Bacteremia caused by an undescribed species of Janibacter.
ABSTRACT: A yellow-pigmented rod- to coccoid-shaped coryneform microorganism was isolated from the blood of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. It was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a previously undescribed species of Janibacter. The isolate was susceptible to penicillins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and glycopeptides.
Project description:We report a case of bacteremia caused by Janibacter melonis, a recently described aerobic actinomycete originally isolated from a spoiled oriental melon. Our patient's blood culture isolate was identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This is the first report of the recovery of Janibacter species from humans.
Project description:Janibacter hoylei has previously been isolated only from an air sample in the upper atmosphere and clinical significance of J. hoylei was not yet established. Herein, we report a case of bacteremia caused by J. hoylei. An 8-week-old previously healthy male infant presented to the emergency room with fever. Blood culture yielded growth of Gram-positive bacilli and this microorganism could not be identified with conventional phenotypic methods. The isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the patient was successfully treated with vancomycin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the recovery of J. hoylei in humans. This case shows that J. hoylei can be a potential pathogen in young children.
Project description:Five strains of an unknown, multidrug-resistant coryneform, gram-positive rod were isolated from blood, bronchial aspirate, and abscess specimens. Four of the five strains isolated were highly resistant to antimicrobial agents, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines, except for glycopeptides. In immunocompromised patients, bacteremia associated with this organism was rapidly fatal. This coryneform bacterium was nonmotile, lipophilic, and nonsaccharolytic. Lack of pyrazinamidase activity differentiated this organism from other lipophilic corynebacteria. Chemotaxonomic studies indicated that this multidrug-resistant coryneform bacterium belongs to the genus Corynebacterium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses revealed that the five isolates were genetically identical and that they represent a new subline within the genus Corynebacterium, for which we propose the designation Corynebacterium resistens sp. nov. The type strain of Corynebacterium resistens is GTC 2026T (SICGH 158T, JCM 12819T, CCUG 50093T).
Project description:Janibacter hoylei MTCC8307 was isolated from stratospheric air at an altitude of 41.4 km over Hyderabad, India. Here, we present the draft genome of Janibacter hoylei MTCC8307, which contains 3,139,099 bp with a G+C content of 72.8 mol%, 2,972 protein-coding genes, and 57 structural RNAs.
Project description:Acinetobacter ursingii has not been reported in infectious processes apart from its recent description as a new species. A bacteremia caused by A. ursingii in a patient with a pulmonary adenocarcinoma confirms that this microorganism is an opportunistic human pathogen. The isolate was susceptible to imipenem, aminoglycosides, rifampin, and fluoroquinolones.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Janibacter caused bacteriemia is one of the rare infections.<h4>Methods</h4>In the present study, we report the first isolation of <i>Janibacter</i>, a rare bacterial infection, from a bacteremia patient in China. Its 16S rDNA was amplified and designated as <i>Janibacter</i> YFY001, which belongs to <i>J. indicus</i>. In addition, its genome was sequenced through combined second- and third-generation genome sequencing methods.<h4>Results</h4>Based on its genome, we identified many virulence factors, such as catalase, gelatinase, FbpABC systems, and resistant genes, among others. Interestingly, three genomic islands were found in YFY001 by comparing its genome to environmental <i>Janibacter</i> strains.<h4>Discussion</h4>Our study not only provides the necessary genomic information for in-depth study of <i>Janibacter</i>, but also provides a novel methodology for studying future cases of rare bacterial infection.
Project description:The authors report isolation and identification of two strains of bacteria belonging to the genus Janibacter from a human patient with aortic stenosis from a rural area of the country of Georgia. The microorganisms were isolated from aortic heart valve. Two isolates with slightly distinct colony morphologies were harvested after sub-culturing from an original agar plate. Preliminary identification of the isolates is based on amplification and sequencing of a fragment of 16SrRNA. Whole genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq instrument. Both isolates were identified as undistinguished strains of the genus Janibacter. Characterization of whole genome sequences of each culture has revealed a 15% difference in gene profile between the cultures and confirmed that both strains belong to the genus Janibacter with the closest match to J. terrae. Genomic comparison of cultures of Janibacter obtained from human cases and from environmental sources presents a promising direction for evaluating a role of these bacteria as human pathogens.
Project description:In this study, species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. were studied in influent (INF), effluent (EFF), and marine outfall (MOut) of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The susceptibility was tested against 8 antimicrobial classes, active against Pseudomonas spp.: aminoglycosides, carbapenems, broad-spectrum cephalosporins from the 3rd and 4th generation, extended-spectrum penicillins, as well as their combination with the ?-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. Among identified species, resistance to all antimicrobials but colistin was shown by Pseudomonas putida, the predominant species in all sampling points. In other species, resistance was observed mainly against ceftazidime, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and aztreonam, although some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas protegens showed multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. Among P. putida, resistance to ?-lactams and to fluoroquinolones as well as multidrug resistance become more prevalent after wastewater treatment, but the resistance rate decreased in marine water samples. Obtained data, however, suggests that Pseudomonas spp. are equipped or are able to acquire a wide range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and thus should be monitored as possible source of resistance genes.
Project description:We developed a rapid high-throughput PCR test and evaluated highly antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n?= 2,919), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n?= 1,974), Proteus mirabilis (n?= 1,150), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n?= 1,484) for several antibiotic resistance genes for comparison with phenotypic resistance across penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. The isolates originated from hospitals in North America (34%), Europe (23%), Asia (13%), South America (12%), Africa (7%), or Oceania (1%) or were of unknown origin (9%). We developed statistical methods to predict phenotypic resistance from resistance genes for 49 antibiotic-organism combinations, including gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ertapenem, imipenem, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, and aztreonam. Average positive predictive values for genotypic prediction of phenotypic resistance were 91% for E. coli, 93% for K. pneumoniae, 87% for P. mirabilis, and 92% for P. aeruginosa across the various antibiotics for this highly resistant cohort of bacterial isolates.
Project description:The increase in antibiotic resistance is a global concern for human and animal health. Resistant microorganisms can spread between food-producing animals and humans. The objective of this review was to identify the type and amount of antibiotics used in poultry production and the level of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from broilers. Isolate information was obtained from national monitoring programs and research studies conducted in large poultry-producing regions: US, China, Brazil, and countries of EU-Poland, United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Spain. The survey results clearly display the absence of a harmonized approach in the monitoring of antibiotics per animal species and the evaluation of resistances using the same methodology. There is no public long-term quantitative data available targeting the amount of antibiotics used in poultry, with the exception of France. Data on antibiotic-resistant E. coli are available for most regions but detection of resistance and number of isolates in each study differs among regions; therefore, statistical evaluation was not possible. Data from France indicate that the decreased use of tetracyclines leads to a reduction in the detected resistance rates. The fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, and polymyxins ("highest priority critically important" antibiotics for human medicine according to WHO) are approved for use in large poultry-producing regions, with the exception of fluoroquinolones in the US and cephalosporins in the EU. The approval of cephalosporins in China could not be evaluated. Tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and penicillins are registered for use in poultry in all evaluated countries. The average resistance rates in E. coli to representatives of these antibiotic classes are higher than 40% in all countries, with the exception of ampicillin in the US. The resistance rates to fluoroquinolones and quinolones in the US, where fluoroquinolones are not registered for use, are below 5%, while the average of resistant E. coli is above 40% in Brazil, China, and EU, where use of fluoroquinolones is legalized. However, banning of fluoroquinolones and quinolones has not totally eliminated the occurrence of resistant populations.