Ca2+-independent insulin exocytosis induced by alpha-latrotoxin requires latrophilin, a G protein-coupled receptor.
ABSTRACT: alpha-Latrotoxin (alpha-LTX) induces exocytosis of small synaptic vesicles (SSVs) in neuronal cells both by a calcium-independent mechanism and by opening cation-permeable pores. Since the basic molecular events regulating exocytosis in neurons and endocrine cells may be similar, we have used the exocytosis of insulin-containing large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) as a model system. In primary pancreatic beta-cells and in the derived cell lines INS-1 and MIN6, alpha-LTX increased insulin release in the absence of extracellular calcium, but the insulin-secreting cell lines HIT-T15 and RINm5F were unresponsive. alpha-LTX did not alter membrane potential or cytosolic calcium, and its stimulatory effect on exocytosis was still observed in pre-permeabilized INS-1 cells kept at 0.1 microM Ca2+. Consequently, pore formation or ion fluxes induced by alpha-LTX could be excluded. The Ca2+-independent alpha-LTX-binding protein, latrophilin, is a novel member of the secretin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Sensitivity to alpha-LTX correlated with expression of latrophilin, but not with synaptotagmin I or neurexin Ialpha expression. Moreover, transient expression of latrophilin in HIT-T15 cells conferred alpha-LTX-induced exocytosis. Our results indicate that direct stimulation of exocytosis by a GPCR mediates the Ca2+-independent effects of alpha-LTX in the absence of altered ion fluxes. Therefore, direct regulation by receptor-activated heterotrimeric G proteins constitutes an important feature of the endocrine exocytosis of insulin-containing LDCVs and may also apply to SSV exocytosis in neurons.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC1170414 | BioStudies | 1998-01-01T00:00:00Z