Enzymic sulphation of p-nitrophenol and steroids by larval gut tissues of the southern armyworm (Prodenia evidania Cramer).
ABSTRACT: 1. An enzyme system that catalyses the sulphation of p-nitrophenol, cholesterol, alpha-ecdysone, beta-sitosterol, dehydroepiandrosterone, oestrone and four other steroids of plant and insect origin was obtained from the soluble fraction of southern-armyworm gut tissues. 2. The enzyme system required ATP and inorganic sulphate, and activity was slightly enhanced in the presence of GSH. 3. The properties of this enzyme system with respect to pH, temperature, substrate and protein concentrations and various cofactors and reagents were studied. At -23 degrees C the enzyme preparation could be stored for 2 weeks without drastic loss of activity. At the end of storage for 1 month the loss of activity was approx. 21%. 4. The possible involvement of this enzyme system in insect endocrine control is discussed.
Project description:The effects of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 on 6-sulphation of two species of endogenous nascent proteochondroitin by a chick-embryo cartilage microsomal system was examined. Sulphation of the larger (Type I) species with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate was slightly diminished when Triton X-100 was present, whereas sulphation of the smaller (Type II) species was slightly enhanced. An ordered rather than random pattern of sulphation was obtained for the smaller proteoglycan, but with a considerably lower degree of sulphation than that of the larger proteochondroitin. These differences were consistent with other differences between these two species as described previously. Sulphation of exogenous [14C]chondroitin and exogenous proteo[3H]chondroitin by the microsomal system with Triton X-100 present produced ordered rather than random sulphation patterns. When a 100,000 g supernatant fraction was utilized for sulphation of [14C]chondroitin or proteo[3H]chondroitin, Triton X-100 was not needed, and ordered sulphation was still obtained. When hexasaccharide was used, sulphation of multiple N-acetylgalactosamine residues of the individual hexasaccharides resulted. This was relatively independent of Triton X-100 or the concentration of the hexasaccharide acceptors. With soluble enzyme, sulphation of multiple N-acetylgalactosamine residues on the individual hexasaccharide molecules was even greater, so that tri-sulphated products were found. This suggests that ordered rather than random sulphation of chondroitin with these enzyme preparations is due to enzyme-substrate interaction rather than to membrane organization.
Project description:Microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase and cytosolic sulphotransferase share many substrates, such as phenols and hydroxamic acids. In a search for a selective inhibitor of sulphation, several phenolic compounds were tested. 2,6-Dichloro-4-nitrophenol is introduced as a selective inhibitor of sulphation in vivo, having no effect on UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity. As substrate for both conjugating enzymes the phenolic drug harmol (7-hydroxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) was used. In the rat in vivo 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol caused almost complete inhibition of harmol sulphation after a single intraperitoneal injection (26mumol/kg) for 48h; the percentage of harmol sulphated decreased from 75% in controls to 5% in the treated rats. The percentage of harmol glucuronidated increased from 25 to 95%. Pentachlorophenol was equally effective but also highly toxic. Salicylamide had only a very-short-lasting inhibitory effect on sulphation. In vitro, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol inhibited sulphation of harmol by a rat liver postmitochondrial supernatant completely at 1mum, whereas even at 100mum it had no effect on glucuronidation of harmol. It is concluded that 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol is a selective inhibitor of sulphation and, further, that its long duration of action makes it suitable for studies on the regulatory role of sulphation in some biological processes.
Project description:Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported.
Project description:1. An enzyme that catalyses the transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'[(35)S]-sulphatophosphate to l-tyrosine methyl ester and tyramine was purified approx. 70-fold from female rat livers. 2. The partially purified preparation is still contaminated with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate-phenol sulphotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206), but a partial separation of the two enzymes can be achieved by chromatography on columns of Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. 3. The enzyme responsible for the sulphation of l-tyrosine methyl ester and tyramine is activated by dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol and GSH, the degree of activation being more marked with preparations previously stored at 0 or -10 degrees C. In contrast, the enzymic sulphation of p-nitrophenol is inhibited by all three thiols. Again, there is a quantitative difference in the degree of inhibition of the two enzymes by o-iodosobenzoate, p-chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetate. 4. Mixed-substrate experiments support the hypothesis that the enzyme responsible for the sulphation of l-tyrosine methyl ester and tyramine is separate from that responsible for the sulphation of p-nitrophenol. However, p-nitrophenol is a potent inhibitor of the sulphation of both tyrosyl derivatives whereas these latter compounds have no effect on the sulphation of p-nitrophenol.
Project description:1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes.
Project description:The oriental armyworm Mythimna separate is an economically important insect with a wide distribution and strong migratory activity. However, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the physiological and behavioural responses of the oriental armyworm is scarce. In the present study, we took a transcriptomic approach to characterize the gene network in the adult head of M. separate. The sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 63,499 transcripts, which were further assembled into 46,459 unigenes with an N50 of 1,153?bp. In the head transcriptome data, unigenes involved in the 'signal transduction mechanism' are the most abundant. In total, 937 signal transduction unigenes were assigned to 22 signalling pathways. The circadian clock, melanin synthesis, and non-receptor protein of olfactory gene families were then identified, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with these M. separate genes, the model insect Bombyx mori and other insects. Furthermore, 1,372 simple sequence repeats of 2-6?bp in unit length were identified. The transcriptome data represent a comprehensive molecular resource for the adult head of M. separate, and these identified genes can be valid targets for further gene function research to address the molecular mechanisms regulating the migratory and olfaction genes of the oriental armyworm.
Project description:Cytosol preparations of rat liver and kidney were examined for their ability to transfer sulphate from adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid. Little activity towards this substrate was observed, and the main product detected in the reaction mixtures was identified as p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol O-sulphate. This was not formed from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, a spontaneous oxidation product of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, by sulphation followed by a rapid enzyme-catalysed reduction of the intermediate phydroxybenzaldehyde O-sulphate. This product was formed mainly by this sequence of reactions, but the reverse, reduction followed by sulphation, also appeared possible. p-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol itself was very readily sulphated by both preparations, and the liver also produced a sulpho-conjugate of homogentisic acid. These observations are important in calculating the turnover of L-tyrosine O-sulphate in the mammalian system, and establish that p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid O-sulphate is an end product of its metabolism, rather than an intermediate in its synthesis by reversed transamination.
Project description:Arylsulphate and sulphotransferase activities were determined during the late larval development of the southern armyworm. Arylsulphatase titre attains a maximum during the moult and is at a minimum between moults. Sulphotransferase titre appeared to follow the inverse course. A possible enzymic regulatory mechanism for insect steroid hormones is discussed.
Project description:Olfaction in insects has a critical role in recognizing the host, finding food, and choosing mating partners, as well as avoiding predators. Odorant receptors (ORs), which are housed in the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons and extended into the lymph of sensilla on insect antennae, are participating in the detection of volatile compounds in insects. In the present study, we identified an OR gene, named MsepOR13, in the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that MsepOR13 was expressed mainly in the antennae of male and female moths. In in vitro heterologous expression experiments, MsepOR13 was widely tuned to 32 of the 67 different compounds tested. Furthermore, MsepOR13 responded to eugenol at a low concentration of 10-9 M, with an EC50 value of 3.91 × 10-6 M. The high sensitivity suggests an important role for the OR13 gene in the moth olfactory system.
Project description:Sulphation of oestrogens represents an important regulatory mechanism for these biologically active compounds. We have characterized and purified a form of rat liver sulphotransferase (ST), existing as a 32,500 Da monomer, which sulphates oestrogens, and have used this preparation to produce antibodies against oestrogen ST. The enzyme was active against oestrone, oestriol and beta-oestradiol, but not towards androgens. Using the antibody as a probe for immunoblotting, it was determined that the enzyme is expressed solely in male rats, and predominantly in the liver. Of the tissues examined, the only major extrahepatic tissue found to have any oestrogen ST was the brain (although the levels were very low), indicating that there might be a role for the sulphation of oestrogens in the brain. Examination of human liver and platelet cytosols by immunoblotting showed that the antibody recognized two major proteins of 32 and 34 kDa, which were presumed to correspond to the two principal phenol ST isoenzymes present in man.