Purification and subunit analysis of wheat-germ ribonucleic acid polymerase II.
ABSTRACT: A procedure is described for the purification of the alpha-amanitin-sensitive DNA-dependent RNA polymerase [EC 22.214.171.124] from wheat germ. Solubilization of the enzyme activity was achieved by sonication of a crude extract in a high-salt buffer. Purification involved precipitation with protamine sulphate and (NH(4))(2)SO(4), chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and phosphocellulose, and sucrose gradient centrifugation. Under denaturing conditions the enzyme dissociated into five polypeptides with molecular weights and molar ratios of 220000 (0.9), 170000 (0.1), 140000 (1.0), 45000 (0.2), and 40000 (0.4). Approx. 1mg of purified RNA polymerase was obtained as a routine from 100g of starting material.
Project description:Purified viral-envelope glycoproteins from influenza A virus were found to bind to two fragments of the fibronectin molecule. Human plasma fibronectin was digested by leucocyte cathepsin G, and three different fragments, of Mr 30000, 40000 and 12000-140000, with specific binding functions were isolated. Micelles of radiolabelled influenza A glycoprotein were allowed to bind to these fragments immobilized on polystyrene micro-titre wells. The C-terminal 120000-14000-Mr fragments that carry the cell-binding activity bound viral proteins most efficiently, whereas the 40000-Mr gelatin-binding fragment bound considerably less. The N-terminal 30000-Mr Staphylococcus aureus-binding fragment was negative in the assays. Laminin, a basement-membrane protein, also bound viral proteins, though less effectively than fibronectin. The binding was abolished if laminin or fibronectin fragments were pretreated with neuraminidase. This suggests that the sialic acids in the sugar moieties of these glycoproteins are involved in the binding. The affinity of viral-envelope glycoproteins for certain domains of fibronectin and for laminin may play a role in virus-cell interactions.
Project description:The biogenesis of three intestinal microvillar enzymes, maltase-glucoamylase (EC 126.96.36.199), aminopeptidase A (aspartate aminopeptidase, EC 188.8.131.52) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 184.108.40.206), was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small-intestinal explants kept in organ culture. The earliest detectable forms of the enzymes were polypeptides of Mr 225000, 140000 and 115000 respectively. These were found to represent the enzymes in a 'high-mannose' state of glycosylation, as judged by their susceptibility to treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (EC 220.127.116.11). After about 40-60 min of chase, maltase-glucoamylase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV were further modified to yield the mature polypeptides of Mr 245000, 170000 and 137000 respectively, which were expressed at the microvillar membrane after 60-90 min of chase. The fact that the enzymes before reaching the microvillar membrane were found in a Ca2+-precipitated membrane fraction (intracellular and basolateral membranes), but not in soluble form, indicates that during biogenesis maltase-glucoamylase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV are transported and assembled in a membrane-bound state.
Project description:High-yielded Bi2Te3 hexagonal nanoplates were fabricated via a facile solvothermal method with the assistance of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on the morphology and size distribution of the products were illustrated in this study. Molecular weight of PVP is significant for determining the morphology of Bi2Te3. The hexagonal nanoplates with high yield were obtained in the presence of PVP with molecular weight of 40000-45000. The average size and size distribution of Bi2Te3 nanoplates can be slightly varied by controlling concentration of PVP. High-yielded Bi2Te3 nanoplates exhibit characteristics of saturable absorption, identified by open-aperture Z-scan technique. The synthesized Bi2Te3 nanoplates with large saturation intensity of 4.6 GW/cm(2) and high modulation depth of 45.95% generated a stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.5 ?m. In comparison with recently reported Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated Bi2Te3 nanosheets, our passive Q-switching operations could be conducted at a relatively low threshold power of 30.2 mW or a quite high output power of 99.45 mW by tuning the cavity parameters.
Project description:Rats were fed for 6 days on a diet containing either 3 or 20% high-quality protein. Nuclei were isolated from liver and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (EC 18.104.22.168) extracted with 1 M-(NH4)2SO4. The proteins were then precipitated with 3.5 M-(NH4)2SO4 and after dialysis applied to a DEAE-Sephadex column. The column was developed with a gradient of (NH4)2SO4. Polymerase I separated well from alpha-amanitin-sensitive polymerase II. The enzyme activities were compared between the two dietary groups. Rats that had received 3% protein showed a lower polymerase I activity per g wet wt. of liver, per mg of DNA and per mg of protein. Polymerase II was lower in activity per g wet wt. of liver and per mg of DNA, but was higher per mg of protein. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretograms showed a higher proportion of contaminating proteins in polymerase II fractions isolated from 20%-protein-fed rats. The data explain the lower activity obtained per mg of protein in these rats. It is concluded that a decrease in dietary protein content from 20 to 3% induces a fall in content and specific activity of RNA polymerase I and II in liver.
Project description:DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (EC 22.214.171.124) ACTIVITIES FROM NORMAL BHK-21/C13 cells and from BHK-21/C13 cells transformed by polyoma virus (PYY cells) were solubilized and fractionated on columns of DEAE-Sephadex. Various properties of the A and B enzymes from the two types of cell were compared. 1. The yields of polymerase relative to the DNA content of the nuclear preparations are similar for both cell types. 2. The ionic-strength optima of polymerases A and B are 12.5 mM and 100mM with respect to (NH4)2SO4 for both cell types. 3. The Mn2+/Mg2+ activity ratio (measured at the respective optimum for each cation) for polymerase A from BHK-21/C13 cells was 1.48 and for the polymerase A from PYY cells was 0.55. The corresponding ratios for polymerase B were 10.11 for BHK-21/C13 cells and 22.75 for PYY cells. 4. Minor differences in the ability of the A polymerases to transcribe native and denatured DNA templates were observed; such differences were not apparent when the B polymerases were compared. 5. All the polymerases were inhibited completely by actinomycin D and by rifampicin AF/013, but not markedly so by rifampicin. Alpha-amanitin inhibited polymerase B but not polymerase A.
Project description:1. Filtrates from cultures of different ages of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. were fractionated by gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. Five cellulases (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5) were found, and their molecular weights, estimated by gel filtration, were 46000-48000 (C1), 30000-35000 (C2), 15000-18000 (C3), 10000-11000 (C4) and 4800-5500 (C5). 3. Cellulase C5 was absent from old culture filtrates. 4. Cellulase C1 had little or no activity on CM-cellulose (viscometric assay), but degraded cotton flock and Whatman cellulose powder to give cellobiose only. 5. The other components (C2-C5) produced cellobiose and smaller amounts of glucose and cellotriose from cellulosic substrates and were more active in lowering the viscosity of CM-cellulose. 6. The ratio of activities assayed by viscometry and by the release of reducing sugars from CM-cellulose increased with decrease in the molecular weights of cellulases C2-C5. 7. Cellobiose inhibited the activities of the cellulases, but glucose stimulated at low concentrations although it inhibited at high concentrations. 8. A high-molecular-weight beta-glucosidase (component B1, mol.wt. 350000-380000) predominated in filtrates from young cultures, but a low-molecular-weight enzyme (B4, mol.wt. 45000-47000) predominated in older filtrates. 9. Intermediate molecular species of beta-glucosidase (B2, mol.wt. 170000-180000; B3, mol.wt. 83000-87000) were also found. 10. Cellulases C2-C5 acted in synergism with C1, particularly in the presence of beta-glucosidase.
Project description:In contrast with most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Escherichia coli is coded for by two genes, the normal lysS gene and the inducible lysU gene. During its purification from E. coli K12, lysyl-tRNA synthetase was monitored by its aminoacylation and adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine (Ap4A) synthesis activities. Ap4A synthesis was measured by a new assay using DEAE-cellulose filters. The heterogeneity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) was revealed on hydroxyapatite; we focused on the first peak, LysRS1, because of its higher Ap4A/lysyl-tRNA activity ratio at that stage. Additional differences between LysRS1 and LysRS2 (major peak on hydroxyapatite) were collected. LysRS1 was eluted from phosphocellulose in the presence of the substrates, whereas LysRS2 was not. Phosphocellulose chromatography was used to show the increase of LysRS1 in cells submitted to heat shock. Also, the Mg2+ optimum in the Ap4A-synthesis reaction is much higher for LysRS1. LysRS1 showed a higher thermostability, which was specifically enhanced by Zn2+. These results in vivo and in vitro strongly suggest that LysRS1 is the heat-inducible lysU-gene product.
Project description:1. RNA polymerase activity of Escherichia coli extracts prepared from cells in exponential and stationary phases of growth, when measured in the presence and absence of external template, showed significant qualitative differences. 2. In both extracts, polymerase activity was higher when assayed with external template, suggesting the presence of a pool of enzyme not bound to cellular DNA. 3. In the crude extract, the fraction of enzyme bound to cellular DNA is higher during the exponential phase of growth. 4. A method is described for the purification of enzyme molecules not tightly bound to cellular DNA from exponential- and stationary-phase cultures. 5. Purified enzyme preparations showed differences in template requirement and subunit composition. 6. On phosphocellulose chromatography of stationary-phase enzyme, a major portion of polymerase activity eluted from the column with 0.25m-KCl. In the case of exponential-phase enzyme, polymerase activity eluted from a phosphocellulose column mainly with 0.35m-KCl. 7. Enzyme assays done with excess of bacteriophage T(4) DNA showed a strong inhibition of stationary-phase enzyme by this template. The exponential-phase enzyme was only slightly inhibited by excess of bacteriophage T(4) DNA.
Project description:The isolation and purification of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase I (EC 126.96.36.199) from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) callus cells grown in suspension culture is described. The enzyme was solubilized from isolated chromatin. Purification was achieved by using DEAE- and phospho-cellulose in batches, followed by column chromatography on DEAE- and phospho-cellulose (two columns) and density-gradient centrifugation. The highly purified enzyme was stable over several months. The properties of purified parsley RNA polymerase I were investigated. Optimum concentration for Mn2+ was 1 mM, and for Mg2+ 4-6 mM, Mn2+ was slightly more stimulatory than Mg2+. The enzyme was most active at low ionic strengths [10-20 mM-(NH4)SO4]. The influence of various phosphates was tested: pyrophosphate inhibited RNA polymerase at low concentrations, whereas orthophosphate had no effect on the enzyme activity. ADP was slightly inhibitory, and AMP had no effect on the enzyme reaction. Nucleoside triphosphates and bivalent cations in equimolar concentrations in the range 4-11 mM did not influence the RNA synthesis in vitro. Free nucleoside triphosphates in excess of this 1:1 ratio inhibited the enzyme activity, unlike free bivalent cations, which stimulated RNA polymerase I.
Project description:1. A homologous series of beta-glcosidase (beta-D-glcoside glcohydrolase, EC 188.8.131.52), which varied in relative amounts in different preparations from cultures of similar and different age, was observed in cultures od Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat grown for 4-8 week on cotton flock (cellulose) as carbon source. 2. Aging of the purified high-molecular-weight species led to some amount of siddociation into a homolous series of lower-molecular-weight speices. 3. Rough molecular-weight estimates, by gel filtration, of the various species derived from the purifeid high-molecular-weight enzyme were 350000-3800000, 170000, 180000, 83000-87000 and 45000-47000. 4. Electron micrographs of the negatively stained 350000-380000-molecular-weight enzyme showed that the molecule is an octamer in which each roughly spherical monomer occupies a corner of a cube with each side about 7.14nm long. 5. Carboxamidomethylation of the reduced form of each molecular-weight species of the enzyme led to irreversible dissociation of the molecules into electrophoretically identical polypeptides with a moleclar weight of 10000-12000. 6. These results suggest a slow association-dissociation of the type (8n)in equilibrium 2 (4n) in equilibrium 4(2n) in equilibrium 8(n), where n is defined as the monomer. The monomer is in turn made up of four polypeptide a subunits whi-ch are non-catalytic. 7. The Michaelis constants (Km) and heat stability of the four wnzymically active molecular species derived from the purified enzyme increased with molecular complexity, whereas all four species were inhibited by glycerol (100nM) at low concentrations of substrate (o-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) but activated at high substrat concentrations. 8. Only the lowest-molecular-weight species (45species (45,000-47000 mol. wt.) showed substrate inhibition.