GRASP55, a second mammalian GRASP protein involved in the stacking of Golgi cisternae in a cell-free system.
ABSTRACT: We have identified a 55 kDa protein, named GRASP55 (Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa), as a component of the Golgi stacking machinery. GRASP55 is homologous to GRASP65, an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive membrane protein required for the stacking of Golgi cisternae in a cell-free system. GRASP65 exists in a complex with the vesicle docking protein receptor GM130 to which it binds directly, and the membrane tethering protein p115, which also functions in the stacking of Golgi cisternae. GRASP55 binding to GM130, could not be detected using biochemical methods, although a weak interaction was detected with the yeast two-hybrid system. Cryo-electron microscopy revealed that GRASP65, like GM130, is present on the cis-Golgi, while GRASP55 is on the medial-Golgi. Recombinant GRASP55 and antibodies to the protein block the stacking of Golgi cisternae, which is similar to the observations made for GRASP65. These results demonstrate that GRASP55 and GRASP65 function in the stacking of Golgi cisternae.
Project description:In vitro studies have suggested that Golgi stack formation involves two homologous peripheral Golgi proteins, GRASP65 and GRASP55, which localize to the cis and medial-trans cisternae, respectively. However, no mechanism has been provided on how these two GRASP proteins work together to stack Golgi cisternae. Here, we show that depletion of either GRASP55 or GRASP65 by siRNA reduces the number of cisternae per Golgi stack, whereas simultaneous knockdown of both GRASP proteins leads to disassembly of the entire stack. GRASP55 stacks Golgi membranes by forming oligomers through its N-terminal GRASP domain. This process is regulated by phosphorylation within the C-terminal serine/proline-rich domain. Expression of nonphosphorylatable GRASP55 mutants enhances Golgi stacking in interphase cells and inhibits Golgi disassembly during mitosis. These results demonstrate that GRASP55 and GRASP65 stack mammalian Golgi cisternae via a common mechanism.
Project description:Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 65 kDa (GRASP65) and Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa (GRASP55) were originally identified as Golgi stacking proteins; however, subsequent GRASP knockdown experiments yielded inconsistent results with respect to the Golgi structure, indicating a limitation of RNAi-based depletion. In this study, we have applied the recently developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology to knock out GRASP55 and GRASP65, individually or in combination, in HeLa and HEK293 cells. We show that double knockout of GRASP proteins disperses the Golgi stack into single cisternae and tubulovesicular structures, accelerates protein trafficking, and impairs accurate glycosylation of proteins and lipids. These results demonstrate a critical role for GRASPs in maintaining the stacked structure of the Golgi, which is required for accurate posttranslational modifications in the Golgi. Additionally, the GRASP knockout cell lines developed in this study will be useful tools for studying the role of GRASP proteins in other important cellular processes.
Project description:Golgin45 is required for normal Golgi structure and the transportation of protein from the ER. It forms a specific complex with GRASP55 in vivo Little is known regarding the molecular details of this interaction and its structural role in stacking of the Golgi complex. Here, we present the crystal structure of the GRASP domains of GRASP55 in complex with the Golgin45 C-terminal peptide, determined at 1.33 Å resolution. Similar to the structure of GRASP65 bound to GM130 reported recently, this structure reveals more than one interacting site and involves both PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of the GRASP simultaneously. The C-terminal peptides of Golgin45 and GM130 present a conserved PDZ domain binding motif sequence and recognize the canonical PDZ-peptide binding groove of the PDZ1 domains of GRASP55 and GRASP65. A main difference in this recognition process resides in a structural rearrangement of GRASP65-GM130 that does not occur for the GRASP55-Golgin45 complex. The binding site at the cleft between the PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of GRASP65 is dominated by hydrophobic interactions with GM130 that are not observed in the GRASP55-Golgin45 complex. In addition, a unique zinc finger structure is revealed in the GRASP55-Golgin45 complex crystal structure. Mutagenesis experiments support these structural observations and demonstrate that two of these sites are required to form a stable complex. Finally, a novel Golgi stacking model is proposed according to these structural findings.
Project description:Membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus and through the Golgi apparatus is a highly regulated process controlled by members of the rab GTPase family. The GTP form of rab1 regulates ER to Golgi transport by interaction with the vesicle tethering factor p115 and the cis-Golgi matrix protein GM130, also part of a complex with GRASP65 important for the organization of cis-Golgi cisternae. Here, we find that a novel coiled-coil protein golgin-45 interacts with the medial-Golgi matrix protein GRASP55 and the GTP form of rab2 but not other Golgi rab proteins. Depletion of golgin-45 disrupts the Golgi apparatus and causes a block in secretory protein transport. These results demonstrate that GRASP55 and golgin-45 form a rab2 effector complex on medial-Golgi essential for normal protein transport and Golgi structure.
Project description:The stacking of Golgi cisternae involves GRASP65 and GRASP55. The oligomerization of the N-terminal GRASP domain of these proteins, which consists of two tandem PDZ domains, is required to tether the Golgi membranes. However, the molecular basis for GRASP assembly is unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the GRASP domain of GRASP65 and GRASP55. The structures reveal similar homotypic interactions: the GRASP domain forms a dimer in which the peptide-binding pockets of the two neighboring PDZ2 domains face each other, and the dimers are further connected by the C-terminal tail of one GRASP domain inserting into the binding pocket of the PDZ1 domain in another dimer. Biochemical analysis suggests that both types of contacts are relatively weak but are needed in combination for GRASP-mediated Golgi stacking. Our results unveil a novel mode of membrane tethering by GRASP proteins and provide insight into the mechanism of Golgi stacking.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and related proteins represent a family of transmembrane growth factors with representatives in flies and worms. Little is known about the transport of TGF-alpha and other transmembrane growth factors to the cell surface and its regulation. p59 was purified as a cytoplasmic protein, which at endogenous levels associates with transmembrane TGF-alpha. cDNA cloning of p59 revealed a 452 amino acid sequence with two PDZ domains. p59 is myristoylated and palmitoylated, and associates with the Golgi system, where it co-localizes with TGF-alpha. Its first PDZ domain interacts with the C-terminus of transmembrane TGF-alpha and select transmembrane proteins. p59 is the human homolog of GRASP55, which is structurally related to GRASP65. GRASP55 and GRASP65 have been shown to play a role in stacking of the Golgi cisternae in vitro. C-terminal mutations of transmembrane TGF-alpha, which decrease or abolish the interaction with p59, also strongly impair cell surface expression of TGF-alpha. Our observations suggest a role for membrane tethering of p59/GRASP55 to select transmembrane proteins, including TGF-alpha, in maturation and transport to the cell surface.
Project description:Two classes of proteins that bind to each other and to Golgi membranes have been implicated in the adhesion of Golgi cisternae to each other to form their characteristic stacks: Golgi reassembly and stacking proteins 55 and 65 (GRASP55 and GRASP65) and Golgin of 45 kDa and Golgi matrix protein of 130 kDa. We report here that efficient stacking occurs in the absence of GRASP65/55 when either Golgin is overexpressed, as judged by quantitative electron microscopy. The Golgi stacks in these GRASP-deficient HeLa cells were normal both in morphology and in anterograde cargo transport. This suggests the simple hypothesis that the total amount of adhesive energy gluing cisternae dictates Golgi cisternal stacking, irrespective of which molecules mediate the adhesive process. In support of this hypothesis, we show that adding artificial adhesive energy between cisternae and mitochondria by dimerizing rapamycin-binding domain and FK506-binding protein domains that are attached to cisternal adhesive proteins allows mitochondria to invade the stack and even replace Golgi cisternae within a few hours. These results indicate that although Golgi stacking is a highly complicated process involving a large number of adhesive and regulatory proteins, the overriding principle of a Golgi stack assembly is likely to be quite simple. From this simplified perspective, we propose a model, based on cisternal adhesion and cisternal maturation as the two core principles, illustrating how the most ancient form of Golgi stacking might have occurred using only weak cisternal adhesive processes because of the differential between the rate of influx and outflux of membrane transport through the Golgi.
Project description:Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD-dependent sirtuin deacetylase that regulates microtubule and chromatin dynamics, gene expression and cell cycle progression, as well as nuclear envelope reassembly. Recent proteomic analyses have identified Golgi proteins as SIRT2 interactors, indicating that SIRT2 may also play a role in Golgi structure formation. Here, we show that SIRT2 depletion causes Golgi fragmentation and impairs Golgi reassembly at the end of mitosis. SIRT2 interacts with the Golgi reassembly stacking protein GRASP55 (also known as GORASP2) in mitosis when GRASP55 is highly acetylated on K50. Expression of wild-type and the K50R acetylation-deficient mutant of GRASP55, but not the K50Q acetylation-mimetic mutant, in GRASP55 and GRASP65 (also known as GORASP1) double-knockout cells, rescued the Golgi structure and post-mitotic Golgi reassembly. Acetylation-deficient GRASP55 exhibited a higher self-interaction efficiency, a property required for Golgi structure formation. These results demonstrate that SIRT2 regulates Golgi structure by modulating GRASP55 acetylation levels.
Project description:Homotypic membrane tethering by the Golgi reassembly and stacking proteins (GRASPs) is required for the lateral linkage of mammalian Golgi ministacks into a ribbon-like membrane network. Although GRASP65 and GRASP55 are specifically localized to cis and medial/trans cisternae, respectively, it is unknown whether each GRASP mediates cisternae-specific tethering and whether such specificity is necessary for Golgi compartmentalization. Here each GRASP was tagged with KillerRed (KR), expressed in HeLa cells, and inhibited by 1-min exposure to light. Significantly, inactivation of either GRASP unlinked the Golgi ribbon, and the immediate effect of GRASP65-KR inactivation was a loss of cis- rather than trans-Golgi integrity, whereas inactivation of GRASP55-KR first affected the trans- and not the cis-Golgi. Thus each GRASP appears to play a direct and cisternae-specific role in linking ministacks into a continuous membrane network. To test the consequence of loss of cisternae-specific tethering, we generated Golgi membranes with a single GRASP on all cisternae. Remarkably, the membranes exhibited the full connectivity of wild-type Golgi ribbons but were decompartmentalized and defective in glycan processing. Thus the GRASP isoforms specifically link analogous cisternae to ensure Golgi compartmentalization and proper processing.
Project description:It has been indicated that the Golgi apparatus contributes to autophagy, but how it is involved in autophagosome formation and maturation is not well understood. Here we show that amino acid starvation causes trans-Golgi derived membrane fragments to colocalize with autophagosomes. Depletion of the Golgi stacking protein GORASP2/GRASP55, but not GORASP1/GRASP65, increases both MAP1LC3 (LC3)-II and SQSTM1/p62 levels. We demonstrate that GORASP2 facilitates autophagosome-lysosome fusion by physically linking autophagosomes and lysosomes through the interactions with LC3 on autophagosomes and LAMP2 on late endosomes/lysosomes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that GORASP2 interacts with BECN1 to facilitate the assembly and membrane association of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) UVRAG complex. These findings indicate that GORASP2 plays an important role in autophagosome maturation during amino acid starvation. Abbreviations: ATG14: autophagy related 14; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CQ: chloroquine; EBSS: earle's balanced salt solution; EM: electron microscopy; EEA1: early endosome antigen 1; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GORASP1/GRASP65: golgi reassembly stacking protein 1; GORASP2/GRASP55: golgi reassembly stacking protein 2; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LAMP2: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; PK: protease K; PNS: post-nuclear supernatant; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SD: standard deviation; TGN: trans-Golgi network; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated.