The purification and properties of pig spleen phosphofructokinase.
ABSTRACT: Pig spleen phosphofructokinase has been purified 800-fold with a yield of 17%. Two isoenzymes that appear to be kinetically identical can be separated by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. In common with the enzyme from other mammalian sources, the spleen enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.2. At pH 7.0 it displays sigmoidal kinetics with respect to fructose 6-phosphate concentration but its co-operative behaviour is very dependent on pH, protein concentration and the concentration of MgATP. MgGTP and MgITP can replace MgATP as phosphate donors but, unlike MgATP, these nucleotides do not cause significant inhibition. Mn2+ and Co2+ (as the metal ion-ATP complexes) act as cofactors and in the free form are far more inhibitory than free Mg2+. The spleen enzyme responds to a wide variety of potential effector molecules: ADP, AMP, cyclic AMP, aspartate, NH4+, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate and Pi all act as either activators or protectors, whereas Mg-ATP, Mg2+, citrate, phosphoenol-pyruvate and the phosphoglucerates are inhibitors.
Project description:1. To investigate the mechanism of the reversible inactivation of pig spleen phosphofructokinase by ATP, the effect of order of addition of reactants (substrates, effectors and enzyme solution) was studied by preincubating the enzyme before assay with various combinations of its substrates and effectors. 2. Preincubation of the enzyme with MgATP or ATP at pH7.0 before addition of fructose 6-phosphate caused a rapid and much greater inhibition of activity than that observed when the reaction (carried out at identical substrate concentrations) was initiated with enzyme. 3. The rapid inhibition caused by preincubation with ATP, together with the sigmoidal response to fructose 6-phosphate and activation by AMP, were all blocked by prior photo-oxidation of the enzyme with Methylene Blue, which selectively destroys the inhibitory binding site for ATP [Ahlfors & Mansour (1969) J. Biol. Chem.244, 1247-1251]. 4. Fructose 6-phosphate, but not Mg(2+), protected phosphofructokinase from inhibition during preincubation with ATP in a manner that was sigmoidally dependent on the fructose 6-phosphate concentration. 5. Mg(2+), by protecting the enzyme from the inhibitory effect of preincubation at low pH (7.0) and by preventing its activation during preincubation with fructose 6-phosphate, demonstrated both a weak activating effect in the absence of the other substrates and a stronger inhibitory effect in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. 6. Positive effectors (K(+), NH(4) (+), AMP and aspartate) protected the enzyme from inhibition during preincubation with MgATP in proportion to their potency as activators, but citrate potentiated the ATP inhibition. P(i) significantly slowed the inactivation process without itself acting as a positive effector. 7. The non-linear dependence of the initial rate of the unmodified enzyme on protein concentration (associated with increased positive homotropic co-operativity to fructose 6-phosphate) was intensified by preincubation with ATP and abolished by photo-oxidation. 8. The results are interpreted in terms of an association-dissociation model which postulates that protonation, at low pH, of a photo-oxidation-sensitive inhibitory site for ATP allows more rapid dissociation of an active tetramer to an inactive dimeric species.
Project description:The regulation of platelet AMP deaminase activity by ATP, GTP and phosphate was studied in human platelets in situ, and in vitro after partial purification. In intact platelets, a similar 50% decrease in cytosolic ATP was induced by either glucose starvation or treatment with H2O2. During starvation, AMP deaminase was in the inhibited state, as ATP consumption was mostly balanced by the accumulation of AMP. During H2O2 treatment, however, the enzyme was in the stimulated state, as the AMP formed was almost completely deaminated to IMP. Cytosolic GTP fell by 40-50% in both starvation and H2O2 treatment. In contrast, intracellular phosphate was 4-5-fold higher in starved than in H2O2-treated cells. These data point to phosphate as the main regulator of AMP deaminase activity in situ. This conclusion was verified by kinetic analysis of partially purified AMP deaminase. At near-physiological concentrations of MgATP, MgGTP and phosphate, the S0.5 (substrate half-saturation constant) for AMP was 0.35 mM. Half-maximal stimulation by MgATP occurred at a concn. between 2 and 3 mM. This stimulation was antagonized by the inhibitory effects of phosphate (IC50 = 2.0 mM) and MgGTP (IC50 = 0.2-0.3 mM), which acted in synergism (IC50 is the concentration causing 50% inhibition). We conclude that the difference in adenylate catabolism between starved and H2O2-treated platelets is due to the distinct phosphate concentrations. During starvation, refeeding and H2O2 treatment, the values of the adenylate charge and the phosphorylation potential were kept closely co-ordinated, which may be effected by AMP deaminase.
Project description:The involvement of Mg2+ ions in the reaction catalysed by phosphofructokinase from Trypanosoma brucei was studied. The true substrate for the enzyme was shown to be the MgATP2-complex, and free Mg2+ ions are also required for enzyme activity. At concentrations of MgATP2- of 2.92 mM and greater, and a fructose 6-phosphate concentration of 1 mM and in the presence of EDTA as a Mg2+ buffer, the Km value for Mg2+ was determined to be 294 +/- 18 microM. Neither MgATP nor free ATP is an inhibitor of the enzyme, although apparent inhibition by the latter can be observed as a consequence of the decrease in free Mg2+ by chelation.
Project description:The steady-state kinetics of the reaction catalysed by the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei were studied at pH 6.7. In the presence of 50 mM-potassium phosphate buffer, the apparent co-operativity with respect to fructose 6-phosphate and the non-linear relationship between initial velocity and enzyme concentration, which were found when the enzyme was assayed in 50 mM-imidazole buffer [Cronin & Tipton (1985) Biochem. J. 227, 113-124], are not evident. Studies on the variations of the initial rate with changing concentrations of MgATP and fructose 6-phosphate, the product inhibition by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and the effects of the alternative substrate ITP were consistent with an ordered reaction pathway, in which MgATP binds to the enzyme before fructose 6-phosphate, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is the first product to dissociate from the ternary complex.
Project description:Adenosine kinase was purified 870-fold from rat heart by a combination of gel filtration and affinity chromatography. The preparation was free of purine-metabolizing enzymes that could interfere in the assay of the kinase. A study of the properties of the purified enzyme showed that it is activated by Na+ and K+, it possesses a broad pH optimum between 6 and 8, MgATP is the nucleotide substrate, free Mg2+ is an inhibitor with respect to both MgATP and adenosine, and the enzyme is subject to substrate inhibition by adenosine. The severity of this inhibition increases as the concentration of free Mg2+ increase. The Km for MgATP was calculated to be 0.8 mM and that for adenosine, at likely physiological concentrations of MgATP and free MgCl2, was about 0.2 microM. In vivo the enzyme is likely to be saturated with both MgATP and adenosine. Indeed, the adenosine concentration in rat heart in vivo is probably sufficient to cause substrate inhibition, and this would be increased by an increase in free Mg2+ concentration. Changes in the concentrations of adenosine and free Mg2+ may play a role in modifying the activity of the enzyme in vivo.
Project description:The crystal structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 18.104.22.168) complexed with fructose 6-phosphate, AMP, and Mg2+ has been solved by the molecular replacement method and refined at 2.5-A resolution to a R factor of 0.215, with root-mean-square deviations of 0.013 A and 3.5 degrees for bond lengths and bond angles, respectively. No solvent molecules have been included in the refinement. This structure shows large quaternary and tertiary conformational changes from the structures of the unligated enzyme or its fructose 2,6-bisphosphate complex, but the secondary structures remain essentially the same. Dimer C3-C4 of the enzyme-fructose 6-phosphate-AMP-Mg2+ complex twists about 19 degrees relative to the same dimer of the enzyme-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate complex if their C1-C2 dimers are superimposed on one another. Nevertheless, many interfacial interactions between dimers of C1-C2 and C3-C4 are conserved after quaternary structure changes occur. Residues of the AMP domain (residues 6-200) show large migrations of C alpha atoms relative to barely significant positional changes of the FBP domain (residues 201-335).
Project description:1. Ox heart phosphofructokinase catalyses isotope-exchange reactions at pH6.7 between ADP and ATP, and between fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate, the latter reaction being absolutely dependent on the presence of the magnesium complex of ADP. 2. The reaction kinetics are hyperbolic with respect to substrate concentration for both exchange reactions (within the experimental error). 3. The influence of pH, AMP and citrate suggests that the fructose 6-phosphate-fructose 1,6-diphosphate exchange is subject to effector control, and is abolished by dissociation of the enzyme. 4. These results are discussed in relation to the reaction mechanism of the enzyme.
Project description:Inhibition of rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by AMP was uncompetitive with respect to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in the absence of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, but non-competitive in its presence. AMP was unable to bind to the enzyme except in the presence of one of the fructose bisphosphates; the binding stoicheiometry was 2 molecules/tetramer. Increasing concentrations of Mg2+ increased the Hill coefficient h and the apparent Ki for AMP, whereas fructose 2,6-bisphosphate had the opposite effect. Increasing concentrations of both AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate decreased h and increased the apparent Ka for Mg2+. AMP slightly decreased, and Mg2+ slightly increased, the apparent Ki for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, but each had only small effects on h. These results are interpreted in terms of a new three-state model for the allosteric properties of the enzyme, in which fructose 2,6-bisphosphate can bind both to the catalytic site and to an allosteric site and AMP can bind to the enzyme only when the catalytic site is occupied.
Project description:The binding of MgATP to purified Ca2+Mg2+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase from rabbit muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum was studied by using a flow-dialysis method. Phosphoryl-enzyme formation and catalytic activity were also measured, and all three processes demonstrated negative co-operativity, with half-saturation of all three parameters at a MgATP concentration of 40-50muM, and a Hill coefficient (h) of 0.8. The variation of the binding constant with with pH was measured and showed tighter binding of MgATP with increasing pH over the range 6.8-8.5. Binding parameters for ATP analogues were also measured. The binding of Ca2+ in the presence and absence of ATP analogues gave half saturation at a Ca2+ concentration of 1.2-1.3muM. Hill plots of Ca2+-binding data gave a slope of 0.8. These results show that the binding of MgATP and Ca2+ can occur in a random manner, with neither substrate influencing the affinity of the enzyme for the other.
Project description:Preparations of pyruvate carboxylase catalyse the cleavage of MgATP in the absence of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA. The rate of this cleavage is higher in the presence of HCO3- than in its absence. Incubation of the enzyme preparations with an excess of the pyruvate carboxylase inhibitor, avidin, completely abolishes the pyruvate carboxylating activity of the enzyme preparations but only abolishes the HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleaving activity, with no effect on the HCO3(-)-independent ATPase activity. The HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage is also sensitive to inhibition by a pyruvate carboxylase inhibitor, oxamate, and the dependence of the reaction on the free Mg2+ concentration is similar to that of the pyruvate-carboxylation reaction, whereas the HCO3(-)-independent MgATP cleavage is not dependent on the concentration of free Mg2+ in the range tested. This indicates that MgATP cleavage by pyruvate carboxylase is entirely dependent on the presence of HCO3- and that there may be a low level of ATPase contamination in the enzyme preparations. In addition, inhibition of the HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage by both avidin and oxamate indicate that although biotin does not directly participate in the reaction, its presence is required in that part of the active site of the enzyme. The rate of HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage is about 0.07% of that of the full pyruvate carboxylation reaction under similar conditions with saturating substrates. The reaction mechanism is sequential with respect to MgATP and HCO3- addition and Mg2+ adds at equilibrium before MgATP. Acetyl-CoA stimulates the HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage at low MgATP concentrations, with the stimulation being greater at low Mg2+ concentrations. At high levels of MgATP in the presence of acetyl-CoA, substrate inhibition is evident and is more pronounced at increasing concentrations of Mg2+. This inhibition appears to be, at least in part, caused by inhibition of decarboxylation of the enzyme-carboxybiotin complex by the binding to this complex of Mg2+ and MgATP, which probably act to reduce the rate of movement of carboxybiotin from the site of the MgATP cleavage reaction to that of the pyruvate carboxylation reaction where it is unstable and decarboxylates.