Activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in brains of adult and 7-day-old rats.
ABSTRACT: Rat brain contains 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity, but this enzyme is far more active in 7-day-old brain than in adult brain. This difference may partly explain why cholesterol biosynthesis is more rapid in growing than in adult rat brain.
Project description:A procedure for the preparation of rat liver microsomal fractions essentially devoid of contaminating lysosomes is described. When this preparation was examined by immunoblotting with a rabbit antiserum to rat 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a single band corresponding to an Mr of 100000 was observed. No evidence was found for glycosylation of rat liver-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Native rat liver microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase differs from the purified proteolytically modified species in that it displays allosteric kinetics towards NADPH.
Project description:The specific activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase increases when homogenates of developing rat brain are incubated at 37 degrees C or kept on ice. This increase is completely blocked by the addition of F- to the homogenization medium and the assay mixture. The capacity for activation of the reductase is greatest during the early postnatal period and declines as brain maturation proceeds. The data suggest that catalytic modification of the reductase may play a role in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis in the developing brain.
Project description:1. Data are provided that indicate that the rat brain acetoacetyl-CoA deacylase is almost exclusively mitochondrial. Developmental studies show that this enzyme more than doubles its activity during suckling (0--21 days) and then maintains this activity in adults (approx. 1.1 units/g wet wt.). 2. Kinetic studies (on the acetoacetyl-CoA deacylase) in a purified brain mitochondrial preparation give a Vmax. of 47 nmol/min per mg of protein, and a Km for acetoacetyl-CoA of 5.2 micron and are compatible with substrate inhibition by acetoacetyl-CoA above concentrations of 47 micron. 3. The total brain 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase remains constant in the developing and adult rat brain (approx. 1.2 units/g wet wt.). This enzyme is located in both the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. During suckling (0--21 days) the mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase represents approx. one-third of the total, but this increases markedly to about 60% of the total in the adult. The cytosolic enzyme correspondingly falls to approx. 40% of the total. 4. The role of the acetoacetyl-CoA deacylase in providing cytosolic acetoacetate for biosynthetic activities in the developing brain is discussed.
Project description:Dietary cholesterol lowers the activity of rat liver microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase without affecting various other liver microsomal enzymes. This is consistent with a specific regulatory mechanism and distinguishes the action of cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase from that of at least one other stimulus known to affect this enzyme.
Project description:The regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase was studied in mouse uterine epithelium. The enzyme was rapidly inactivated during incubation with ATP/Mg2+ in vitro, and could be re-activated by incubation with partially purified rat liver phosphoprotein phosphatase. Enzyme activity was rapidly inhibited by mevalonate injection in vivo to approx. 30% of control. The percentage of total enzyme active in vivo was measured by inclusion of NaF in the isolation buffers. The percentage of enzyme active in vivo 18 h after stimulation by oestrogens remained at approx. 25% after inhibition of activity by mevalonate injection, cholesterol feeding or progesterone pretreatment. However, 9 h after oestrogen stimulation, cholesterol feeding inhibited enzyme activity to 57% of control, 94% of which was in the active form. We conclude that, although all components for a reversible phosphorylative regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity are present in uterine epithelial cells, a role in the rapid changes in epithelial enzyme activity has not been demonstrated.
Project description:The characteristics of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase from mouse uterine epithelial cells were studied. Preliminary experiments showed that enzyme activity was stimulated approx. 10-fold 18h after administration of 100ng of oestradiol-17 beta. This activity was associated with all particulate fractions of the uterine luminal cell. The Km for D-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA was 5.54 +/- 1.12 microM. The detailed time-course of oestrogen stimulation showed two peaks of activity, 9 and 15h after hormone treatment. The DNA content of the epithelial cells doubled between 6 and 12h after hormone treatment, whereas the protein content increased linearly over the 18h period. The peak of enzyme activity at 9h is associated with early S phase of the epithelial cells; the peak at 15h may be associated with a second S phase or with mitosis. Pretreatment with progesterone for 3 days before injection of oestradiol-17 beta (a treatment which inhibits uterine epithelial DNA synthesis) reduced the oestrogenic stimulation of enzyme activity by 63%; progesterone treatment alone did not stimulate enzyme activity. These data suggest that uterine epithelial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase may play an important role in the cell cycle in this tissue.
Project description:Previously we [Sabine & James (1976) Life Sci. 18, 1185--1192] proposed that 'the activity of hepatic beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase is critically regulated by the fluidity of its supporting microsomal membrane'. In the present work we examined further this concept of membrane-mediated control, with respect to the specific hypothesis that such control might function as a common mechanism both for the co-ordinated regulation of other enzymes affected by cholesterol feeding and also for the subcellular integration of the several physiological factors known to influence this enzyme's activity. Contrary to earlier expectations, this hypothesis now appears not to hold. We report here that, under those conditions of short-term cholesterol feeding that affected the reductase, a variety of other microsomal enzymes did not display membrane-function interactions, i.e. neither enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism and also affected by cholesterol feeding (cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase), nor those involved in cholesterol metabolism and not affected by cholesterol feeding (hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA hydrolase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase), nor those not directly involved in cholesterol metabolism at all (glucose 6-phosphatase). Furthermore, we observed no evidence for the operation of membrane-mediated control of the reductase in other situations known to influence its activity, i.e. starvation, diurnal rhythm, the very early stages of cholesterol feeding and various manipulations in vitro.
Project description:Fungal strain 14919 was originally isolated from a soil sample collected at Mt. Kiyosumi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It produces FR901512, a potent and strong 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. The genome sequence of fungal strain 14919 was determined and annotated to improve the productivity of FR901512.
Project description:Characteristics of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase from normal liver, Morris hepatomas 5123C, 5123t.c. and 9618A, and host liver were studied. Animals were fed on control and 5%-cholesterol diets. Microsomal membranes from all tissues were found to accumulate cholesterol after 3 days on the 5%-cholesterol diet. The enzyme of the tumours showed no feedback inhibition by dietary cholesterol, and that of host liver gave a variable response, whereas that of control liver was constantly inhibited by 90% or more. Arrhenius-plot analysis was conducted on the microsomal enzyme isolated from the various tissues. Control animals showed that the phase transition present at 27 degrees C was removed when animals were fed on 5%-cholesterol diet for 12 h. The hepatomas failed to show this change even after 3 days of 5%-cholesterol diet and a significant increase in microsomal cholesterol. This failure to remove the break in Arrhenius plots also occurred in host liver, even though enzyme inhibition occurred. The reason why hepatomas fail to regulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity in response to dietary cholesterol may be a decreased membrane-enzyme interaction.
Project description:1. The effect of independent variation of both acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA on the initial velocity at pH8.0 and pH8.9 gives results compatible with a sequential mechanism involving a modified enzyme tentatively identified as an acetyl-enzyme, resulting from the reaction with acetyl-CoA in the first step of a Ping Pong (Cleland, 1963a) reaction. 2. Acetoacetyl-CoA gives marked substrate inhibition that is competitive with acetyl-CoA. This suggests formation of a dead-end complex with the unacetylated enzyme and is in accord with the inhibition pattern given by 3-oxohexanoyl-CoA, an inactive analogue of acetoacetyl-CoA. 3. The inhibition pattern given by products of the reaction is compatible with the above mechanism. CoA gives mixed inhibition with respect to both substrates, whereas dl-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA competes with acetyl-CoA but gives uncompetitive inhibition with respect to acetoacetyl-CoA. 4. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA analogues lacking the 3-hydroxyl group are found to compete, like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, with acetyl-CoA but have K(i) values ninefold higher, indicating the importance of the 3-hydroxyl group in the interaction. 5. A comparison of inhibition by CoA and desulpho-CoA at pH8.0 and pH8.9 shows that at the higher pH value a kinetically significant reversal of the formation of acetyl-enzyme can occur. 6. Acetyl-CoA homologues do not act as substrates and compete only with acetyl-CoA. A study of the variation of K(i) with acyl-chain length suggests the presence near the active centre of a hydrophobic region. 7. These results are discussed in terms of a kinetic mechanism in which there is only one CoA-binding site the specificity of which is altered by acetylation of the enzyme. 8. The rate of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthesis in yeast is calculated from the kinetic constants determined for purified 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and from estimates of the physiological substrate concentrations. The rate of synthesis of 12nmol of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA/min per g wet wt. of yeast is still greater than the rate of utilization in spite of the extremely low (calculated) acetoacetyl-CoA concentration (1.8nm).