Association of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase VEB-1.
ABSTRACT: Association of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrA and the bla(VEB-1) gene was identified in a single Enterobacter cloacae isolate from K.-Bicêtre, France, and in 11 out of 23 bla(VEB-1)-positive enterobacterial isolates from Bangkok, Thailand. This result may explain in part the association between quinolone and extended-spectrum beta-lactam resistance.
Project description:Over a 21/2-month period in 1999, 37 ceftazidime-resistant nonrepetitive enterobacterial isolates were collected from 37 patients in a Bangkok hospital, Thailand. Eighty-one percent of these strains expressed a clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-cephalosporin resistance profile. An identical extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), VEB-1, was found in 16 unrelated enterobacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, n = 10; Enterobacter cloacae, n = 2; Enterobacter sakazakii, n = 1; and Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 3) and in two clonally related E. cloacae isolates. The bla(VEB-1) gene was located on mostly self-conjugative plasmids (ca. 24 to 200 kb) that conferred additional non-beta-lactam antibiotic resistance patterns. Additionally, the bla(VEB-1) gene cassette was part of class 1 integrons varying in size and structure. The bla(VEB-1)-containing integrons were mostly associated with bla(OXA-10)-like and arr-2-like gene cassettes, the latter conferring resistance to rifampin. These data indicated the spread of bla(VEB-1) in Bangkok due to frequent transfer of different plasmids and class 1 integrons and rarely to clonally related strains. Plasmid- and integron-mediated resistance to rifampin was also found in enterobacterial isolates.
Project description:Over a 4-month period from November 2002 to February 2003, 27 ceftazidime-resistant or cefotaxime-resistant nonrepetitive Enterobacter cloacae isolates were collected from 27 patients hospitalized at HuaShan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The Etest did not detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in those 27 isolates; however, screening by the NCCLS ESBL disk test and confirmatory tests detected ESBLs in 4 of 27 isolates and PCR detected ESBLs in 23 of 27 isolates. The majority of ESBL producers exhibited the same repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR pattern but harbored different ESBL genes. CTX-M-3 was the most prevalent ESBL in our study. Interestingly, 12 clonally related E. cloacae isolates possessed a novel bla(VEB)-type beta-lactamase, bla(VEB-3). Bla(VEB-3) was encoded by the chromosome and was located in an integron. Nine of the 12 isolates harbored both the bla(VEB-3) and the bla(CTX-M-3)-like ESBLs. This is the first report of a VEB-1-like ESBL in China and the first report of the simultaneous presence of VEB-1 and CTX-M-3-like ESBLs in an isolate.
Project description:Since its discovery, qnrA has been found in most common Enterobacteriaceae. Ciprofloxacin MICs conferred by different qnrA-positive plasmids could range from 0.1 microg/ml to 2 microg/ml in Escherichia coli J53. The reasons for different ciprofloxacin MICs conferred by qnrA have not been fully clarified. Five hundred forty-one consecutive gram-negative clinical strains that were resistant or intermediate to ciprofloxacin and that were isolated in Shanghai in 2005 were screened for qnrA by PCR. For qnrA-positive isolates, the transferability of quinolone resistance was determined by conjugation and mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. aac(6')-Ib-cr was detected and qnrA RNA expression was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR for transconjugants with different ciprofloxacin MICs. The qnrA gene was detected in 7 of the 541 clinical isolates. Quinolone resistance was transferred in four strains by conjugation. Mutations in the QRDR of gyrA and parC were detected in five qnrA-positive clinical strains with higher ciprofloxacin MICs. Of four qnrA-bearing plasmids in E. coli J53, pHS4 and pHS5 conferred ciprofloxacin MICs of 0.094 to 0.125 microg/ml; pHS3, which harbored the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene as well, conferred a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.25 microg/ml, and pHS6, which had both the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene and a high expression level of qnrA, had a ciprofloxacin MIC of 1.0 microg/ml. The prevalence of qnrA appeared to be higher in Enterobacter cloacae than in other Enterobacteriaceae. The coexistence of qnrA and aac(6')-Ib-cr in a single plasmid and increased qnrA expression can account for the different levels of ciprofloxacin resistance seen in transconjugants.
Project description:We have studied by PCR and DNA sequencing the presence of the qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, intI1, and ISCR1 genes in 200 clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae (n = 153) and E. aerogenes (n = 47) consecutively collected between January 2004 and October 2005 in two hospitals located in Santander (northern Spain) and Seville (southern Spain). Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA and parC also were investigated in organisms containing plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. The isolates had different resistant phenotypes, including AmpC hyperproduction, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, resistance or decreased susceptibility to quinolones, and/or resistance to aminoglycosides. Among the 116 E. cloacae isolates from Santander, qnrS1, qnrB5, qnrB2, and aac(6')-Ib-cr were detected in 22 (19%), 1 (0.9%), 1 (0.9%), and 3 (2.6%) isolates, respectively. Twenty-one, 17, and 2 qnrS1-positive isolates also contained bla(LAP-1), intI1, and ISCR1, respectively. A qnrB7-like gene was detected in one E. aerogenes isolate from Santander. No plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene was detected in the isolates from Seville. The qnrS1-containing isolates corresponded to four pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and showed various levels of resistance to quinolones. Six isolates were susceptible to nalidixic acid and presented reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The qnrS1 gene was contained in a conjugative plasmid of ca. 110 kb, and when the plasmid was transferred to recipient strains that did not have a specific mechanism of quinolone resistance, the ciprofloxacin MICs ranged from 0.047 to 0.125 microg/ml.
Project description:The prevalence of three plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, QnrA, QnrB, and QnrS, among 526 nonreplicate clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae collected at a Taiwanese university hospital in 2004 was determined by PCR and colony hybridization, and the association of Qnr with the IMP-8 metallo-beta-lactamase was investigated. Eighty-six (16.3%) of all isolates were qnr positive, and the qnrA1-like, qnrB2-like, and qnrS1-like genes were detected alone or in combination in 3 (0.6%), 53 (10.1%), and 34 (6.5%) isolates, respectively. Among 149 putative extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing isolates, 59 (39.6%) isolates, all of which were SHV-12 producers, harbored qnrA (0.7%; 1 isolate), qnrB (28.9%; 43 isolates), or qnrS (12.1%; 18 isolates). Forty-four (78.6%) of 56 IMP-8 producers carried qnrB (58.9%; 33 isolates), qnrS (25.0%; 14 isolates), or both. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that qnrA1 was located in a complex sul1-type integron that contains dhr15, aadA2, qacEDelta1, sul1, orf513, qnrA1, ampR, and qacEDelta1. Conjugation experiments revealed the coexistence of qnrB and bla(IMP-8) on the transferred plasmids and the absence of beta-lactamase content on the transferred qnrS-positive plasmids. The transferred bla(IMP-8)-positive plasmids with and without qnrB had very similar restriction patterns, suggesting the horizontal mobility of qnrB. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed six major patterns among the 44 qnr-positive IMP-8-producing isolates. Thus, the extremely high prevalence of qnr among the metallo-beta-lactamase-producing E. cloacae isolates in the hospital may be due mainly to the intrahospital spread of a few clones and the dissemination of plasmids containing both qnrB and blaIMP-8.
Project description:Quinolone resistance is an emerging problem in China. To investigate the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr, a total of 265 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae with ciprofloxacin MICs of > or =0.25 microg/ml were screened at nine teaching hospitals in China. The qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6')-Ib genes were detected by PCR. The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was further identified by digestion with BtsCI and/or direct sequencing. The qnr gene was present in significantly smaller numbers of isolates with cefotaxime MICs of <2 microg/ml than isolates with higher MICs (> or =2.0 microg/ml) (20.6% and 42.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). aac(6')-Ib-cr was present in 17.0% of the isolates tested, and 7.9% of the isolates carried both the qnr and the aac(6')-Ib-cr genes. Among the isolates with cefotaxime MICs of > or =2.0 microg/ml, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr were present in 65.7% and 8.6% of E. cloacae isolates, respectively; 65.5% and 21.8% of K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively; 63.3% and 26.7% of C. freundii isolates, respectively; and 6.5% and 16.9% of E. coli isolates, respectively. The 20 transconjugants showed 16- to 128-fold increases in ciprofloxacin MICs, 14 showed 16- to 2,000-fold increases in cefotaxime MICs, and 5 showed 8- to 32-fold increases in cefoxitin MICs relative to those of the recipient due to the cotransmission of bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-3), bla(DHA-1), bla(SHV-2), and bla(SHV-12) with the qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes. Southern hybridization analysis showed that these genes were located on large plasmids of different sizes (53 to 193 kb). These findings indicate the high prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and the widespread dissemination of multidrug resistance in China.
Project description:The expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gene bla(VEB-1), identified worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is associated with either class 1 integrons or repeated elements. We report here the first association of bla(VEB-1a) with the insertion sequence ISCR2 in six Acinetobacter species isolates recovered from Argentina. That genetic structure was likely at the origin of the mobilization of this ESBL gene.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA) among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Kashan, Iran. A total of 185 K. pneumoniae isolates were tested for quinolone resistance and ESBL-producing using the disk diffusion method and double disk synergy (DDST) confirmatory test. ESBL-producing strains were further evaluated for the bla CTX-M genes. The PCR method was used to show presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and the purified PCR products were sequenced. Eighty-seven ESBL-producing strains were identified by DDST confirmatory test and majority (70, 80.5%) of which carried bla CTX-M genes including CTX-M-1 (60%), CTX-M-2 (42.9%), and CTX-M-9 (34.3%). Seventy-seven ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates harbored PMQR genes, which mostly consisted of aac(6')-Ib-cr (70.1%) and qnrB (46.0%), followed by qnrS (5.7%). Among the 77 PMQR-positive isolates, 27 (35.1%) and 1 (1.3%) carried 2 and 3 different PMQR genes, respectively. However, qnrA and qepA were not found in any isolate. Our results highlight high ESBL occurrence with CTX-M type and high frequency of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in Kashan.
Project description:The integron-borne bla(VEB-1) gene encodes an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. This gene was associated mostly with IS1999 and rarely with an additional IS2000 element in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Thailand, whereas IS1999 was only very rarely associated with bla(VEB-1) in Enterobacteriaceae. Expression experiments and promoter study identified promoter sequences in IS1999 that increased the expression of VEB-1 in P. aeruginosa.
Project description:Recently, several plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes conferring low levels of quinolone resistance have been discovered. To evaluate the temporal change in the prevalence of PMQR genes over a decade in a tertiary hospital in the Republic of Korea, we selected every fifth isolate of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and every third isolate of Enterobacter cloacae between 1998 and 2001 and between 2005 and 2006 from a collection of blood isolates. Six PMQR genes [qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA] were screened by multiplex PCR and then confirmed by direct sequencing, and the aac(6')-Ib-positive PCR products were digested with BtsCI to identify the aac(6')-Ib-cr variant. Of 461 isolates, 37 (8%) had one of the six PMQR genes; 13 (5%) of 261 E. coli strains, 13 (10%) of 135 K. pneumoniae strains, and 11 (17%) of 65 E. cloacae strains. qnrB was the most common PMQR gene and was found as early as 1998, whereas qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA emerged after 2000. None of the isolates carried qnrA or qnrC. Ciprofloxacin resistance increased over time (P < 0.001), and the overall prevalence of PMQR genes tended to increase (P = 0.20). PMQR-positive isolates had significantly higher ciprofloxacin resistance and multidrug resistance rates (P = 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively). The increasing frequency of ciprofloxacin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae was associated with an increasing prevalence of PMQR genes, and this change involved an increase in the diversity of the PMQR genes and also an increase in the prevalence of the mutations in gyrA, parC, or both in PMQR-positive strains but not PMQR-negative strains.