Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity in rat epididymal fat-pads. Effects of starvation, alloxan-diabetes and high-fat diet.
ABSTRACT: 1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity in rat epididymal fat-pads was measured by using pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase [32P]phosphate. About 80% was found to be extramitochondrial and therefore probably not directly concerned with the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. The extramitochondrial activity was sensitive to activation by Ca2+, but perhaps less sensitive than the mitochondrial activity.
Project description:1. Isolated rat epididymal fat-cell mitochondria showed an inverse relationship between ATP content and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity consistent with competitive inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by ADP. At constant ATP concentration pyruvate rapidly activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria, an observation consistent with inhibition of fat-cell pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by pyruvate. Pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria was also activated by nicotinate (100mum) and by extramitochondrial Na(+) (replacing K(+)) but not by ouabain or insulin. 2. In rat epididymal fat-pads incubated in vitro pyruvate dehydrogenase was activated by addition of insulin in the absence of substrate or in the presence of glucose (10mm) or fructose (10mm). Glucose and fructose activated the dehydrogenase in the absence or in the presence of insulin, and pyruvate also activated in the absence of insulin. It is concluded that extracellular glucose, fructose and pyruvate may activate the dehydrogenase by raising intracellular pyruvate and that insulin may activate the dehydrogenase by some other mechanism. 3. Ouabain (300mum) and medium in which K(+) was replaced by Na(+), activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in epididymal fat-pads. Prostaglandin E(1) (1mug/ml), 5-methylpyrazole-3-carboxylate (10mum) and nicotinate (10mum), which are as effective as insulin as inhibitors of lipolysis and which like insulin lower tissue concentration of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate), did not activate pyruvate dehydrogenase. Higher concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (10mug/ml) and nicotinate (100mum) produced some activation of the dehydrogenase. 4. It is concluded that the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin is not due to the antilipolytic effect of the hormone and that the action of insulin in lowering adipose-cell concentrations of cyclic AMP does not afford an obvious explanation for the effect of the hormone on pyruvate dehydrogenase. The possibility that the effects of insulin, ouabain and K(+)-free medium may be mediated by Ca(2+) is discussed.
Project description:1. The mechanism by which insulin activates pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal adipose tissue was further investigated. 2. When crude extracts, prepared from tissue segments previously exposed to insulin (2m-i.u/ml) for 2min, were supplemented with Mg-2+, Ca-2+, glucose and hexokinase and incubated at 30 degrees C, they displayed an enhanced rate of increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity compared with control extracts. 3. When similar extracts were instead supplemented with fluoride, ADP, creatine phosphate and creatine kinase, the rate of decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity observed during incubation at 30 degrees C was unaffected by insulin treatment. 4. It is suggested that insulin increases the fraction of pyruvate dehydrogenase present in the tissue in the active dephospho form by increasing the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase.
Project description:The phosphorylation of sites additional to an inactivating site inhibits the formation of active pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from inactive pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex by pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase.
Project description:1. Previous studies showed that the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase within intact rat heart mitochondria of pyruvate is much diminished in mitochondria from starved or diabetic animals [see Kerbey, Randle, Cooper, Whitehouse, Pask & Denton (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 327-348]. In the present study, diminished responses to added Ca2+ and ADP were also found in these mitochondria. 2. Starvation or diabetes did not affect the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio of the ATP content. Moreover, starvation and diabetes did not alter the response of the intramitochondrial Ca2+-sensitive enzyme, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, to changes in the extramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+ and 2-oxoglutarate, thus indicating that there were no appreciable changes in the distribution of Ca2+ and H+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane. 3. Pyruvate, Ca2+ and ADP were found to have synergistic effects on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, particularly in mitochondria from starved and diabetic rats. 4. The results suggest that the effects of diabetes and starvation on pyruvate dehydrogenase are not brought about by changes in the distribution of these effectors across the mitochondrial inner membrane or by changes in the intrinsic sensitivity of the kinase or phosphatase of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system to pyruvate, Ca2+ or ADP; rather it is probably that there is an increase in the maximum activity of kinase relative to that of the phosphatase. 6. The results also lend further support to the hypothesis that adrenaline may bring about the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the rat heart by an increase in the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+.
Project description:1. The activity of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was assayed by the incorporation of [(32)P]phosphate from [gamma-(32)P]ATP into the dehydrogenase complex. There was a very close correlation between this incorporation and the loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity with all preparations studied. 2. Nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (at 100mum) and cyclic 3':5'-nucleotides (at 10mum) had no significant effect on kinase activity. 3. The K(m) for thiamin pyrophosphate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 0.76mum. Sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate, ADP and GTP were competitive inhibitors against thiamin pyrophosphate in the dehydrogenase reaction. 4. The K(m) for ATP of the intrinsic kinase assayed in three preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 13.9-25.4mum. Inhibition by ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate was predominantly competitive, but there was nevertheless a definite non-competitive element. Thiamin pyrophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate were uncompetitive inhibitors against ATP. It is suggested that ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate inhibit the kinase mainly by binding to the ATP site and that the adenosine moiety may be involved in this binding. It is suggested that thiamin pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and ADP may inhibit the kinase by binding through pyrophosphate or imidodiphosphate moieties at some site other than the ATP site. It is not known whether this is the coenzyme-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. 5. The K(m) for pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 35.5mum. 2-Oxobutyrate and 3-hydroxypyruvate but not glyoxylate were also substrates; all three compounds inhibited pyruvate oxidation. 6. In preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate, pyruvate inhibited the kinase reaction at all concentrations in the range 25-500mum. The inhibition was uncompetitive. In the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate (endogenous or added at 2 or 10mum) the kinase activity was enhanced by low concentrations of pyruvate (25-100mum) and inhibited by a high concentration (500mum). Activation of the kinase reaction was not seen when sodium pyrophosphate was substituted for thiamin pyrophosphate. 7. Under the conditions of the kinase assay, pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase forms (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]pyruvate in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate. Previous work suggests that the products may include acetoin. Acetoin activated the kinase reaction in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate but not with sodium pyrophosphate. It is suggested that acetoin formation may contribute to activation of the kinase reaction by low pyruvate concentrations in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate. 8. Pyruvate effected the conversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate into pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria incubated with 5mm-2-oxoglutarate and 0.5mm-l-malate as respiratory substrates. It is suggested that this effect of pyruvate is due to inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction in the mitochondrion. 9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was inhibited by high concentrations of Mg(2+) (15mm) and by Ca(2+) (10nm-10mum) at low Mg(2+) (0.15mm) but not at high Mg(2+) (15mm).
Project description:The enzymic activity of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by the phosphorylation of three serine residues (sites 1, 2 and 3) located on the E1 component of the complex. Here we report that the four isoenzymes of protein kinase responsible for the phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDK1, PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4) differ in their abilities to phosphorylate the enzyme. PDK1 can phosphorylate all three sites, whereas PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4 each phosphorylate only site 1 and site 2. Although PDK2 phosphorylates site 1 and 2, it incorporates less phosphate in site 2 than PDK3 or PDK4. As a result, the amount of phosphate incorporated by each isoenzyme decreases in the order PDK1>PDK3>or=PDK4>PDK2. Significantly, binding of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate to pyruvate dehydrogenase alters the rates and stoichiometries of phosphorylation of the individual sites. First, the rate of phosphorylation of site 1 by all isoenzymes of kinase is decreased. Secondly, thiamin pyrophosphate markedly decreases the amount of phosphate that PDK1 incorporates in sites 2 and 3 and that PDK2 incorporates in site 2. In contrast, the coenzyme does not significantly affect the total amount of phosphate incorporated in site 2 by PDK3 and PDK4, but instead decreases the rate of phosphorylation of this site. Furthermore, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex phosphorylated by the individual isoenzymes of kinase is reactivated at different rates by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. Both isoenzymes of phosphatase (PDP1 and PDP2) readily reactivate the complex phosphorylated by PDK2. When pyruvate dehydrogenase is phosphorylated by other isoenzymes, the rates of reactivation decrease in the order PDK4>or=PDK3>PDK1. Taken together, results reported here strongly suggest that the major determinants of the activity state of pyruvate dehydrogenase in mammalian tissues include the phosphorylation site specificity of isoenzymes of kinase in addition to the absolute amounts of kinase and phosphatase protein expressed in mitochondria.
Project description:1. Intact rat epididymal fat-cells were incubated with 32Pi, and the intracellular proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. One of the separated bands of phosphorylated proteins had an apparent subunit mol.wt. of 42 000, which is the same as that of the alpha-subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. By using a combination of subcellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation with antiserum raised against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and two-dimensional electrophoresis it was apparent that the incorporation into alpha-subunits accounted for 35--45% of the total incorporation into this band of phosphoproteins. 2. The increase in the initial activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase that follows brief exposure of fat-cells to insulin was shown to be associated with a decrease in the steady-state incorporation of 32P into the alpha-subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 3. Tryptic peptide analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase [32P]phosphate, labelled in intact fat-cells, indicated that three serine residues on the alpha-subunit were phosphorylated, corresponding to the three sites phosphorylated when purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP. The relative phosphorylation of all three serine residues appeared to be similar in 32P-labelled alpha-subunits in both control and insulin-treated fat-cells.
Project description:1. The conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active (dephosphorylated) complex by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase is inhibited in heart mitochondria prepared from alloxan-diabetic or 48h-starved rats, in mitochondria prepared from acetate-perfused rat hearts and in mitochondria prepared from normal rat hearts incubated with respiratory substrates for 6 min (as compared with 1 min). 2. This conclusion is based on experiments with isolated intact mitochondria in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction was inhibited by pyruvate or ATP depletion (by using oligomycin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), and in experiments in which the rate of conversion of inactive complex into active complex by the phosphatase was measured in extracts of mitochondria. The inhibition of the phosphatase reaction was seen with constant concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (activators of the phosphatase). The phosphatase reaction in these mitochondrial extracts was not inhibited when an excess of exogenous pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was used as substrate. It is concluded that this inhibition is due to some factor(s) associated with the substrate (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex) and not to inhibition of the phosphatase as such. 3. This conclusion was verified by isolating pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex, free of phosphatase, from hearts of control and diabetic rats an from heart mitochondria incubed for 1min (control) or 6min with respiratory substrates. The rates of re-activation of the inactive complexes were then measured with preparations of ox heart or rat heart phosphatase. The rates were lower (relative to controls) with inactive complex from hearts of diabetic rats or from heart mitochondria incubated for 6min with respiratory substrates. 4. The incorporation of 32Pi into inactive complex took 6min to complete in rat heart mitocondria. The extent of incorporation was consistent with three or four sites of phosphorylation in rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. 5. It is suggested that phosphorylation of sites additional to an inactivating site may inhibit the conversion of inactive complex into active complex by the phosphatase in heart mitochondria from alloxan-diabetic or 48h-starved rats or in mitochondria incubated for 6min with respiratory substrates.
Project description:1. A method is described for extracting separately mitochondrial and extramitochondrial enzymes from fat-cells prepared by collagenase digestion from rat epididymal fat-pads. The following distribution of enzymes has been observed (with the total activities of the enzymes as units/mg of fat-cell DNA at 25 degrees C given in parenthesis). Exclusively mitochondrial enzymes: glutamate dehydrogenase (1.8), NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase (0.5), citrate synthase (5.2), pyruvate carboxylase (3.0); exclusively extramitochondrial enzymes: glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (5.8), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (5.2), NADP-malate dehydrogenase (11.0), ATP-citrate lyase (5.1); enzymes present in both mitochondrial and extramitochondrial compartments: NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (3.7), NAD-malate dehydrogenase (330), aconitate hydratase (1.1), carnitine acetyltransferase (0.4), acetyl-CoA synthetase (1.0), aspartate aminotransferase (1.7), alanine aminotransferase (6.1). The mean DNA content of eight preparations of fat-cells was 109mug/g dry weight of cells. 2. Mitochondria showing respiratory control ratios of 3-6 with pyruvate, about 3 with succinate and P/O ratios of approaching 3 and 2 respectively have been isolated from fat-cells. From studies of rates of oxygen uptake and of swelling in iso-osmotic solutions of ammonium salts, it is concluded that fat-cell mitochondria are permeable to the monocarboxylic acids, pyruvate and acetate; that in the presence of phosphate they are permeable to malate and succinate and to a lesser extent oxaloacetate but not fumarate; and that in the presence of both malate and phosphate they are permeable to citrate, isocitrate and 2-oxoglutarate. In addition, isolated fat-cell mitochondria have been found to oxidize acetyl l-carnitine and, slowly, l-glycerol 3-phosphate. 3. It is concluded that the major means of transport of acetyl units into the cytoplasm for fatty acid synthesis is as citrate. Extensive transport as glutamate, 2-oxoglutarate and isocitrate, as acetate and as acetyl l-carnitine appears to be ruled out by the low activities of mitochondrial aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial acetyl-CoA hydrolyase and carnitine acetyltransferase respectively. Pathways whereby oxaloacetate generated in the cytoplasm during fatty acid synthesis by ATP-citrate lyase may be returned to mitochondria for further citrate synthesis are discussed. 4. It is also concluded that fat-cells contain pathways that will allow the excess of reducing power formed in the cytoplasm when adipose tissue is incubated in glucose and insulin to be transferred to mitochondria as l-glycerol 3-phosphate or malate. When adipose tissue is incubated in pyruvate alone, reducing power for fatty acid, l-glycerol 3-phosphate and lactate formation may be transferred to the cytoplasm as citrate and malate.
Project description:The metal-ion requirement of extracted and partially purified pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase from rat epididymal fat-pads was investigated with pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase [(32)P]phosphate as substrate. The enzyme required Mg(2+) (K(m) 0.5mm) and was activated additionally by Ca(2+) (K(m) 1mum) or Sr(2+) and inhibited by Ni(2+). Isolated fat-cell mitochondria, like liver mitochondria, possess a respiration- or ATP-linked Ca(2+)-uptake system which is inhibited by Ruthenium Red, by uncouplers when linked to respiration, and by oligomycin when linked to ATP. Depletion of fat-cell mitochondria of 75% of their total magnesium content and of 94% of their total calcium content by incubation with the bivalent-metal ionophore A23187 leads to complete loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity. Restoration of full activity required addition of both MgCl(2) and CaCl(2). SrCl(2) could replace CaCl(2) (but not MgCl(2)) and NiCl(2) was inhibitory. The metal-ion requirement of the phosphatase within mitochondria was thus equivalent to that of the extracted enzyme. Insulin activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal fat-pads was not accompanied by any measurable increase in the activity of the phosphatase in extracts of the tissue when either endogenous substrate or (32)P-labelled pig heart substrate was used for assay. The activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-pads by insulin was inhibited by Ruthenium Red (which may inhibit cell and mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+)) and by MnCl(2) and NiCl(2) (which may inhibit cell uptake of Ca(2+)). It is concluded that Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are cofactors for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase and that an increased mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+) might contribute to the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin.