Conversion of allyl alcohol into acrolein by rat liver.
ABSTRACT: 1. Acrolein was detected in rat liver suspensions incubated in the presence of allyl alcohol and allyl formate. Acrolein was determined by condensation of the distilled aldehyde with semicarbazide, followed by spectrophotometric measurement of the semicarbazone at 257nm and identification by paper chromatography. 2. The transformation of allyl alcohol into acrolein occurred in the presence of NAD(+). Inhibitors of rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase inhibited the reaction. 3. It is suggested that the hepatotoxic actions of allyl alcohol and of allyl formate on rat liver are related to their conversion into acrolein.
Project description:The hepatotoxic action of allyl formate on rat liver has been investigated. Biochemical changes can be detected in the liver cell many hours before the histological changes and it would appear that the toxin has a direct action on the liver parenchymal cell. The results suggest that allyl formate is not the toxic agent but that it is converted via allyl alcohol into acrolein. This reaction requires the presence of alcohol dehydrogenase. Histochemical studies have shown that this enzyme is localized in the periportal region of the liver lobule, and may explain why allyl formate solely produces a periportal necrosis. As glutathione and 1,4-dithiothreitol protect against the early biochemical changes produced by the poison, it is probable that acrolein alkylates proteins and nucleic acids.
Project description:1. 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid, i.e. N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine, was isolated, as its dicyclohexylammonium salt, from the urine of rats after the subcutaneous injection of each of the following compounds: allyl alcohol, allyl formate, allyl propionate, allyl nitrate, acrolein and S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine. 2. Allylmercapturic acid, i.e. N-acetyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine, was isolated from the urine of rats after the subcutaneous injection of each of the following compounds: triallyl phosphate, sodium allyl sulphate and allyl nitrate. The sulphoxide of allylmercapturic acid was detected in the urine excreted by these rats. 3. 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid was identified by g.l.c. as a metabolite of allyl acetate, allyl stearate, allyl benzoate, diallyl phthalate, allyl nitrite, triallyl phosphate and sodium allyl sulphate. 4. S-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine was detected in the bile of a rat dosed with allyl acetate.
Project description:Allyl alcohol is a highly toxic industrial chemical used as a synthetic substrate, and as an herbicide in agriculture. It is evident that Allyl alcohol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) to the highly toxic Acrolein. Acrolein is a simple unsaturated aldehyde, ubiquitous environmental pollutant, endogenous metabolite and major constituent of cigarette smoke. Acrolein is highly electrophilic in nature and has strong reactivity towards nucleophiles present in cell such as amino acids, proteins and DNA. Several studies have tried to explore the molecular mechanisms of acrolein cytotoxicity. In continuation, we attempted to investigate the global transcriptional response of yeast cells upon treatment with 0.4mM Allyl alcohol (Acrolein) using oligonucleotide microarray assay. Also, we investigated for functionally enriched pathways based on the altered gene expression profiles after Allyl alcohol treatment. The microarray data were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Overall design: Wild-type yeast (W1588-4c) cells were grown to exponential phase and the cells were left untreated (Control) or treated with a dose of 0.4mM Allyl Alcohol (AA) for 3h. Two independent experiments were performed for each experiment (Control or AA). Total RNAs were extracted and hybridized on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50?=?478 mg/L vs. fish LC50?=?0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50?=?0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in metabolization.
Project description:Acrolein (allyl Aldehyde) as one of smoke irritant exacerbates chronic airway diseases and increased in sputum of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. But underlying mechanism remains unresolved. The aim of study was to identify protein expression in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) exposed to acrolein.A proteomic approach was used to determine the different expression of proteins at 8 h and 24 h after treatment of acrolein 30 nM and 300 nM to HMVEC-L. Treatment of HMVEC-L with acrolein 30 nM and 300 nM altered 21 protein spots on the two-dimensional gel, and these were then analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS.These proteins included antioxidant, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, protein transduction, catalytic reduction. The proteins were classified into four groups according to the time course of their expression patterns such as continually increasing, transient increasing, transient decreasing, and continually decreasing. For validation immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting was performed on lung tissues from acrolein exposed mice. Moesin was expressed in endothelium, epithelium, and inflammatory cells and increased in lung tissues of acrolein exposed mice compared with sham treated mice.These results indicate that some of proteins may be an important role for airway disease exacerbation caused by acrolein exposure.
Project description:Existing in vivo experiments show significantly decreased acrolein uptake in rats with increasing inhaled acrolein concentrations. Considering that high-polarity chemicals are prone to bond with each other, it is hypothesized that molecular binding between acrolein and water will contribute to the experimentally observed deposition decrease by decreasing the effective diffusivity. The objective of this study is to quantify the probability of molecular binding for acrolein, as well as its effects on acrolein deposition, using multiscale simulations. An image-based rat airway geometry was used to predict the transport and deposition of acrolein using the chemical species model. The low Reynolds number turbulence model was used to simulate the airflows. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were used to study the molecular binding of acrolein in different media and at different acrolein concentrations. MD results show that significant molecular binding can happen between acrolein and water molecules in human and rat airways. With 72 acrolein embedded in 800 water molecules, about 48% of acrolein compounds contain one hydrogen bond and 10% contain two hydrogen bonds, which agreed favorably with previous MD results. The percentage of hydrogen-bonded acrolein compounds is higher at higher acrolein concentrations or in a medium with higher polarity. Computational dosimetry results show that the size increase caused by the molecular binding reduces the effective diffusivity of acrolein and lowers the chemical deposition onto the airway surfaces. This result is consistent with the experimentally observed deposition decrease at higher concentrations. However, this size increase can only explain part of the concentration-dependent variation of the acrolein uptake and acts as a concurrent mechanism with the uptake-limiting tissue ration rate. Intermolecular interactions and associated variation in diffusivity should be considered in future dosimetry modeling of high-polarity chemicals such as acrolein.
Project description:Aldehydes such as acrolein are ubiquitous pollutants present in automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. Such aldehydes are also constituents of several food substances and are present in drinking water, irrigation canals, and effluents from manufacturing plants. Oral intake represents the most significant source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. To study the effects of short-term oral exposure to acrolein on lipoprotein levels and metabolism, adult mice were gavage-fed 0.1 to 5 mg acrolein/kg bwt and changes in plasma lipoproteins were assessed. Changes in hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism and cytokines were examined by qRT-PCR analysis. Acrolein feeding did not affect body weight, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, electrolytes, cytokines or liver enzymes, but increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Similar results were obtained with apoE-null mice. Plasma lipoproteins from acrolein-fed mice showed altered electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels. Chromatographic analysis revealed elevated VLDL cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides levels with little change in LDL or HDL. NMR analysis indicated shifts from small to large VLDL and from large to medium-small LDL with no change in the size of HDL particles. Increased plasma VLDL was associated with a significant decrease in post-heparin plasma hepatic lipase activity and a decrease in hepatic expression of hepatic lipase. These observations suggest that oral exposure to acrolein could induce or exacerbate systemic dyslipidemia and thereby contribute to cardiovascular disease risk.
Project description:Zidovudine (AZT) remains the mainstay of antiretroviral therapy against HIV in resource-poor countries; however, its use is frequently associated with hepatotoxicity. Not all HIV patients on AZT develop hepatotoxicity, and the determining factors are unclear. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are known risk factors for HIV hepatotoxicity, and both are significant sources of acrolein, a highly reactive and toxic aldehyde. This study examines the potential hepatotoxic interactions between acrolein and AZT. Our data demonstrate that acrolein markedly enhanced AZT-induced transcriptionally permissive histone modifications (H3K9Ac and H3K9Me3) allowing the recruitment of transcription factor NF-kB and RNA polymerase II at the FasL gene promoter, resulting in FasL upregulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Notably, the acrolein scavenger, hydralazine prevented these promoter-associated epigenetic changes and inhibited FasL upregulation and apoptosis induced by the combination of AZT and acrolein, as well as AZT alone. Our data strongly suggest that acrolein enhancement of promoter histone modifications and FasL upregulation are major pathogenic mechanisms driving AZT-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, these data also indicate the therapeutic potential of hydralazine in mitigating AZT hepatotoxicity.
Project description:A single administration of 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide, a porphyrinogenic drug, enhanced the 32P-labelling of nucleoplasmic as well as cytoplasmic poly(A)-containing RNA in rat liver. The synthesis of total microsomal RNA is only marginally increased under these conditions. The drug enhances the labelling of a variety of cytoplasmic poly(A)-containing RNA species, and this effect is counteracted by the simultaneous administration of haemin. 2-Allyl-2-isopropylacetamide also enhanced the release of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Project description:We present a mechanistic study on selective hydrogenation of acrolein over model Pd surfaces--both single crystal Pd(111) and Pd nanoparticles supported on a model oxide support. We show for the first time that selective hydrogenation of the C?O bond in acrolein to form an unsaturated alcohol is possible over Pd(111) with nearly 100% selectivity. However, this process requires a very distinct modification of the Pd(111) surface with an overlayer of oxopropyl spectator species that are formed from acrolein during the initial stages of reaction and turn the metal surface selective toward propenol formation. By applying pulsed multimolecular beam experiments and in situ infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, we identified the chemical nature of the spectator and the reactive surface intermediate (propenoxy species) and experimentally followed the simultaneous evolution of the reactive intermediate on the surface and formation of the product in the gas phase.