ABSTRACT: 1. Isolated rat epididymal fat-cell mitochondria showed an inverse relationship between ATP content and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity consistent with competitive inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by ADP. At constant ATP concentration pyruvate rapidly activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria, an observation consistent with inhibition of fat-cell pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by pyruvate. Pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria was also activated by nicotinate (100mum) and by extramitochondrial Na(+) (replacing K(+)) but not by ouabain or insulin. 2. In rat epididymal fat-pads incubated in vitro pyruvate dehydrogenase was activated by addition of insulin in the absence of substrate or in the presence of glucose (10mm) or fructose (10mm). Glucose and fructose activated the dehydrogenase in the absence or in the presence of insulin, and pyruvate also activated in the absence of insulin. It is concluded that extracellular glucose, fructose and pyruvate may activate the dehydrogenase by raising intracellular pyruvate and that insulin may activate the dehydrogenase by some other mechanism. 3. Ouabain (300mum) and medium in which K(+) was replaced by Na(+), activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in epididymal fat-pads. Prostaglandin E(1) (1mug/ml), 5-methylpyrazole-3-carboxylate (10mum) and nicotinate (10mum), which are as effective as insulin as inhibitors of lipolysis and which like insulin lower tissue concentration of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate), did not activate pyruvate dehydrogenase. Higher concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (10mug/ml) and nicotinate (100mum) produced some activation of the dehydrogenase. 4. It is concluded that the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin is not due to the antilipolytic effect of the hormone and that the action of insulin in lowering adipose-cell concentrations of cyclic AMP does not afford an obvious explanation for the effect of the hormone on pyruvate dehydrogenase. The possibility that the effects of insulin, ouabain and K(+)-free medium may be mediated by Ca(2+) is discussed.
Project description:1. The activity of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was assayed by the incorporation of [(32)P]phosphate from [gamma-(32)P]ATP into the dehydrogenase complex. There was a very close correlation between this incorporation and the loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity with all preparations studied. 2. Nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (at 100mum) and cyclic 3':5'-nucleotides (at 10mum) had no significant effect on kinase activity. 3. The K(m) for thiamin pyrophosphate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 0.76mum. Sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate, ADP and GTP were competitive inhibitors against thiamin pyrophosphate in the dehydrogenase reaction. 4. The K(m) for ATP of the intrinsic kinase assayed in three preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 13.9-25.4mum. Inhibition by ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate was predominantly competitive, but there was nevertheless a definite non-competitive element. Thiamin pyrophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate were uncompetitive inhibitors against ATP. It is suggested that ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate inhibit the kinase mainly by binding to the ATP site and that the adenosine moiety may be involved in this binding. It is suggested that thiamin pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and ADP may inhibit the kinase by binding through pyrophosphate or imidodiphosphate moieties at some site other than the ATP site. It is not known whether this is the coenzyme-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. 5. The K(m) for pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 35.5mum. 2-Oxobutyrate and 3-hydroxypyruvate but not glyoxylate were also substrates; all three compounds inhibited pyruvate oxidation. 6. In preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate, pyruvate inhibited the kinase reaction at all concentrations in the range 25-500mum. The inhibition was uncompetitive. In the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate (endogenous or added at 2 or 10mum) the kinase activity was enhanced by low concentrations of pyruvate (25-100mum) and inhibited by a high concentration (500mum). Activation of the kinase reaction was not seen when sodium pyrophosphate was substituted for thiamin pyrophosphate. 7. Under the conditions of the kinase assay, pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase forms (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]pyruvate in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate. Previous work suggests that the products may include acetoin. Acetoin activated the kinase reaction in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate but not with sodium pyrophosphate. It is suggested that acetoin formation may contribute to activation of the kinase reaction by low pyruvate concentrations in the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate. 8. Pyruvate effected the conversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate into pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria incubated with 5mm-2-oxoglutarate and 0.5mm-l-malate as respiratory substrates. It is suggested that this effect of pyruvate is due to inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction in the mitochondrion. 9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was inhibited by high concentrations of Mg(2+) (15mm) and by Ca(2+) (10nm-10mum) at low Mg(2+) (0.15mm) but not at high Mg(2+) (15mm).
Project description:The metal-ion requirement of extracted and partially purified pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase from rat epididymal fat-pads was investigated with pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase [(32)P]phosphate as substrate. The enzyme required Mg(2+) (K(m) 0.5mm) and was activated additionally by Ca(2+) (K(m) 1mum) or Sr(2+) and inhibited by Ni(2+). Isolated fat-cell mitochondria, like liver mitochondria, possess a respiration- or ATP-linked Ca(2+)-uptake system which is inhibited by Ruthenium Red, by uncouplers when linked to respiration, and by oligomycin when linked to ATP. Depletion of fat-cell mitochondria of 75% of their total magnesium content and of 94% of their total calcium content by incubation with the bivalent-metal ionophore A23187 leads to complete loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity. Restoration of full activity required addition of both MgCl(2) and CaCl(2). SrCl(2) could replace CaCl(2) (but not MgCl(2)) and NiCl(2) was inhibitory. The metal-ion requirement of the phosphatase within mitochondria was thus equivalent to that of the extracted enzyme. Insulin activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal fat-pads was not accompanied by any measurable increase in the activity of the phosphatase in extracts of the tissue when either endogenous substrate or (32)P-labelled pig heart substrate was used for assay. The activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-pads by insulin was inhibited by Ruthenium Red (which may inhibit cell and mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+)) and by MnCl(2) and NiCl(2) (which may inhibit cell uptake of Ca(2+)). It is concluded that Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are cofactors for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase and that an increased mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+) might contribute to the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin.
Project description:1. Monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate, 2,2'-dichloropropionate and 3-chloropropionate were inhibitors of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Dichloroacetate was also shown to inhibit rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. The inhibition was mainly non-competitive with respect to ATP. The concentration required for 50% inhibition was approx. 100mum for the three chloroacetates, difluoroacetate and 2-chloropropionate and 2,2'-dichloropropionate. Dichloroacetamide was not inhibitory. 2. Dichloroacetate had no significant effect on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase when this was maximally activated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). 3. Dichloroacetate did not increase the catalytic activity of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase. 4. Dichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate and 2,2'-dichloropropionate increased the proportion of the active (dephosphorylated) form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria with 2-oxoglutarate and malate as respiratory substrates. Similar effects of dichloroacetate were shown with kidney and fat-cell mitochondria. Glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and dichloroacetamide were inactive. 5. Dichloroacetate increased the proportion of active pyruvate dehydrogenase in the perfused rat heart, isolated rat diaphragm and rat epididymal fat-pads. Difluoroacetate and dichloroacetamide were also active in the perfused heart, but glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and trichloroacetate were inactive. 6. Injection of dichloroacetate into rats starved overnight led within 60 min to activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in extracts from heart, psoas muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and liver. The blood concentration of lactate fell within 15 min to reach a minimum after 60 min. The blood concentration of glucose fell after 90 min and reached a minimum after 120 min. There was no significant change in plasma glycerol concentration. 7. In epididymal fatpads dichloroacetate inhibited incorporation of (14)C from [U-(14)C]glucose, [U-(14)C]fructose and from [U-(14)C]lactate into CO(2) and glyceride fatty acid. 8. It is concluded that the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by dichloroacetate may account for the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate oxidation which it induces in isolated rat heart and diaphragm muscles, subject to certain assumptions as to the distribution of dichloroacetate across the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. 9. It is suggested that activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate could contribute to its hypoglycaemic effect by interruption of the Cori and alanine cycles. 10. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of dichloroacetate on fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue may involve an additional effect or effects of the compound.
Project description:1. In epididymal adipose tissue synthesizing fatty acids from fructose in vitro, addition of insulin led to a moderate increase in fructose uptake, to a considerable increase in the flow of fructose carbon atoms to fatty acid, to a decrease in the steady-state concentration of lactate and pyruvate in the medium, and to net uptake of lactate and pyruvate from the medium. It is concluded that insulin accelerates a step in the span pyruvate-->fatty acid. 2. Mitochondria prepared from fat-cells exposed to insulin put out more citrate than non-insulin-treated controls under conditions where the oxaloacetate moiety of citrate was formed from pyruvate by pyruvate carboxylase and under conditions where it was formed from malate. This suggested that insulin treatment of fat-cells led to persistent activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 3. Insulin treatment of epididymal fat-pads in vitro increased the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase measured in extracts of the tissue even in the absence of added substrate; the activities of pyruvate carboxylase, citrate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malate dehydrogenase were not changed by insulin. 4. The effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by adrenaline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (6-N,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate). The effect of insulin was not reproduced by prostaglandin E(1), which like insulin may lower the tissue concentration of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate) and inhibit lipolysis. 5. Adipose tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase in extracts of mitochondria is almost totally inactivated by incubation with ATP and can then be reactivated by incubation with 10mm-Mg(2+). In this respect its properties are similar to that of pyruvate dehydrogenase from heart and kidney where evidence has been given that inactivation and activation are catalysed by an ATP-dependent kinase and a Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatase. Evidence is given that insulin may act by increasing the proportion of active (dephosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase. 6. Cyclic AMP could not be shown to influence the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in mitochondria under various conditions of incubation. 7. These results are discussed in relation to the control of fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue and the role of cyclic AMP in mediating the effects of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase.
Project description:The sensitivity of rat epididymal-adipose-tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase, NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase to Ca2+ ions was studied both in mitochondrial extracts and within intact coupled mitochondria. It is concluded that all three enzymes may be activated by increases in the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+ and that the distribution of Ca2+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane is determined, as in rat heart mitochondria, by the relative activities of a uniporter (which transports Ca2+ into mitochondria and is inhibited by Mg2+ and Ruthenium Red) and an antiporter (which allows Ca2+ to leave mitochondria in exchange for Na+ and is inhibited by diltiazem). Previous studies with incubated fat-cell mitochondria have indicated that the increases in the amount of active non-phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal tissue exposed to insulin are the result of activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase. In the present studies, no changes in the activity of the phosphatase were found in extracts of mitochondria, and thus it seemed likely that insulin altered the intramitochondrial concentration of some effector of the phosphatase. Incubation of rat epididymal adipose tissue with medium containing a high concentration of CaCl2 (5mM) was found to increase the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase to much the same extent as insulin. However, the increases caused by high [Ca2+] in the medium were blocked by Ruthenium Red, whereas those caused by insulin were not. Moreover, whereas the increases resulting from both treatments persisted during the preparation of mitochondria and their subsequent incubation in the absence of Na+, only the increases caused by treatment of the tissue with insulin persisted when the mitochondria were incubated in the presence of Na+ under conditions where the mitochondria are largely depleted of Ca2+. It is concluded that insulin does not act by increasing the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+. This conclusion was supported by finding no increases in the activities of the other two Ca2+-responsive intramitochondrial enzymes (NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) in mitochondria prepared from insulin-treated tissue compared with controls.
Project description:The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase was assayed in extracts of rat hearts perfused in vitro with media containing glucose and insulin+/-acetate+/-dichloroacetate. Dichloroacetate (100mum, 1mm or 10mm) increased the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in perfusions with glucose or glucose+acetate. Evidence is given that dichloroacetate may facilitate the conversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase from an inactive (phosphorylated) form into an active (dephosphorylated) form.
Project description:1. Intact rat epididymal fat-cells were incubated with 32Pi, and the intracellular proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. One of the separated bands of phosphorylated proteins had an apparent subunit mol.wt. of 42 000, which is the same as that of the alpha-subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. By using a combination of subcellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation with antiserum raised against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and two-dimensional electrophoresis it was apparent that the incorporation into alpha-subunits accounted for 35--45% of the total incorporation into this band of phosphoproteins. 2. The increase in the initial activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase that follows brief exposure of fat-cells to insulin was shown to be associated with a decrease in the steady-state incorporation of 32P into the alpha-subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 3. Tryptic peptide analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase [32P]phosphate, labelled in intact fat-cells, indicated that three serine residues on the alpha-subunit were phosphorylated, corresponding to the three sites phosphorylated when purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP. The relative phosphorylation of all three serine residues appeared to be similar in 32P-labelled alpha-subunits in both control and insulin-treated fat-cells.
Project description:Fat-cells were prepared from rat and guinea-pig epididymal adipose tissue and compared on the basis of the intracellular distributions and activities of enzymes and with respect to their utilization of various U-(14)C-labelled substrates for lipogenesis. 1. Compared with the rat, guinea-pig extramitochondrial enzyme activities differed in that aconitate hydratase, alanine aminotransferase, ATP-citrate lyase, lactate dehydrogenase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities were appreciably lower, whereas aspartate aminotransferase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities were appreciably higher. Mitochondrial activities of citrate synthase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase were appreciably lower, whereas mitochondrial activities of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were higher in the guinea pig compared with the rat. 2. In general guinea-pig fat-cells incorporated acetate and lactate into fatty acids more readily than rat fat-cells, whereas rat fat-cells incorporated glucose and pyruvate more readily than guinea-pig fat-cells. 3. Acetate stimulated the incorporation of glucose into fatty acids in rat fat-cells, but had no appreciable effect upon this process in guinea-pig fat-cells. Acetate greatly decreased the incorporation of lactate into fatty acids in cells from both species. 4. Lactate/pyruvate ratios produced by incubation of guinea-pig cells with glucose+insulin were very low compared with those found with rat cells under the same conditions. 5. With glucose (+insulin) or with glucose+acetate (+insulin) as substrates guinea-pig cells produced enough NADPH by the hexose monophosphate pathway to satisfy the NADPH requirements of lipogenesis. In rat fat-cells under the same conditions, hexose monophosphate-pathway NADPH provision was not sufficient to meet the requirements of lipogenesis. 6. These results are discussed, particularly in relationship to the disposition of cytosolic reducing equivalents in the cells.
Project description:1. The effects of the protein phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin LR on the regulation by insulin of pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase have been studied in rat epididymal fat-pads and isolated cells. These inhibitors both completely blocked the phosphatase activity (against phosphorylase a) present in extracts of epididymal fat-pads, with half-maximal effects in the nanomolar range. 2. Okadaic acid treatment of pads and cells lowered the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase assayed in tissue extracts, both before and after treatment of the extracts with the activator, citrate. Further, okadaic acid treatment abolished the 2-3-fold difference in activity observed between extracts from control and insulin-treated tissues, assayed without prior treatment with citrate. 3. Incubation of pads with [32P]Pi, sufficient to label the intracellular pool of ATP, demonstrated that okadaic acid increased the overall phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase on a number of distinct sites, as judged by two-dimensional mapping of tryptic peptides. These included the 'I-peptide' [Brownsey & Denton (1982) Biochem. J. 202, 77-86], the phosphorylation of which may be associated with the stimulation of the activity of the enzyme by insulin, as well as inhibitory phosphorylation sites. 4. Incubation with 1 microM-okadaic acid had no effect on the basal level of active pyruvate dehydrogenase apparent after tissue extraction, but abolished the 2-3-fold increase in this parameter which was elicited by insulin in the absence of okadaic acid. However, okadaic acid treatment did not affect the persistent increase in active pyruvate dehydrogenase levels which was apparent in mitochondria subsequently isolated from insulin-treated pads and re-incubated with an oxidizable substrate. It is concluded that the effects of okadaic acid are exerted through changes in metabolite concentrations rather than some direct action on the signalling pathway whereby insulin stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase. 5. Microcystin LR did not mimic the effects of okadaic acid on intact cells and pads described above.
Project description:Increases in the amount of the active non-phosphorylated form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal adipose tissue, as a result of incubation with insulin, persist not only during the preparation of mitochondria but also during subsequent incubation of coupled mitochondria in the presence of respiratory substrates. No effect on insulin was found if the hormone was added directly to mitochondria in the presence or absence of added plasma membranes. Concentrations of several possible regulators of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (ATP, ADP, NADH, NAD+, acetyl-CoA, CoA and potassium) were measured in rat epididymal-adipose-tissue mitochondria incubated under conditions where differences in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity persist as a result of insulin action. No alterations were found, and it is suggested that inhibition of the kinase is not the principal means by which insulin activates pyruvate dehydrogenase. The intramitochondrial concentration of magnesium was also unaffected. Differences in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in interscapular brown adipose tissue associated with manipulation of plasma insulin concentrations of cold-adapted rats were also shown to persist during the preparation and subsequent incubation of mitochondria in the presence or absence of GDP. It is pointed out that the persistence of the effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase in incubated mitochondria will facilitate the recognition of the mechanism of this action of the hormone. Evidence that the short-term action of insulin involves an increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity rather than inhibition of that of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase is discussed.