Separation and properties of human brain hexosaminidase C.
ABSTRACT: Hexosaminidase C was separated from human brain supernatant by immunoadsorption of the A and B forms on to a column of immobilized antibody followed by preparative starch-block electrophoresis. There were some differences in the properties of hexosaminidase C preparations after each of these stages, shown by comparison of their heat-inactivation characteristics and filtration through Bio-Gel P-200. The C form prepared by both separation steps had properties which differed markedly from those of the A and B isoenzymes; its molecular weight was much larger, greater than 200000, it had optimum activity between pH6 and 7 and could not be successfully eluted from DEAE-cellulose, even with high salt concentrations, or from Sephadex G-200. These results seem to support the proposal that the C form is under a separate genetic control from the others.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidases A and B were purified to homogeneity from human placenta. In the initial step of purification, the enzymes were adsorbed on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and eluted from the column with alpha-methyl D-mannosides. Subsequent purification steps included DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, QAE-Sephadex [diethyl-(2-hydroxypropyl)aminoethyl-Sephadex] column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and preparative disc polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by another QAE-Sephadex chromatography for the hexosaminidase A preparation, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, calcium phosphate gel chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, QAE-Sephadex chromatography and CM-cellulose chromatography for the hexosaminidase B preparation. The purified preparations, particularly hexosaminidase A, had significantly higher specific enzyme activities than previously reported. The preparations moved on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis as single protein bands, which also stained for enzyme activity. Sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation indicated homogenous dispersion of the enzymes, and the molecular weight was estimated as about 110000 for both enzymes. Complete amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the two isoenzymes were determined, and, in contrast with previous suggestions, no sialic acid was found in the enzymes.
Project description:Human brain hexosaminidase C was separated from isoenzymes A and B by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Properties of the enzyme were studied, particularly its isoelectric-focusing profile, pI4.80. These findings indicate that hexosaminidase C is identical with the major residual component of Sandhoff fibroblasts with respect to substrate specificity, pI and activity pH optimum.
Project description:1. Hexosaminidase A of human serum was resolved into two components, a minor form with properties identical with those of the single hexosaminidase A component of human liver, and a major form with significantly different properties. 2. The major serum hexosaminidase A form was eluted from a DEAE-cellulose column at a lower salt concentration than that required to elute the liver form. 3. A multiple-pass technique was used to elute the major serum enzyme A from a Sephadex G-150 column before that of liver enzyme A. 4. Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase converted the major component of serum hexosaminidase A into a form that was held less tightly by DEAE-cellulose, but the minor component of the A enzyme of serum, and the A enzyme of liver were not affected. 5. The hexosaminidase A from tears was similar to the A enzyme from serum, whereas those from several human tissues and from urine and lymph were similar to the liver form. 6. The A enzyme from serum may be derived from the A enzyme from liver by glycosylation before secretion.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase A was purified 1000-fold from human urine by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex followed by concanavalin A--Sepharose affinity chromatography. The optimal pH range was 4.4--4.5 for both the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine derivatives. The Km values were 0.51 mM and 0.28 mM respectively for the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine derivatives. The glycoprotein nature of the urinary enzyme was established by its affinity towards concanavalin A as well as by the presence of sialic acid, galactose, glucose, mannose and hexosamines in the molecule.
Project description:Those proteins of human liver that cross-reacted with antibodies raised to apparently homogenous hexosamindases A and B were detected by immunodiffusion. Cross-reacting proteins with high molecular weights (greater than 2000000) and intermediate molecular weights (70000--200000) were present both in the unadsorbed fraction and in the 0.05--0.2M-NaCl eluate obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography at pH7.0. The unadsorbed fraction also contained a cross-reacting protein of low molecular weight (10000--70000). The possible structural and functional relationships between hexosaminidase and the cross-reacting proteins are discussed. An apparently cross-reacting protein present in the 0.05M-NaCl eluate from the DEAE-cellulose column was serologically unrelated to hexosaminidase, but it gave a reaction of immunological identify with one of the apparently cross-reacting proteins having the charge and size characteristics of hexosaminidase A. It is suggested that immunochemical methods may provide criteria for the homogeneity of enzyme preparations superior to those of conventional methods.
Project description:A characteristic of the human lysosomal disorder I-cell disease is an abnormal excretion of most lysosomal hydrolases, including beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (EC 126.96.36.199; beta-hexosaminidase) by cultured skin fibroblasts. Treatment of I-cell cultures with cycloheximide or tunicamycin demonstrated that (1) I-cell fibroblasts rapidly excrete all newly synthesized beta-hexosaminidase, (2) two qualitatively distinct pools of beta-hexosaminidase isoenzymes exist inside I-cell fibroblasts, one of which is a rapid-turnover excretory pool, and (3) the induction of an abnormal glycosylation of beta-hexosaminidase by tunicamycin in normal or I-cell fibroblast cultures does not affect subsequent excretion of the enzyme.
Project description:Argininosuccinate lyase (EC 188.8.131.52) was purified by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The final enzyme preparation was purified 46-fold compared with the crude extract. Electrophoresis of this preparation revealed three bands, the major one having the enzyme activity. Analysis of the enzyme by gel filtration and by disc electrophoresis (in two different concentrations of acrylamide) gave mol.wts. of 200000 (+/- 15000) and 190000 (+/- 20000) respectively. Treatment with sodium dodecyl sulphate and mercaptoethanol dissociated the enzyme into subunits of mol.wt. 39000 (+/-2000). The results are indicative of the multimeric structure of the enzyme, which is composed of five (perhaps four or six) identical subunits.
Project description:Two isoenzymes of NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase have been identified in Acinetobacter lwoffi and have been termed isoenzyme-I and isoenzyme-II. The isoenzymes may be separated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, or by zonal ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient. Low concentrations of glyoxylate or pyruvate effect considerable stimulation of the activity of isoenzyme-II. The isoenzymes also differ in pH-dependence of activity, kinetic parameters, stability to heat or urea and molecular size. Whereas isoenzyme-I resembles the NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases from other organisms in having a molecular weight under 100000, isoenzyme-II is a much larger enzyme (molecular weight around 300000) resembling the NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases of higher organisms.
Project description:Hexosaminidases (EC 184.108.40.206) A and B from human kidney cortex were purified to homogeneity by using concanavalin A affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The yield of homogeneous isoenzymes improved approx. 20-fold, giving preparations of hexosaminidases A and B with specific activities of about 200 and 325 units/mg of protein respectively. The kinetic and structural properties of kidney hexosaminidase isoenzymes were studied and compared with the hexosaminidase isoenzymes from human placenta. The amino acid composition of hexosaminidase A was significantly different from that of hexosaminidase B. In the event of success in developing enzyme-replacement therapy for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff's diseases, this modified procedure can furnish larger amounts of homogeneous isoenzymes.
Project description:A sub-line with increased metastatic ability was previously isolated from an established human colonic carcinoma cell line [Kimball & Brattain (1980) Cancer Res. 40, 1574-1579]. The separation and characterization of the isoenzymes of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase from each cell line are reported. The parental cell line contained A and B isoenzymes. The sub-line lacked the A-isoenzyme activity and contained an atypical B isoenzyme that was thermolabile, susceptible to alkylation and of lower molecular weight.