Inhibition of hepatic deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerases by the exotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with the effects of -amanitin and cordycepin.
ABSTRACT: The action of Bacillus thuringiensis exotoxin, a structural analogue of ATP, on mouse liver DNA-dependent RNA polymerases was studied and its effects were compared with those of alpha-amanitin and cordycepin. (1) Administration of exotoxin in vivo caused a marked decrease in RNA polymerase activity of isolated nuclei at various concentrations of Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and (NH(4))(2)SO(4). A similar action was recorded after addition of exotoxin to isolated nuclei from control or exotoxin-treated mice. (2) Chromatographic separation of nuclear RNA polymerases from mice treated in vivo with exotoxin showed a drastic decrease of the peak of nucleoplasmic RNA polymerase, whereas the peak of nucleolar RNA polymerase remained unaltered. The same effect was observed after administration of alpha-amanitin in vivo, but cordycepin did not alter the relative amounts of the two main RNA polymerase peaks. (3) Administration of exotoxin in vivo did not alter the template activity of isolated DNA or chromatin tested with different fractions of RNA polymerase from control or exotoxin-treated mice. (4) Addition of exotoxin to isolated liver RNA polymerases inhibited both enzyme fractions. However, the alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA polymerase was also 50-100-fold more sensitive to exotoxin inhibition than was the alpha-amanitin-insensitive RNA polymerase. Kinetic analysis indicated the exotoxin produces a competitive inhibition with ATP on the nucleolar enzyme, but a mixed type of inhibition with nucleoplasmic enzyme. The results obtained indicate that the B. thuringiensis exotoxin inhibits liver RNA synthesis by affecting nuclear RNA polymerases, showing a preferential inhibition of the nucleoplasmic alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA polymerase.
Project description:The effects of the exotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis on DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from rat liver were examined. The exotoxin inhibits all RNA polymerase activity at both low and high ionic strength in intact nuclei, and soluble enzymes are similarly affected. This inhibition is relieved by ATP. Dephosphorylated exotoxin did not inhibit the soluble enzymes. Nucleolar and nucleoplasmic RNA polymerases respond to different concentration ranges of exotoxin, and the compound can be used in intact nuclei to isolate the nucleoplasmic activity.
Project description:The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activities in nuclei isolated from adult Sarcophaga bullata are unusual in their responses to metal ions, ionic strength and inhibitors. There is an activity that is sensitive both to rifamycin and to alpha-amanitin. The activity is less sensitive to Bacillus thuringiensis exotoxin than is larval polymerase, and low concentration of exotoxin provoke a slight stimulation.
Project description:1. In the spleens of infected mice, the Friend leukaemia virus induces a sharp increase in the ability of subsequently isolated nuclei to incorporate exogenous UTP into an acid-insoluble product. Inhibitor studies indicate that the incremental RNA synthesis proceeds from a DNA template and that both nucleolar and nucleoplasmic activities are involved. 2. The partially purified DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from control and virus-infected tissue are indistinguishable with respect to chromatographic mobility, dependence on bivalent cations, ionic strength, pH and their susceptibility to alpha-amanitin. The RNA polymerases of the murine spleen resemble the enzymes of other mammalian tissue in these properties. 3. A comparison of the amount of polymerase solubilized from normal and infected tissue correlates with the activity observed in assays of the respective nuclei. These experiments indicated that the increase in nucleolar RNA synthesis after infection is mediated by increased extractable polymerase I activity whereas the change in nucleoplasmic RNA synthesis results from an alteration of chromatin or a chromatin-associated factor.
Project description:alpha-Amanitin acts in vitro and in vivo as a selective inhibitor of nucleoplasmic RNA polymerases. Treatment of mice with low doses of alpha-amanitin causes the following changes in the synthesis, maturation and nucleocytoplasmic transfer of liver RNA species. 1. The synthesis of the nuclear precursor of mRNA is strongly inhibited and all electrophoretic components are randomly affected. The labelling of cytoplasmic mRNA is blocked. These effects may be correlated with the rapid and lasting inhibition of nucleoplasmic RNA polymerase. 2. The synthesis and maturation of the nuclear precursor of rRNA is inhibited within 30min. (a) The initial effect is a strong (about 80%) inhibition of the early steps of 45S precursor rRNA maturation. (b) The synthesis of 45S precursor rRNA is also inhibited and the effect increases from about 30% at 30min to more than 70% at 150min. (c) The labelling of nuclear and cytoplasmic 28S and 18S rRNA is almost completely blocked. The labelling of nuclear 5S rRNA is inhibited by about 50%, but that of cytoplasmic 5S rRNA is blocked. (d) The action of alpha-amanitin on the synthesis of precursor rRNA cannot be correlated with the slight gradual decrease of nucleolar RNA polymerase activity (only 10-20% inhibition at 150min). (e) The inhibition of precursor rRNA maturation and synthesis precedes the ultrastructural lesions of the nucleolus detected by standard electron microscopy. 3. The synthesis of nuclear 4.6S precursor of tRNA is not affected by alpha-amanitin. However, the labelling of nuclear and cytoplasmic tRNA is decreased by about 50%, which indicates an inhibition of precursor tRNA maturation. The results of this study suggest that the synthesis and maturation of the precursor of rRNA and the maturation of the precursor of tRNA are under the control of nucleoplasmic gene products. The regulator molecules may be either RNA or proteins with exceedingly fast turnover.
Project description:Measurements of the endogenous RNA polymerase activities of nuclei isolated from immature rabbit uteri have shown that prior treatment of the animals with oestradiol-17beta has a profound effect on the apparent activities of both RNA polymerases A and B. Within 1 h of hormone treatment, the activity of RNA polymerase A is increased and continues to rise until about 4h when it reaches a plateau and remains steady until at least 8h. The activity of RNA polymerase B increases sharply after oestradiol treatment reaching an early maximum at 30-45 min. Thereafter this activity declines until by 1-2h it approaches control values but a second increase in activity then occurs with a maximum at 3-4h. Treatment of the rabbits with alpha-amanitin before the administration of oestradiol inhibits the hormone-induced stimulation of RNA polymerase A activity in isolated nuclei but when the administration of alpha-amanitin is delayed until after the early rise of RNA polymerase B activity, the oestradiol-induced stimulation of RNA polymerase A is retained. Similar results have been obtained in experiments with cycloheximide suggesting that the stimulation of RNA polymerase A activity by oestradiol is dependent on the hormone-induced stimulation of RNA polymerase B and the subsequent synthesis of protein using the RNA product of the early increase in RNA polymerase B activity. Measurement of the activities of RNA polymerases A and B after isolation of the enzymes from immature rabbit uterine nuclei before and after oestradiol treatment failed to show any differences. Therefore it would appear that the changes in the observed activities of RNA polymerases A and B in isolated nuclei are consequences of changes in the structure and function of chromatin rather than the results of modifications in the RNA polymerases themselves.
Project description:We have previously reported a post-transcriptional RNA amplification observed in vivo following injection of in vitro synthesized transcripts into axolotl oocytes, unfertilized (UFE) or fertilized eggs. To further characterize this phenomenon, low speed extracts (LSE) from axolotl and Xenopus UFE were prepared and tested in an RNA polymerization assay. The major conclusions are: i) the amphibian extracts catalyze the incorporation of radioactive ribonucleotide in RNase but not DNase sensitive products showing that these products correspond to RNA; ii) the phenomenon is resistant to ?-amanitin, an inhibitor of RNA polymerases II and III and to cordycepin (3'dAMP), but sensitive to cordycepin 5'-triphosphate, an RNA elongation inhibitor, which supports the existence of an RNA polymerase activity different from polymerases II and III; the detection of radiolabelled RNA comigrating at the same length as the exogenous transcript added to the extracts allowed us to show that iii) the RNA polymerization is not a 3' end labelling and that iv) the radiolabelled RNA is single rather than double stranded. In vitro cell-free systems derived from amphibian UFE therefore validate our previous in vivo results hypothesizing the existence of an evolutionary conserved enzymatic activity with the properties of an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp).
Project description:Structural, biochemical, and genetic studies have led to proposals that a mobile element of multisubunit RNA polymerases, the Trigger Loop (TL), plays a critical role in catalysis and can be targeted by antibiotic inhibitors. Here we present evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) TL participates in substrate selection. Amino acid substitutions within the Pol II TL preferentially alter substrate usage and enzyme fidelity, as does inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin. Finally, substitution of His1085 in the TL specifically renders Pol II highly resistant to alpha-amanitin, indicating a functional interaction between His1085 and alpha-amanitin that is supported by rerefinement of an alpha-amanitin-Pol II crystal structure. We propose that alpha-amanitin-inhibited Pol II elongation, which is slow and exhibits reduced substrate selectivity, results from direct alpha-amanitin interference with the TL.
Project description:Wheat-germ RNA polymerase II is able to catalyse a DNA-dependent reaction of RNA synthesis in the presence of a high concentration (1 mg/ml) of the fungal toxin alpha-amanitin. This anomalous reaction is specifically directed by single-stranded or double-stranded homopolymer templates, such as poly(dC) or poly(dC).poly(dG), and occurs in the presence of either Mn2+ or Mg2+ as the bivalent metal cofactor. In contrast, the transcription of other synthetic templates, such as poly(dT), poly(dA).poly(dT) or poly[d(A-T)] is completely abolished in the presence of 1 microgram of alpha-amanitin/ml, in agreement with well-established biochemical properties of class II RNA polymerases. Size analysis of reaction products resulting from transcription of (dC)n templates of defined lengths suggests that polymerization of RNA chains proceeds through a slippage mechanism. The fact that alpha-amanitin does not impede this synthetic reaction implies that the amatoxin interferes with the translocation of wheat-germ RNA polymerase II along the DNA template.
Project description:We have isolated, characterized and substantially purified two distinct RNA polymerase activities from the flagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. RNA polymerases from this organism were resolved poorly on DEAE-Sephadex, but could be separated with CM-Sephadex. One form was totally resistant to alpha-amanitin, whereas the second was 50% inhibited by 10-20 micrograms of the drug/ml. The enzymes had different salt optima, but both were of high Mr (greater than 480,000) and demonstrated the template preference: poly[d(A-T)] greater than denatured DNA greater than native DNA, and both were more active with Mn2+ than with Mg2+. The amanitin-resistant enzyme, polymerase R, was partially purified by chromatography on CM-Sephadex, DEAE-Sephadex and heparin-Sepharose. This enzyme was very labile, and activity yields were around 9%; after purification, one or two protein bands could be discerned after electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions, but about 20 polypeptides were resolved on denaturing gels, including a major component (not thought to be part of the enzyme) of Mr 65,000. Polymerase S, sensitive to low alpha-amanitin concentrations, was more extensively purified, with an 18% recovery, and yielded a single major band with two minor ones after native gel electrophoresis. Analysis under denaturing conditions permitted a possible subunit structure for this enzyme to be ascribed.
Project description:1. Injection of alpha-amanitin to mice causes a decreased incorporation of [6-(14)C]-orotic acid into liver RNA in vivo. 2. The activity of RNA polymerase activated by Mn(2+) and ammonium sulphate is greatly impaired in liver nuclei isolated from mice poisoned with alpha-amanitin, and is inhibited by the addition of the same toxin in vitro. 3. The activity of the Mg(2+)-activated RNA polymerase is only slightly affected by alpha-amanitin either administered to mice or added in vitro.