Substrate specificity of an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase produced by Acetobacter turbidans A.T.C.C. 9325.
ABSTRACT: A partially purified preparation of an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase was obtained from Acetobacter turbidans A.T.C.C. 9325, which catalyses synthesis of 7-(d-alpha-amino-alpha-phenylacetamido)-3-cephem-3-methyl-4- carboxylic acid (cephalexin) from methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate and 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. The enzyme preparation catalysed both cephalosprin synthesis from 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid and suitable amino acid esters (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, l-cysteine methyl ester, glycine ethyl ester, d-alanine methyl ester, methyl dl-alpha-aminoiso-butyrate, l-serine methyl ester, d-leucine methyl ester, l-methionine methyl ester) and the hydrolysis of such esters. The substrate specificity of the enzyme preparation for the hydrolysis closely paralleled the acyl-donor specificity for cephalosporin synthesis, even to the reaction rates. Only alpha-amino acid derivatives could act as acyl donors. The hydrogen atom on the alpha-carbon atom was not always required by acyl donors. The hydrolysis rate was markedly diminished by adding 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid to reaction mixtures, but no effect on the total reaction rate (the hydrolysis rate plus synthesis rate) was observed with various concentrations of 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. Both the hydrolytic and the synthetic activities of the enzyme preparation were inhibited by high concentrations of some acyl donors (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, ethyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate). The enzyme preparation hydrolysed alpha-amino acid esters much more easily than alpha-amino acid derivatives with an acid-amide bond.
Project description:1. Esters of gamma-guanidino-l-alpha-toluene-p-sulphonamidobutyric acid (alpha-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-l-norarginine) have been synthesized and shown to be hydrolysed by bovine trypsin and thrombin. As substrates for these enzymes, they were better than esters of alpha-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-l-homoarginine or of alpha-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-l-ornithine but not as good as esters of alpha-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-l-arginine. 2. With trypsin as catalyst, the methyl and propyl esters are hydrolysed at the same rate at high substrate concentrations and hence deacylation of the acyl-enzyme appears to be rate-determining. In the presence of thrombin, however, the methyl ester is hydrolysed much faster than the n-propyl ester. 3. The variation of k(0) with pH indicates that groups with pK((app.)) values of 7.05+/-0.02 and 6.53+/-0.02 must be dissociated in trypsin and thrombin respectively for hydrolysis to proceed. 4. Activation constants have been determined for the trypsin-catalysed hydrolysis of methyl gamma-guanidino-l-alpha-toluene-p-sulphonamidobutyrate and have been compared with the corresponding constants for the hydrolysis of homologous substrates. 5. Cholate increases k(0) and decreases K(m); the effects are more pronounced with thrombin than with trypsin.
Project description:alpha-Chymotrypsin (EC 18.104.22.168)-catalysed syntheses of peptides were performed with various N-acylated amino acid or peptide esters as donors, and amino acid derivatives, peptides or their derivatives as acceptors. Under optimal conditions the synthesis was almost quantitative. As acceptor nucleophiles, free amino acids or the ester derivatives were inadequate, but amino acid amides or hydrazides, di- or tri-peptides, or the amides, hydrazides and esters of the peptides were useful. The nucleophile specificity for synthesis was markedly similar to the leaving-group specificity in hydrolysis; hydrophobic or bulky amino acid residues were most effecient at both P1' and P2' positions [notation of Schechter & Berger (1967) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 27, 157-162], but L-proline as well as D-amino acid residues were the worst choices. The synthesis was further dependent on the solubility of the products synthesized; a higher yield of products was expected with lower solubility. As donor esters, good substrates were all useful. Accordingly, fragment condensation was possible by using N-acylated peptide esters and various peptides. The present study suggested that alpha-chymotrypsin may become a useful tool for peptide synthesis.
Project description:An enzyme preparation that catalyses the deacylation of mono- and di-acyl phospholipids, galactosyl diglycerides, mono- and di-glycerides has been partially purified from potato tubers. The preparation also hydrolyses methyl and p-nitrophenyl esters and acts preferentially on esters of long-chain fatty acids. Triglycerides, wax esters and sterol esters are not hydrolysed. The same enzyme preparation catalyses acyl transfer reactions in the presence of alcohols and also catalyses the synthesis of wax esters from long-chain alcohols and free fatty acids. Gel filtration, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and free-flow electrophoresis failed to achieve any separation of the acyl-hydrolase activities towards different classes of acyl lipids (phosphatidylcholine, monogalactosyl diglyceride, mono-olein, methyl palmitate and p-nitrophenyl palmitate) or any separation of these activities from a major protein component. For each class of lipid the acyl-hydrolase activity was subject to substrate inhibition, was inhibited by relatively high concentrations of di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate and the pH responses were changed by Triton X-100. The hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine was stimulated 30-40-fold by Triton X-100. The specific activities of the potato enzyme with galactolipids were at least 70 times higher than those reported for a homogeneous galactolipase enzyme purified from runner bean leaves. The possibility that a single lipolytic acyl-hydrolase enzyme is responsible for the deacylation of several classes of acyl lipid is discussed.
Project description:Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k(cat), but K(m) also increased so the specificity constant, k(cat)/K(m), remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds epsilon-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones.
Project description:1. Saline extract of sheep pancreas acetone-dried powder was shown to catalyse acyl ester hydrolysis of spinach leaf galactosyl diglycerides and also galactosylglucosyl diglyceride of Lactobacillus casei. 2. Sodium deoxycholate stimulated the enzyme activity. Ca(2+) had no effect on the hydrolysis of monogalactosyl diglyceride, but it enhanced that of digalactosyl diglyceride. When added together, there was considerably less activity with both the substrates. 3. Optimal hydrolysis was observed at pH7.2. 4. The initial point of hydrolysis was at position-1, leading to the formation of monogalactosyl monoglyceride and digalactosyl monoglyceride. Further hydrolysis to the corresponding galactosylglycerols and later to galactose and glycerol was also observed, indicating the presence of alpha- and beta-galactosidases in the enzyme preparation. 5. Formation of monogalactosyl diglyceride from digalactosyl diglyceride by the action of alpha-galactosidase was noted. 6. Monogalactosyl diglyceride was also hydrolysed by beta-galactosidase to a limited extent, giving rise to diacylglycerol and galactose. 7. Attempts at purification of monogalactosyl diglyceride acyl hydrolase by using protamine sulphate treatment, Sephadex G-100 filtration and DEAE-cellulose chromatography gave a partially purified enzyme which showed 9- and 81-fold higher specific activity towards monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride respectively. This still showed acyl ester hydrolysis activity towards methyl oleate, phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerol. 8. When sheep, rat and guinea-pig tissues were compared, guinea-pig tissues showed the highest activity towards both monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride. In all the species pancreas showed higher activity than intestine.
Project description:A series of arylalkanoate esters and alpha-acetamidoarylalkanoate esters were tested as substrates for alpha-chymotrypsin and subtilisin BPN'. Chymotrypsin hydrolysed N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester and methyl 4-phenylbutyrate faster than their respective higher and lower homologues, whereas methyl 2-acetamido-6-phenylhexanoate and methyl 6-phenylhexanoate were better substrates for subtilisin than their lower homologues. N-Acetyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester and its analogue, N-acetyl-3-(1-naphthyl)-alanine methyl ester, were hydrolysed 23 times faster by chymotrypsin than by subtilisin. These results indicate that the binding site of alpha-chymotrypsin is roughly 1.1nm (11A) long and curved, whereas that of subtilisin is a longer system and less curved. The stereo-specificity during the hydrolysis of typical substrates by both enzymes was found to vary over a wide range. The enhancing effect of the alpha-acetamido group in the l-series of substrates and the detrimental effect in the d-series of substrates also varies considerably.
Project description:Methanol or ethanol can replace water in the action of certain chromosomal beta-lactamases on benzylpenicillin: the products are alpha-methyl or alpha-ethyl benzylpenicilloate. The beta-lactamases were from a mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18S that produces the enzyme constitutively [Flett, Curtis & Richmond (1976) J. Bacteriol. 127, 1585-1586; Berks, Redhead & Abraham (1982) J. Gen. Microbiol. 128, 155-159] and from Escherichia coli K12 (the ampC beta-lactamase) [Lindström, Boman & Steele (1970) J. Bacteriol. 101, 218-231]. The variation of the rates of alcoholysis and hydrolysis with concentration of alcohol show that the rate-determining step is breakdown of an intermediate. This intermediate is likely to be the acyl-enzyme. The esters, alpha-methyl or alpha-ethyl benzylpenicilloate, are themselves substrates for the Pseudomonas beta-lactamase, benzylpenicilloic acid being formed. Thus this beta-lactamase can be an esterase. The kinetics for the hydrolysis of cloxacillin by the Pseudomonas beta-lactamase are consistent with the acyl-enzyme, formed by acylation of serine-80, being an intermediate in the overall hydrolysis.
Project description:Several esters of the alpha-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl and alpha-N-benzoyl derivatives of S-(3-aminopropyl)-l-cysteine and the methyl ester of S-(4-aminobutyl)-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-l-cysteine were synthesized. The kinetics of hydrolysis of these and esters of the alpha-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl and alpha-N-benzoyl derivatives of l-arginine, l-lysine, S-(2-aminoethyl)-l-cysteine and esters of gamma-guanidino-l-alpha-toluene-p-sulphonamidobutyric acid and alpha-N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-l-homoarginine by alpha- and beta-trypsin were compared. On the basis of values of the specificity constants (k(cat.)/K(m)), the two enzymes display similar catalytic efficiency towards some substrates. In other cases alpha-trypsin is less efficient than beta-trypsin. It is possible that alpha-trypsin possesses greater molecular flexibility than beta-trypsin.
Project description:Subtilisin BPN' hydrolysed N-acetyl-l-3-(2-naphthyl)-alanine methyl ester, N-acetyl-l-leucine methyl ester and N-acetyl-l-valine methyl ester, faster than alpha-chymotrypsin. Of eight ;locked' substrates tested, only methyl 5,6-benzindan-2-carboxylate was hydrolysed faster by subtilisin, whereas the other esters were better substrates for chymotrypsin. Compared with the values for chymotrypsin, the stereospecific ratios during the hydrolysis of the optically active locked substrates by subtilisin were decreased by one and two orders of magnitude for bi- and tri-cyclic substrates respectively. The polar groups adjacent to the alpha-carbon atom of locked substrates did not contribute significantly to the reactivity of the more active optical isomers, but had a detrimental effect on the less active antipodes during hydrolysis by both the enzymes. These studies show that the binding site of subtilisin BPN' is longer and broader than that of alpha-chymotrypsin.
Project description:1. The inhibition of pepsin-catalysed hydrolysis of N-acetyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-phenylalanylglycine by products and product analogues was studied. 2. The non-competitive nature of the inhibition by the product N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine confirms an ordered release of products, and points to a common mechanism (involving an amino-enzyme) for pepsin-catalysed transpeptidation and hydrolysis reactions. 3. N-Acetyl-l-phenylalanine ethyl ester is also a non-competitive inhibitor, but here the inhibition is of the ;dead-end' type. No ethanol is detectable in reaction mixtures, indicating that this ester cannot act as an amino group acceptor in a transpeptidation process. 4. The same is true for N-methanesulphonyl-l-phenylalanine methyl and methyl thiol esters. No methanethiol is liberated when the methyl thiol ester is present as an inhibitor of the hydrolytic reaction, and the hope that such a thiol ester would effectively trap the amino-enzyme was not fulfilled.