-phosphate into the whole homogenate. Similar effects were observed with individual fractions, except for the mitochondria. With the mitochondrial fraction the effect of these cytidine nucleotides varied with the preparation, stimulating in some preparations and inhibiting with other preparations. The presence of CDP-choline stimulated the incorporation into the whole homogenate and to a lesser extent into the subcellular fractions. 4. These results indicate that the various organelles of the central nervous system are more dependent on endoplasmic reticulum for the production of glycerolipids de novo than has previously been appreciated.
Project description:1. The calcium-stimulated incorporation of [2-(14)C]ethanolamine and l-[3-(14)C]-serine into the phospholipids of homogenates of the fat bodies from larval houseflies (Musca domestica) was studied. 2. Ethanolamine and serine acted as competitive inhibitors with one another. N-Methylethanolamine was not distinguished from ethanolamine by the system. Tris buffer was also a competitor with these compounds, and a number of other amino alcohols were inhibitory, probably competitively. 3. The incorporation of [(32)P]phosphorylethanolamine into phospholipids was observed in suspensions of whole fat bodies. This incorporation was stimulated by magnesium. 4. During the incubation of the homogenates, a calcium-stimulated breakdown of phospholipids by a phospholipase A occurred. 5. These results are compared with results published for similar mammalian systems, and their possible physiological significance is discussed.
Project description:Increasing concentrations of CDP-choline progressively inhibit the measured incorporation of CDP-[2-14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine catalysed by the ethanolaminephosphotransferase present in endoplasmic-reticulum membranes isolated from castor-bean endosperm cells. This inhibition parallels that observed during CDP-[Me-14C]choline incorporation and suggests that a single enzyme utilizes both these substrates.