Regulation of heart muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.
ABSTRACT: 1. The activity of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was assayed by the incorporation of [(32)P]phosphate from [gamma-(32)P]ATP into the dehydrogenase complex. There was a very close correlation between this incorporation and the loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity with all preparations studied. 2. Nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (at 100mum) and cyclic 3':5'-nucleotides (at 10mum) had no significant effect on kinase activity. 3. The K(m) for thiamin pyrophosphate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 0.76mum. Sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate, ADP and GTP were competitive inhibitors against thiamin pyrophosphate in the dehydrogenase reaction. 4. The K(m) for ATP of the intrinsic kinase assayed in three preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 13.9-25.4mum. Inhibition by ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate was predominantly competitive, but there was nevertheless a definite non-competitive element. Thiamin pyrophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate were uncompetitive inhibitors against ATP. It is suggested that ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate inhibit the kinase mainly by binding to the ATP site and that the adenosine moiety may be involved in this binding. It is suggested that thiamin pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and ADP may inhibit the kinase by binding through pyrophosphate or imidodiphosphate moieties at some site other than the ATP site. It is not known whether this is the coenzyme-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. 5. The K(m) for pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 35.5mum. 2-Oxobutyrate and 3-hydroxypyruvate but not glyoxylate were also substrates; all three compounds inhibited pyruvate oxidation. 6. In preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate, pyruvate inhibited the kinase reaction at all concentrations in the range 25-500mum. The inhibition was uncompetitive. In the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate (endogenous or added at 2 or 10mum) the kinase activity was enhanced by low concentrations of pyruvate (25-100mum) and inhibited by a high concentration (500mum). Activation of the kinase reaction was not seen when sodium pyrophosphate was substituted for thiamin pyrophosphate. 7. Under the conditions of the kinase assay, pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase forms (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]pyruvate in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate. Previous work suggests that the products may include acetoin. Acetoin activated the kinase reaction in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate but not with sodium pyrophosphate. It is suggested that acetoin formation may contribute to activation of the kinase reaction by low pyruvate concentrations in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate. 8. Pyruvate effected the conversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate into pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria incubated with 5mm-2-oxoglutarate and 0.5mm-l-malate as respiratory substrates. It is suggested that this effect of pyruvate is due to inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction in the mitochondrion. 9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was inhibited by high concentrations of Mg(2+) (15mm) and by Ca(2+) (10nm-10mum) at low Mg(2+) (0.15mm) but not at high Mg(2+) (15mm).
Project description:1. A method was devised for preparing pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), permitting studies of the binding of [35S]TPP to pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate. The Kd of TPP for pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 6.2-8.2 muM, whereas that for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was approximately 15 muM; both forms of the complex contained about the same total number of binding sites (500 pmol/unit of enzyme). EDTA completely inhibited binding of TPP; sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and GTP, which are inhibitors (competitive with TPP) of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction, did not appreciably affect TPP binding. 2. Initial-velocity patterns of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction obtained with varying TPP, CoA and NAD+ concentrations at a fixed pyruvate concentration were consistent with a sequential three-site Ping Pong mechanism; in the presence of oxaloacetate and citrate synthase to remove acetyl-CoA (an inhibitor of the overall reaction) the values of Km for NAD+ and CoA were 53+/- 5 muM and 1.9+/-0.2 muM respectively. Initial-velocity patterns observed with varying TPP concentrations at various fixed concentrations of pyruvate were indicative of either a compulsory order of addition of substrates to form a ternary complex (pyruvate-Enz-TPP) or a random-sequence mechanism in which interconversion of ternary intermediates is rate-limiting; values of Km for pyruvate and TPP were 25+/-4 muM and 50+/-10 nM respectively. The Kia-TPP (the dissociation constant for Enz-TPP complex calculated from kinetic plots) was close to the value of Kd-TPP (determined by direct binding studies). 3. Inhibition of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction by pyrophosphate was mixed non-competitive versus pyruvate and competitive versus TPP; however, pyrophosphate did not alter the calculated value for Kia-TPP, consistent with the lack of effect of pyrophosphate on the Kd for TPP. 4. Pyruvate dehydrogenase catalysed a TPP-dependent production of 14CO2 from [1-14C]pyruvate in the absence of NAD+ and CoA at approximately 0.35% of the overall reaction rate; this was substantially inhibited by phosphorylation of the enzyme both in the presence and absence of acetaldehyde (which stimulates the rate of 14CO2 production two- or three-fold). 5. Pyruvate dehydrogenase catalysed a partial back-reaction in the presence of TPP, acetyl-CoA and NADH. The Km for TPP was 4.1+/-0.5 muM. The partial back-reaction was stimulated by acetaldehyde, inhibited by pyrophosphate and abolished by phosphorylation. 6. Formation of enzyme-bound [14C]acetylhydrolipoate from [3-14C]pyruvate but not from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA was inhibited by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation also substantially inhibited the transfer of [14C]acetyl groups from enzyme-bound [14C]acetylhydrolipoate to TPP in the presence of NADH. 7...
Project description:The mitochondrial fraction from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus decarboxylates pyruvate to produce significant amounts of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde formation is stimulated by thiamin pyrophosphate, shows a sharp optimum at pH 6.8 and is greater under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. The pyruvate decarboxylase activity cofractionates with, and is probably a partial reaction of, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Acetaldehyde production is modulated by NAD+, ATP and acetyl-CoA and is greatly stimulated by lipoic acid. The pyruvate decarboxylase system is extremely sensitive to thiol-group inhibitors and is inhibited by oxygen in the presence of pyruvate.
Project description:Bovine, human and porcine heart mitochondria and isolated porcine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) pyruvate-dependently form N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides from nitroso aromatic compounds, including carcinogenic 4-biphenyl and 2-fluorenyl derivatives. The PDHC-catalysed formation of N-hydroxyacetanilide (N-OH-AA) from nitrosobenzene (NOB), through a Ping Pong mechanism, is optimum at pH 6.8 and is accelerated by thiamin pyrophosphate, but is inhibited by thiamin thiazolone pyrophosphate and ATP. Km pyruvate in the reaction is independent of pH over the range tested, whereas KmNOB increases at lower pH, owing to ionization of an active-site functional group of pKa 6.3. The enzymic ionization decreases log (Vmax/KmNOB). Isolated pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), a constitutive enzyme of PDHC, forms N-OH-AA by itself and has comparable kinetic parameters to those of the PDHC-catalysed N-OH-AA formation. The catalytic efficiency of PDHC in the formation of N-hydroxy-N-arylacylamides, due to the steric limitation of the active site of E1, is lowered both by bulky alkyl groups of alpha-oxo acids and by p-substituents (but not an o-substituent) on nitrosobenzenes. These nitroso compounds serve as electrophiles in the reaction in which the reductive acetylation step is rate-limiting. The reaction mechanism and other factors affecting N-hydroxy-N-arylacylamide formation are discussed.
Project description:The enzymic activity of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by the phosphorylation of three serine residues (sites 1, 2 and 3) located on the E1 component of the complex. Here we report that the four isoenzymes of protein kinase responsible for the phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDK1, PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4) differ in their abilities to phosphorylate the enzyme. PDK1 can phosphorylate all three sites, whereas PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4 each phosphorylate only site 1 and site 2. Although PDK2 phosphorylates site 1 and 2, it incorporates less phosphate in site 2 than PDK3 or PDK4. As a result, the amount of phosphate incorporated by each isoenzyme decreases in the order PDK1>PDK3>or=PDK4>PDK2. Significantly, binding of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate to pyruvate dehydrogenase alters the rates and stoichiometries of phosphorylation of the individual sites. First, the rate of phosphorylation of site 1 by all isoenzymes of kinase is decreased. Secondly, thiamin pyrophosphate markedly decreases the amount of phosphate that PDK1 incorporates in sites 2 and 3 and that PDK2 incorporates in site 2. In contrast, the coenzyme does not significantly affect the total amount of phosphate incorporated in site 2 by PDK3 and PDK4, but instead decreases the rate of phosphorylation of this site. Furthermore, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex phosphorylated by the individual isoenzymes of kinase is reactivated at different rates by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. Both isoenzymes of phosphatase (PDP1 and PDP2) readily reactivate the complex phosphorylated by PDK2. When pyruvate dehydrogenase is phosphorylated by other isoenzymes, the rates of reactivation decrease in the order PDK4>or=PDK3>PDK1. Taken together, results reported here strongly suggest that the major determinants of the activity state of pyruvate dehydrogenase in mammalian tissues include the phosphorylation site specificity of isoenzymes of kinase in addition to the absolute amounts of kinase and phosphatase protein expressed in mitochondria.
Project description:The mechanism for the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from bovine heart by moniliformin was investigated. Thiamin pyrophosphate proved to be necessary for the inhibitory action of moniliformin. The inhibition reaction was shown to be time-dependent and to follow first-order and saturation kinetics. Pyruvate protected the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex against moniliformin inactivation. Extensive dialysis of the moniliformin-inactivated complex only partially reversed inactivation. Moniliformin seems to act by inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component of the enzyme complex and not by acting on the dihydrolipoamide transacetylase or dehydrogenase components, as shown by monitoring the effect of moniliformin on each component individually. On the basis of these results, a suicide inactivator mechanism for moniliformin on pyruvate dehydrogenase is proposed.
Project description:Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex both catalyse the CoA-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate but differ in size, subunit composition and mechanism. Comparison of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis and the pyruvate dehydrogenase component of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex shows that both are inactivated by incubation with pyruvate under aerobic conditions in the absence of co-substrates. However, only the former is irreversibly inhibited by incubation with hydroxypyruvate, and only the latter by incubation with bromopyruvate. Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity is potently, but reversibly, inhibited by addition of bromopyruvate in the presence of CoA, and it is suggested that the mechanism involves formation of an adduct between CoA and bromopyruvate in the active site of the enzyme. It is proposed that both enzymes are inactivated by pyruvate through a mechanism involving oxidation of an enzyme-bound thiamin pyrophosphate/substrate adduct to form a tightly bound inhibitory species, possibly thiamin thiazolone pyrophosphate as hypothesized by Sumegi & Alkonyi.
Project description:1. Isolated rat epididymal fat-cell mitochondria showed an inverse relationship between ATP content and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity consistent with competitive inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by ADP. At constant ATP concentration pyruvate rapidly activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria, an observation consistent with inhibition of fat-cell pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by pyruvate. Pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria was also activated by nicotinate (100mum) and by extramitochondrial Na(+) (replacing K(+)) but not by ouabain or insulin. 2. In rat epididymal fat-pads incubated in vitro pyruvate dehydrogenase was activated by addition of insulin in the absence of substrate or in the presence of glucose (10mm) or fructose (10mm). Glucose and fructose activated the dehydrogenase in the absence or in the presence of insulin, and pyruvate also activated in the absence of insulin. It is concluded that extracellular glucose, fructose and pyruvate may activate the dehydrogenase by raising intracellular pyruvate and that insulin may activate the dehydrogenase by some other mechanism. 3. Ouabain (300mum) and medium in which K(+) was replaced by Na(+), activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in epididymal fat-pads. Prostaglandin E(1) (1mug/ml), 5-methylpyrazole-3-carboxylate (10mum) and nicotinate (10mum), which are as effective as insulin as inhibitors of lipolysis and which like insulin lower tissue concentration of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate), did not activate pyruvate dehydrogenase. Higher concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (10mug/ml) and nicotinate (100mum) produced some activation of the dehydrogenase. 4. It is concluded that the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin is not due to the antilipolytic effect of the hormone and that the action of insulin in lowering adipose-cell concentrations of cyclic AMP does not afford an obvious explanation for the effect of the hormone on pyruvate dehydrogenase. The possibility that the effects of insulin, ouabain and K(+)-free medium may be mediated by Ca(2+) is discussed.
Project description:The alanine analogue 1-aminoethylphosphinate [H3C-CH(NH2)-PO2H2] effectively inhibited anthocyanin synthesis in buckwheat hypocotyls and caused an increase in the concentrations of alanine and alanine-derived metabolites. Aminotransferase inhibitors partially alleviated the effects of the analogue. 1-Aminoethylphosphinate did not affect the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae under anaerobic conditions, but under aerobic conditions it inhibited growth and caused the massive excretion of pyruvate. The analogue inhibited the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in vitro in the presence of an aminotransferase activity. The transamination product of 1-aminoethylphosphinate, acetylphosphinate (H3C-CO-PO2H2), was found to inhibit the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in a time-dependent reaction that followed first-order and saturation kinetics and required the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate.
Project description:The properties of a purified preparation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from ox brain have been compared with those of a similar preparation from ox kidney. A broad pH optimum around 7.8, similar dependence on ionic strength, and independence of the nature of the buffer anions or cations characterized preparations from both tissues. Michaelis constants for the binding of pyruvate, thiamin pyrophosphate, NAD(+) and CoA were also similar. Enzyme from both tissues was inhibited by NADH, by copper and other heavy metals, by high concentrations of tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates, and by preincubation with ATP. Acetyl-CoA itself did not appear to inhibit these preparations, although some commercial preparations of acetyl-CoA did contain an inhibitor. Although oxaloacetate and alpha-oxobutyrate were weak inhibitors, a number of other alpha-oxo acids including phenylpyruvate did not inhibit. The properties of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from brain and kidney appeared similar.
Project description:Thiamin monophosphate kinase (ThiL) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) to form thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), the active form of vitamin B 1. ThiL is a member of a small ATP binding superfamily that also includes the purine biosynthetic enzymes, PurM and PurL, NiFe hydrogenase maturation protein, HypE, and selenophosphate synthase, SelD. The latter four enzymes are believed to utilize phosphorylated intermediates during catalysis. To understand the mechanism of ThiL and its relationship to the other superfamily members, we determined the structure of Aquifex aeolicus ThiL (AaThiL) with nonhydrolyzable AMP-PCP and TMP, and also with the products of the reaction, ADP and TPP. The results suggest that AaThiL utilizes a direct, inline transfer of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to TMP rather than a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate. The structure of ThiL is compared to those of PurM, PurL, and HypE, and the ATP binding site is compared to that of PurL, for which nucleotide complexes are available.