A study of the nature of the immediate precursor of the extracellular -amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. A reappraisal.
ABSTRACT: 1. A defined medium was devised for use in washed-cell experiments with post-exponential-phase cultures of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The medium allowed alpha-amylase to be secreted, bacterial concentration to increase and l-[U-(14)C]valine to be incorporated into protein at a linear rate, which was the same as in a post-exponential-phase culture, for up to 6h. 2. Determination of the specific radioactivity of l-[U-(14)C]valine in the medium, the intracellular amino acid pool, the cellular protein and the isolated alpha-amylase, after a 3h incubation of washed cells in the defined medium, showed that at least 76% of the alpha-amylase secreted was synthesized de novo. 3. By isolating the alpha-amylase formed during a 6h incubation in the presence of l-[U-(14)C]valine it was shown that the specific radioactivity of the N-terminal valine, within the limits of experimental error, was the same as that of the total valine residues from the complete alpha-amylase molecule. 4. A consideration of these results in relation to the whole literature on the subject strongly supports the idea that there is no reason to suppose that extracellular alpha-amylase is formed from a high-molecular-weight precursor in B. amyloliquefaciens and closely related organisms with identical characteristics of exoenzyme secretion.
Project description:Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. EC 184.108.40.206), which is commercially supplied as 'Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase' does not cross-react immunologically with B. subtilis alpha-amylase. This enzyme (from B. amyloliquefaciens) was cleaved by treatment with CNBr into seven fragments. Peptide A was selected for sequence determination. It is the longest one, containing 185 amino acids (i.e. approx. 50% of the total molecule) and connects to the hexapeptide of the N-terminus. Its primary structure was aligned by use of various proteolytic enzymes. The sequence of amino acids 181-184 is identical with that of amino acids 14-17 of the alpha-amylase isolated from B. subtilis (except that amino acid 183 is asparagine rather than aspartic acid).
Project description:The bacterial strain producing thermostable, alklophilic alpha-amylase was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KCP2 using 16S rDNA gene sequencing data (NCBI Accession No: KF112071). Medium components were optimized through the statistical approach for the synthesis of alpha-amylase by the organism under solid-state fermentation using wheat bran as the substrate. The medium components influencing the enzyme production were identified using a two-level fractional factorial Plackett-Burman design. Among the various variables screened, starch, ammonium sulphate and calcium chloride were found to be most significant medium components. The optimum levels of these significant parameters were determined employing the response surface Central Composite design which significantly increased the enzyme production with the supplementation of starch 0.01 g, ammonium sulphate 0.2 g and 5 mM calcium chloride in the production medium. Temperature and pH stability of the alpha-amylase suggested its wide application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Project description:1. l-alpha-Amino[6-(14)C]adipic acid has been prepared from the dl-amino acid by oxidation of the l-isomer with l-amino acid oxidase to alpha-oxo[6-(14)C]adipic acid and by transamination of the latter with l-glutamic acid in an extract of a Cephalosporium sp. prepared by ultrasonic treatment of the mycelium. 2. The optical configuration of small amounts of (14)C-labelled alpha-aminoadipic acid from the mycelium of the Cephalosporium sp. has been determined by treatment with l-amino acid oxidase and measurement of the proportion of radioactivity subsequently retained on a column of a strong cation-exchange resin. 3. alpha-Aminoadipic acid which had been labelled in the mycelium from [1-(14)C]acetate appeared to contain more than 99% of the l-isomer. 4. l-alpha-Amino[(14)C]adipic acid (sodium salt) was taken up much more rapidly than the d-isomer, or alpha-oxo[6-(14)C]adipic acid, by suspensions of washed mycelium of the Cephalosporium sp. in water. The pool of intracellular alpha-aminoadipic acid was expandable. 5. Intracellular products found to be labelled with (14)C from l-alpha-amino[(14)C]adipic acid were delta-aminovaleric acid, saccharopine, lysine, protein, compounds which behaved like penicillin N, cephalosporin C and deacetylcephalosporin C respectively on paper chromatography and electrophoresis, and a peptide whose amino acid residues include alpha-aminoadipic acid, cysteine and valine. 6. l-alpha-Amino[(14)C]adipic acid acted as a precursor of the delta-(d-alpha-aminoadipoyl) side chains of extracellular penicillin N and cephalosporin C. 7. (14)C from d-alpha-amino[(14)C]adipic acid was incorporated into penicillin N and cephalosporin C, but the incorporation was accompanied by a relatively high dilution of specific radioactivity and some l-alpha-amino[(14)C]adipic acid was found in the intracellular pool. 8. These findings are discussed in relation to the origin of the d- configuration of the alpha-aminoadipoyl side chain of the antibiotics.
Project description:1. The production of penicillin N, but not that of cephalosporin C, was inhibited by the addition of d-valine to suspensions in water of washed mycelium of Cephalosporium sp. 8650. The production of cephalosporin C was selectively inhibited by gamma-hydroxyvaline. 2. l-[(14)C]Valine was taken up rapidly and virtually completely by suspensions of washed mycelium but d-[(14)C]valine and alpha-oxo[(14)C]-isovalerate were taken up relatively slowly. 3. Part of the l-valine was rapidly degraded in the mycelium and part was incorporated into protein. Turnover of the valine in the amino acid pool was estimated to occur in 10-17min. 4. No detectable amount of l-[(14)C]valine was converted into the d-isomer in the mycelium. alpha-Oxo[(14)C]isovalerate was rapidly converted into l-[(14)C]valine in mycelium and mycelial extracts. 5. d-[(14)C]Valine was partially converted into the l-isomer in the mycelium and (14)C from d-valine was incorporated into protein. 6. The labelling of penicillin N and cephalosporin C by (14)C from l-[(14)C]valine was consistent with the view that l-valine is a direct precursor of C(5) fragments of both antibiotics and that any intermediates involved are present in relatively small pools in rapid turnover. 7. Labelling of the antibiotics with (14)C from d-[1-(14)C]valine appeared to occur after the latter had been converted into the l-isomer. Unlabelled d-valine did not decrease the efficiency of incorporation of (14)C from l-[1-(14)C]valine. 8. Intracellular peptide material which contained, among others, residues of alpha-aminoadipic acid, cysteine and valine, was rapidly labelled by (14)C from l-[1-(14)C]valine in a manner consistent with it being an intermediate in the biosynthesis of one or both of the antibiotics. 9. Labelling of penicillin N from l-[1-(14)C]valine occurred more rapidly than that of cephalosporin C. However, the effects of d-valine and gamma-hydroxyvaline on antibiotic production and the course of labelling of the antibiotics from l-[(14)C]valine could not readily be explained on the assumption that penicillin N was a precursor of cephalosporin C.
Project description:1. The incorporation of labelled valine by rabbit reticulocytes into the N-terminal position of nascent haemoglobin was investigated by deaminating the nascent peptides with nitrous acid and isolating labelled alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid and valine after acid hydrolysis. 2. The amount of radioactivity in alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid relative to that in valine indicated the presence of 12.3% N-terminal valine having a free amino group. This high value suggests that most if not all nascent peptides contain valine in the N-terminal position. 3. Cell-free preparations containing reticulocyte ribosomes and pH5 enzymes incorporated alpha-hydroxy-[(14)C]isovaleryl-tRNA (where tRNA refers to transfer RNA), which was obtained by deamination of [(14)C]valyl-tRNA from yeast or liver with nitrous acid, into both soluble and nascent protein. 4. When the soluble protein was chromatographed on CM-cellulose, radioactivity was found to be associated with both the alpha-and beta-globin chains. 5. The kinetics of hydrolysis of [(14)C]valine, was also investigated. Most of the material was hydrolysed rapidly at pH10, but a minor component that was relatively stable appeared to be present to the extent of about 10% of the total valyl-tRNA. Valine was, however, the only hydrolysis product detected by paper chromatography. 6. It is concluded that chain initiation in haemoglobin synthesis involves valine as the N-terminal amino acid and that the amino group of nascent protein is probably not substituted.
Project description:Extracellular α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) shows great starch-processing potential for industrial application due to its thermostability, long half-life and optimal activity at low pH; however, it is difficult to produce in large quantities. In contrast, α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BAA) can be produced in larger quantities, but shows lower stability at high temperatures and low pH. Here, we describe a BAA protein expression pattern-mimicking strategy to express PFA in B. amyloliquefaciens using the expression and secretion elements of BAA, including the codon usage bias and mRNA structure of gene, promoter, signal peptide, host and cultivation conditions. This design was assessed to be successful by comparing the various genes (mpfa and opfa), promoters (PamyA and P43), and strains (F30, F31, F32 and F30-∆amyA). The final production of PFA yielded 2714 U/mL, about 3000- and 14-fold that reportedly produced in B. subtilis or E. coli, respectively. The recombinant PFA was optimally active at ~100 °C and pH 5 and did not require Ca(2+) for activity or thermostability, and >80% of the enzyme activity was retained after treatment at 100 °C for 4 h.
Project description:1. A method was devised for obtaining the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine in a pure form after its excretion into the medium by de-repressed washed-cell suspensions of mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. 2. By using amino acid-requiring mutants, this excretion of pyrimidine moiety was shown to be dependent on the presence of both methionine and glycine. 3. In the presence of either [Me-(14)C]methionine or [G-(14)C]methionine, methionine-requiring mutants did not incorporate radioactivity into the pyrimidine moiety. 4. In contrast, both [1-(14)C]glycine and [2-(14)C]glycine were incorporated into the pyrimidine moiety excreted by glycine-requiring mutants, and this occurred with little or no dilution of specific radioactivity. 5. The possible requirement for methionine as a cofactor and the significance of the incorporation of both carbon atoms of glycine are discussed.
Project description:[(14)C]Streptozotocin was synthesized specifically labelled at three positions in the molecule. The biological activity of synthetic streptozotocin was characterised by studies in vivo of its diabetogenic activity and its dose-response curves. After this characterization the excretion pattern of all three labelled forms of streptozotocin was studied. With [1-(14)C]streptozotocin and [2'-(14)C]streptozotocin the injected radioactivity was excreted (approx. 70% and 80% respectively) mainly in the urine, the greater part of the excretion occurring in the first 6h period; small amounts (approx. 9% and 8% respectively) were found in the faeces. In contrast, with [3'-methyl-(14)C]streptozotocin a much smaller proportion (approx. 42%) of the injected radioactivity was excreted in the urine, the major proportion appearing in the first 6h, whereas approx. 53% of the injected radioactivity was retained in the carcasses. In whole-body radioautographic studies very rapid renal clearance and hepatic accumulation of the injected radioactivity was observed with all three labelled forms of the drug. There was some evidence for biliary and intestinal excretion. Major differences were apparent in the tissue-distribution studies, with each of the three labelled forms, particularly with [3'-methyl-(14)C]streptozotocin. There was no accumulation of [1-(14)C]streptozotocin in the pancreas for the 6h period after administration. However, with [3'-methyl-(14)C]streptozotocin (and also [2'-(14)C]streptozotocin) there was evidence of some pancreatic accumulation after 2h. The results indicate that streptozotocin is subjected to considerable metabolic transformation and to rapid renal clearance. The implication of these suggestions is evaluated with particular reference to the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis was used to investigate the global stress response of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis caused by overproduction of the well-secreted AmyQ α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Analyses of the control and overproducing strains were carried out at the end of exponential growth and in stationary phase, when protein secretion from B. subtilis is optimal. Among the genes that showed increased expression were htrA and htrB, which are part of the CssRS regulon that responds to high-level protein secretion and heat stress. The analysis of the transcriptome profiles of a cssS mutant compared to the wild-type, under identical secretion stress conditions, revealed several genes with altered transcription in a CssRS-dependent manner, for example citM, ylxF, yloA, ykoJ and several genes of the flgB operon. However, a high affinity CssR-binding was only observed for htrA and htrB, and possibly for citM. In addition, the DNA macroarray approach reveal that several genes of the sporulation pathway are downregulated by AmyQ overexpression, and a group of motility-specific (σD-dependent) transcripts were clearly upregulated. Subsequent flow cytometric analyses demonstrate that upon overproduction of AmyQ as well as a non-secretable variant of the α-amylase, the process of sporulation is severely inhibited. The same experiments were implemented to investigate the expression levels of the hag promoter, a well-established reporter for σD-dependent gene expression. This approach confirmed the observations based on our DNA macroarray analyses and led us to conclude that expression levels of several genes involved in motility are maintained at high levels under all conditions of α-amylase overproduction. Secretion stress was applied by overproducing the well-secreted AmyQ α-amylase (pKTH10 vector) from B. amyloliquefaciens. Besides examining secretion stress in wild-type cells, we compared transcriptome profiles of a cssS mutant strain under conditions of high-level AmyQ production. Samples for transcriptome analyses were collected at the late exponential growth stage (one hour before the transition point) and 3 hours upon entry in the stationary growth phase. Three independent cultures of each strain were used and cells were sampled for macroarray experiments. Duplicate spots were averaged in Array-Pro software (Media Cybernetics, Inc.) and the signal was normalized after background subtraction by calculation of the percentage of total signal per gene using Microsoft Excel.
Project description:1. Particulate fractions prepared from disrupted cells of Bacillus licheniformis N.C.T.C. 6346 catalyse the uptake of radioactivity from UDP-[(14)C]glucuronic acid or UDP-N[(14)C]-acetylglucosamine. Maximal uptake requires the presence of both nucleotides and Mg(2+) ions. The reaction is inhibited markedly by high concentrations of novobiocin and, to a certain extent, by vancomycin and by methicillin. 2. The radioactive product formed is resistant to Pronase and is soluble in 5% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid. It is of high molecular weight, from its behaviour on columns of Sephadex G-50 or G-200, and behaves during paper electrophoresis in n-acetic acid and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose in a manner similar to teichuronic acid. 3. Both teichuronic acid and the synthesized material are resistant to testicular hyaluronidase and to Flavobacterium heparinum heparinase. 4. The specific activity of suspensions of broken cells or of washed particulate fractions is greatest when they are prepared from exponentially growing cells. Fractions obtained from late exponential-phase or stationary-phase cells have very low activity. 5. The galactosamine content of B. licheniformis N.C.T.C. 6346 cell walls increases during the exponential phase and decreases during the stationary phase.