The isocitrate dehydrogenases of Acinetobacter lwoffi. Separation and properties of two nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked isoenzymes.
ABSTRACT: Two isoenzymes of NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase have been identified in Acinetobacter lwoffi and have been termed isoenzyme-I and isoenzyme-II. The isoenzymes may be separated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, or by zonal ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient. Low concentrations of glyoxylate or pyruvate effect considerable stimulation of the activity of isoenzyme-II. The isoenzymes also differ in pH-dependence of activity, kinetic parameters, stability to heat or urea and molecular size. Whereas isoenzyme-I resembles the NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases from other organisms in having a molecular weight under 100000, isoenzyme-II is a much larger enzyme (molecular weight around 300000) resembling the NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases of higher organisms.
Project description:Of the two NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter lwoffi the higher-molecular-weight form, isoenzyme-II, is reversibly stimulated sixfold by low concentrations of glyoxylate or pyruvate. Kinetic results indicate that this stimulation of activity involves both an increase in V(max.) and a decrease in the apparent K(m) values for substrates, most markedly that for NADP(+). Other changes brought about by glyoxylate or pyruvate include a shift in the pH optimum for activity and an increased stability to inactivation by heat or urea. Mixtures of glyoxylate plus oxaloacetate, known to inhibit isocitrate dehydrogenases from other organisms, produce inhibition of both A. lowffi isoenzymes, and do not reflect the stimulatory specificity of glyoxylate for isoenzyme-II. Isoenzyme-II is also stimulated by AMP and ADP, but the activation by glyoxylate or pyruvate is shown to be quite independent of the adenylate activation. Differential desensitization of the enzyme by urea to the two types of activator further supports the view that the enzyme possesses two distinct allosteric regulatory sites. The metabolic significance of the activations is discussed.
Project description:1. Rat liver and heart major isoenzymes of NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase have each been purified about 100-fold by a combination of ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography on ion-exchange cellulose and their properties compared. 2. The properties were similar in respect of pH, inhibition by Hg(2+) and Michaelis constants for isocitrate and NADP. 3. Some of the properties of the isoenzymes were different. 4. The heart isoenzyme was activated about 210% by 0.8m-ammonium sulphate whereas the liver isoenzyme was unaffected. The heart isoenzyme showed greater sensitivity to inactivation by heat (30 degrees C for 30min), whereas the liver isoenzyme was more sensitive to inactivation by p-chloromercuribenzoate and by Cu(2+). 5. The Michaelis constants with 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide phosphate showed a twofold difference between liver and heart isoenzyme. 6. The differential sensitivity to heat and its mainly non-cytoplasmic location may be an explanation of the failure of plasma isocitrate dehydrogenase activity to increase after a myocardial infarction.
Project description:Direct transfer of NADPH between two NADP-dependent dehydrogenases, isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase, has been investigated. These enzymes have opposite stereospecificity for hydrogen transfer to the coenzyme. In contrast with the general direct-transfer mechanism postulated for NAD-dependent dehydrogenases [Srivastava & Bernhard (1986) Science 234, 1081-1086], no evidence for direct transfer in either direction was found for these NADP-dependent dehydrogenases.
Project description:The subcellular distribution and properties of four aldehyde dehydrogenase isoenzymes (I-IV) identified in 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced rat hepatomas and three aldehyde dehydrogenases (I-III) identified in normal rat liver are compared. In normal liver, mitochondria (50%) and microsomal fraction (27%) possess the majority of the aldehyde dehydrogenase, with cytosol possessing little, if any, activity. Isoenzymes I-III can be identified in both fractions and differ from each other on the basis of substrate and coenzyme specificity, substrate K(m), inhibition by disulfiram and anti-(hepatoma aldehyde dehydrogenase) sera, and/or isoelectric point. Hepatomas possess considerable cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (20%), in addition to mitochondrial (23%) and microsomal (35%) activity. Although isoenzymes I-III are present in tumour mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, little isoenzyme I or II is found in cytosol. Of hepatoma cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, 50% is a hepatoma-specific isoenzyme (IV), differing in several properties from isoenzymes I-III; the remainder of the tumour cytosolic activity is due to isoenzyme III (48%). The data indicate that the tumour-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase phenotype is explainable by qualitative and quantitative changes involving primarily cytosolic and microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase. The qualitative change requires the derepression of a gene for an aldehyde dehydrogenase expressed in normal liver only after exposure to potentially harmful xenobiotics. The quantitative change involves both an increase in activity and a change in subcellular location of a basal normal-liver aldehyde dehydrogenase isoenzyme.
Project description:1. The activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase were measured in muscles from a large number of animals, in order to provide some indication of the importance of the citric acid cycle in these muscles. According to the differences in enzyme activities, the muscles can be divided into three classes. First, in a number of both vertebrate and invertebrate muscles, the activities of all three enzymes are very low. It is suggested that either the muscles use energy at a very low rate or they rely largely on anaerobic glycolysis for higher rates of energy formation. Second, most insect flight muscles contain high activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase, but the activities of the NADP+-linked enzyme are very low. The high activities indicate the dependence of insect flight on energy generated via the citric acid cycle. The flight muscles of the beetles investigated contain high activities of both isocitrate dehydrogenases. Third, other muscles of both vertebrates and invertebrates contain high activities of citrate synthase and NADP+-liniked isocitrate dehydrogenase. Many, if not all, of these muscles are capable of sustained periods of mechanical activity (e.g. heart muscle, pectoral muscles of some birds). Consequently, to support this activity fuel must be supplied continually to the muscle via the circulatory system which, in most animals, also transports oxygen so that energy can be generated by complete oxidation of the fuel. It is suggested that the low activities of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase in these muscles may be involved in oxidation of isocitrate in the cycle when the muscles are at rest. 2. A comparison of the maximal activities of the enzymes with the maximal flux through the cycle suggests that, in insect flight muscle, NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase catalyses a non-equilibrium reaction and citrate synthease catalyses a near-equilibrium reaction. In other muscles, the enzyme-activity data suggest that both citrate synthase and the isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions are near-equilibrium.
Project description:1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.
Project description:1. Superovulated rat ovary was found to contain high activities of NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase. The activity of each enzyme was approximately four times that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and equalled or exceeded the activities reported to be present in other mammalian tissues. Fractionation of a whole tissue homogenate of superovulated rat ovary indicated that both enzymes were exclusively cytoplasmic. The tissue was also found to contain pyruvate carboxylase (exclusively mitochondrial), NAD-malate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase (both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic) and ATP-citrate lyase (exclusively cytoplasmic). 2. The kinetic properties of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase were determined and compared with the whole-tissue concentrations of their substrates and NADPH; NADPH is a competitive inhibitor of all three enzymes. The concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate, malate and isocitrate in incubated tissue slices were raised at least tenfold by the addition of glucose to the incubation medium, from the values below to values above the respective K(m) values of the dehydrogenases. Glucose doubled the tissue concentration of NADPH. 3. Steroidogenesis from acetate is stimulated by glucose in slices of superovulated rat ovary incubated in vitro. It was found that this stimulatory effect of glucose can be mimicked by malate, isocitrate, lactate and pyruvate. 4. It is concluded that NADP-malate dehydrogenase or NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase or both may play an important role in the formation of NADPH in the superovulated rat ovary. It is suggested that the stimulatory effect of glucose on steroidogenesis from acetate results from an increased rate of NADPH formation through one or both dehydrogenases, brought about by the increases in the concentrations of malate, isocitrate or both. Possible pathways involving the two enzymes are discussed.
Project description:The activities of NAD-specific and NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in early and term human placenta. In both tissues the activity of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase was severalfold higher than that of the NAD-dependent enzyme. Subcellular distribution of these two enzymes in the placental tissue was estimated. About 60% of the total NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was found in the mitochondrial fraction and about 40% in the cytosol fraction. Insignificant amounts of the total activity were bound to the microsomal fraction. The whole of the NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was localized in the mitochondrial fraction. The total mitochondrial NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase activity in both early and term placenta was also estimated from the mitochondrial specific activity of this enzyme and the amount of mitochondrial protein in wet tissue, calculated from the activities of citrate synthase or cytochrome c oxidase assayed in the isolated mitochondrial fraction and in the tissue of early and term human placenta.
Project description:1. The kinetics of the thermally induced enzyme variants of the supernatant NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase from rainbow-trout liver are investigated. 2. Fish acclimatized to 2 degrees C (cold-adapted enzyme) and 17 degrees C (warm-adapted enzyme) show different relative distributions of the three NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes; this has been demonstrated with electrophoresis and electrofocusing techniques. 3. Plots of K(m) versus temperature for the cold-adapted and warm-adapted enzyme variants are complex in nature with apparent maximal enzyme-substrate affinity corresponding to the temperature at which the trout is acclimatized. Both substrates, dl-isocitrate and NADP(+), give similar curves although the magnitude of the K(m) change with temperature is much decreased in the case of NADP(+). 4. E(a) values of approx. 18kcal/mol were determined for both the cold-adapted and warm-adapted enzyme variants. 5. In an attempt to determine how velocities can be increased at low temperatures, cation, pH requirements, metabolite and enzyme concentrations were examined. 6. NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase could not be detected in trout tissues.
Project description:In most living organisms, isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) convert isocitrate into ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG). Phylogenetic analyses divide the IDH protein family into two subgroups: types I and II. Based on cofactor usage, IDHs are either NAD+-specific (NAD-IDH) or NADP+-specific (NADP-IDH); NADP-IDH evolved from NAD-IDH. Type I IDHs include NAD-IDHs and NADP-IDHs; however, no type II NAD-IDHs have been reported to date. This study reports a novel type II NAD-IDH from the marine bacterium Congregibacter litoralis KT71 (ClIDH, GenBank accession no. EAQ96042). His-tagged recombinant ClIDH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified; the recombinant enzyme was NAD+-specific and showed no detectable activity with NADP+. The Km values of the enzyme for NAD+ were 262.6±7.4 ?M or 309.1±11.2 ?M with Mg2+ or Mn2+ as the divalent cation, respectively. The coenzyme specificity of a ClIDH Asp487Arg/Leu488His mutant was altered, and the preference of the mutant for NADP+ was approximately 24-fold higher than that for NAD+, suggesting that ClIDH is an NAD+-specific ancestral enzyme in the type II IDH subgroup. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation analyses revealed the homohexameric structure of ClIDH, which is the first IDH hexamer discovered thus far. A 163-amino acid segment of CIIDH is essential to maintain its polymerization structure and activity, as a truncated version lacking this region forms a non-functional monomer. ClIDH was dependent on divalent cations, the most effective being Mn2+. The maximal activity of purified recombinant ClIDH was achieved at 35°C and pH 7.5, and a heat inactivation experiment showed that a 20-min incubation at 33°C caused a 50% loss of ClIDH activity. The discovery of a NAD+-specific, type II IDH fills a gap in the current classification of IDHs, and sheds light on the evolution of type II IDHs.