The excretion and degradation of chondroitin 4-sulphate administered to guinea pigs as free chondroitin sulphate and as proteoglycan.
ABSTRACT: The excretion and degradation was studied of (35)S-labelled 4-chondroitin sulphate injected into guinea pigs in the form of proteoglycan isolated from cartilage and in the form of free chondroitin 4-sulphate prepared from the same proteoglycan by proteolysis. When the proteoglycan was injected there was a delay of about 15-20min before significant amounts or radioactivity were excreted, whereas after injection of chondroitin 4-sulphate a considerable amount of radioactivity was excreted within 10min and a much higher proportion of the radioactive dose was excreted in 1h or 24h compared with the proteoglycan. In both cases, however, a major part of the radioactivity was not excreted even in 24h. Sterile conditions were used to collect the radioactive material directly from the bladder. When chondroitin 4-sulphate was injected, the molecular sizes of injected and excreted materials were similar, as assessed by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200, whereas when proteoglycan was injected the molecular size of the excreted labelled material was similar to that of the chondroitin 4-sulphate chains in the original proteoglycan. In neither case did the size of the excreted labelled material change with time over 1h, and low-molecular-weight labelled material was virtually absent. In contrast, when urine was collected for 24h without preservative the labelled material in it was extensively degraded after either the proteoglycan or chondroitin 4-sulphate had been given. Chondroitin 4-sulphate became similarly degraded when incubated with non-sterile urine, but not when the urine was passed through a bacterial filter, suggesting that degradation was caused by contaminating micro-organisms in the experiments in which urine was collected for 24 h. It is concluded that chondroitin 4-sulphate chains of about 18000 molecular weight can be excreted readily as such, whereas intact proteoglycans must be degraded to free glycosaminoglycans first, although both are taken up by the tissues more rapidly than they are excreted.
Project description:The degradation of chondroitin 4-[(35)S]sulphate isolated from chick-embryo cartilage was studied in the rat by experiments on free-range animals, on wholly anaesthetized animals with ureter cannulae, by perfusion of isolated liver, by whole-body radioautography and by isolation of liver lysosomes. After injection into rats 68% of the radioactivity was recovered in the urine after 24h, approximately one-half of this being in the form of low-molecular-weight material, chiefly inorganic sulphate. Cannulation experiments demonstrated that the proportion of low-molecular-weight components excreted in the urine increased with time until, after 12h, virtually all was inorganic sulphate. Whole-body radioautography identified the liver as the major site of radioisotope accumulation after injection of labelled polysaccharide. Perfusion through isolated liver indicated that this organ has the ability to metabolize the polymer with the release of low-molecular-weight products, principally inorganic sulphate. Incubation of a lysosomal fraction prepared from rat liver after injection of chondroitin 4-[(35)S]sulphate gave rise to degradation products of low molecular weight, and experiments in vitro with rat liver lysosomes confirmed that these organelles are capable of the entire degradative process from chondroitin sulphate to free inorganic sulphate.
Project description:The degradation of intravenously administered chondroitin sulphate-peptide, obtained by trypsin digestion of rat cartilage preparations labelled in vitro with 35S (and, in some cases, with 3H), was studied in rats. As with free chains of chondroitin sulphate, the major site of accumulation and degradation in the body was the liver, although peptide-linked chains were taken up more rapidly than free chains. In the first 2h after intravenous injection of a chondroitin sulphate-peptide fraction, labelled macromolecular components were excreted in the urine. These were shown to be chondroitin sulphate-peptide of the same degree of sulphation but of smaller average size than the injected material. A similar observation was made when free chains of chondroitin sulphate from the same source were administered intravenously. An isolated perfused rat kidney failed to de-sulphate circulating chondroitin sulphate-peptide, but a component of lower average molecular weight was excreted in the urine. When a chondroitin sulphate-peptide fraction of relatively larger hydrodynamic volume was administered, very little chondroitin sulphate appeared in the urine in the first 2h. It was concluded that, depending on size and/or peptide content, the chondroitin sulphate-peptide released from connective tissues into the circulation would probably be subjected to one of two alternative fates. The smaller fragments are more likely to be excreted in the urine, whereas the larger ones are taken up by the liver and there degraded to inorganic sulphate and undefined carbohydrate components.
Project description:We previously reported that a mouse Lewis lung carcinoma-derived stroma-inducing clone, P29, highly expresses a syndecan-like proteoglycan exhibiting specific binding to fibronectin, a major constituent of the interstitial matrix formed by the induced stromal cells, via its heparan sulphate chains [Itano, Oguri, Nakanishi and Okayama (1993) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 114, 862-873]. On metabolic labelling of the proteoglycan with [32P]Pi, followed by identification of the radiolabelled material using glycanases, almost all the isotope was found to have been incorporated into a core portion of molecular mass 48 kDa, which was generated by digestion with heparan sulphate lyase I plus chondroitin ABC lyase. Immunoblotting of the core protein with a monoclonal antibody, F58-6G12, demonstrated that the proteoglycan was mouse syndecan-2. CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation after mild treatment of liposome-intercalated 32P-labelled syndecan-2 with trypsin resulted in clear separation of the radioactivity into a bottom fraction containing all the glycosaminoglycans (accounting for 40% of the total radioactivity) and a top fraction containing liposome-associated peptides (60%). The former isotope was shown to be linked covalently to both heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate chains, probably at their bridge regions. The latter was mostly attributed to phosphoserine, the one and only phosphorylated amino acid released on acid hydrolysis of this proteoglycan, strongly suggesting that the phosphorylation occurs at a specific serine residue(s) in the cytoplasmic domain of the core protein.
Project description:The metabolic fate of dipotassium 2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl [(35)S]sulphate ([(35)S]NCS), a chromogenic substrate for lysosomal arylsulphatases A and B, has been studied in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of [(35)S]NCS into free-ranging animals is followed by excretion of the bulk of the radioactivity in the urine within 24hr., less than 13% being eliminated as inorganic [(35)S]sulphate. Most of the urinary radioactivity can be accounted for as [(35)S]NCS, but small amounts of a labelled metabolite are also present. Experiments in which [(35)S]NCS was injected intravenously into anaesthetized rats with bile-duct and bladder cannulae confirm that the ester is rapidly excreted in the urine. However, small amounts of radioactivity appear in bile, mainly in the form of the metabolite detected in urine. When [(35)S]NCS is perfused through the isolated rat liver, about 35% of the dose is hydrolysed within 3hr. Similar results are obtained if [(35)S]NCS is injected into anaesthetized rats in which kidney function has been eliminated by ligature of the renal pedicles. The labelled metabolite has been isolated from bile obtained by perfusing several rat livers with blood containing a total of 100mg. of [(35)S]NCS. It has been identified as 2-beta-glucuronosido-5-nitrophenyl [(35)S]sulphate. The implications of the various findings are discussed. The Appendix describes the preparation of [(35)S]NCS.
Project description:The metabolic fate of [1-14-C]hexadecylsulphate and hexadecyl[35-S]sulphate, administered intravenously as the sodium and trimethylammonium salt to dogs and orally as the erythromycin salt to dogs, rats and humans, was studied. Studies with rats indicated that the compounds were well absorbed and rapidly excreted in the urine. However, after oral administration of the 14-C-and 35-S-labelled hexadecyl sulphate erythromycin salt to dogs, considerable amounts of radioactivity were excreted in the faeces as unmetabolized hexadecyl sulphate. Studies with two humans showed that orally administered erythromycin salt of [1-14C]hexadecyl sulphate was well absorbed in one person but poorly absorbed in the other. Radioactive metabolites in urine were separated by t.l.c. in two solvent systems. The main metabolite of hexadecyl sulphate in the dog, rat and human was identified as the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. In addition, psi-[14-C]butyrolactone as a minor metabolic product of [1-14-C]hexadecyl sulphate was also isolated from the urine of rat, dog and man. However, there was still another metabolite in dog urine, which comprised about 20% of the total urinary radioactivity and carried both 14-C and 35-S labels. This metabolite was absent from rat urine. The metabolite in dog urine was isolated and subsequently identified by t.l.c. and g.l.c. and by isotope-dilution experiments as the sulphate ester of glycollic acid. Small amounts (about 5% of the total recovered radioactivity in excreta) of labelled glycollic acid sulphate were also found in human urine after ingestion of erythromycin [1-14-C]hexadecyl sulphate.
Project description:Proteoglycans on the cell surface play critical roles in the adhesion of fibroblasts to a fibronectin-containing extracellular matrix, including the model mouse cell line Balb/c 3T3. In order to evaluate the biochemistry of these processes, long-term [35S]sulphate-labelled proteoglycans were extracted quantitatively from the adhesion sites of 3T3 cells, after their EGTA-mediated detachment from the substratum, by using an extractant containing 1% octyl glucoside, 1 M-NaCl and 0.5 M-guanidinium chloride (GdnHCl) in buffer with many proteinase inhibitors. Greater than 90% of the material was identified as a large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (Kav. = 0.4 on a Sepharose CL2B column), and the remainder was identified as a smaller heparan sulphate proteoglycan; only small amounts of free chains of glycosaminoglycan were observed in these sites. These extracts were fractionated on DEAE-Sepharose columns under two different sets of elution conditions: with acetate buffer (termed DEAE-I) or with acetate buffer supplemented with 8 M-urea (termed DEAE-II). Under DEAE-I conditions about one-half of the material was eluted as a single peak and the remainder required 4 M-GdnHCl in order to recover it from the column; in contrast, greater than 90% of the material was eluted as a single peak from DEAE-II columns. Comparison of the elution of [35S]sulphate-labelled proteoglycan with that of 3H-labelled proteins from these two columns, as well as mixing experiments, indicated that the GdnHCl-sensitive proteoglycans were trapped at the top of columns, partially as a consequence of their association with proteins in these adhesion-site extracts. Affinity chromatography of these proteoglycans on columns of either immobilized platelet factor 4 or immobilized plasma fibronectin revealed that most of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and the heparan sulphate proteoglycan bound to platelet factor 4 but that only the heparan sulphate proteoglycan bound to fibronectin, providing a ready means of separating the two proteoglycan classes. Affinity chromatography on octyl-Sepharose columns to test for hydrophobic domains in their core proteins demonstrated that a high proportion of the heparan sulphate proteoglycan but none of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan bound to the hydrophobic matrix. These results are discussed in light of the possible functional importance of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan in the detachment of cells from extracellular matrix and in light of previous affinity fractionations of proteoglycans from the substratum-adhesion sites of simian-virus-40-transformed 3T3 cells.
Project description:Afferent lymph vessels entering the popliteal lymph nodes of sheep were infused with [3H]acetyl-labelled hyaluronan [HA; Mr of (0.85-1.2) x 10(5)] for up to 4 h at a rate of 17.4-23.1 micrograms/h. As much as 22.8 micrograms (99%) of infused [3H]HA was taken up by the node per h and degraded. During this interval it was observed that infused HA polymers of higher Mr were absorbed by the node to a greater degree than those of lower Mr. When proteoglycan monomer (PG; Mr 5 x 10(5); 400 micrograms of hexuronic acid/h) was infused concurrently with [3H]HA, the absolute amount of radioactivity appearing in efferent lymph (i.e. labelled material not absorbed by the node) increased, whereas the amount of labelled metabolites of low Mr was reduced considerably. During this period the Mr distribution of labelled HA in efferent outflow reverted to that of the infused material within 30-60 min. Our findings suggest that PG subunits and their chondroitin sulphate chains compete with HA for uptake into the peripheral lymph node of sheep. This indicates that PG, chondroitin sulphate and HA share the same pathway of elimination in this tissue, and is consistent with the view that the lymph node is involved in the metabolic turnover of normal intracellular matrix.
Project description:Intravenously administered chondroitin sulphate, chemically labelled by [3H]acetylation of partially deacetylated polysaccharide, was taken up and degraded by the non-parenchymal cells of the liver. Studies using primary monolayer cultures of pure Kupffer cells, liver endothelial cells and parenchymal cells revealed that [3H]chondroitin sulphate was taken up and degraded by the liver endothelial cells only. Binding studies at 4 degrees C with [3H]chondroitin sulphate and 125I-chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan indicated that the glycosaminoglycan and the proteoglycan are recognized by the same binding sites on the liver endothelial cells. The ability of hyaluronic acid to compete with the labelled ligands for binding suggested that the binding site is identical with the recently described hyaluronate receptor on the liver endothelial cells [Smedsrød, Pertoft, Eriksson, Fraser & Laurent (1984) Biochem. J. 223, 617-626]. Fluorescein-labelled chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan accumulated in perinuclear vesicles of the liver endothelial cells, indicating that the proteoglycan is internalized and transported to the lysosomes. The finding that [3H]chondroitin sulphate and 125I-chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan were degraded by the liver endothelial cells to low-molecular-mass radioactive products suggested that both the polysaccharide chain and the core protein were catabolized by the cells.
Project description:1. Chondroitin sulphate was isolated from different regions of rat costal cartilage after extensive proteolysis of the tissues. The molecular weight, determined by gel chromatography, of the polysaccharide obtained from an actively growing region (lateral zone) near the osteochondral junction was higher than that of the polysaccharide isolated from the remaining portion of the costal cartilage (medial zone). 2. In both types of cartilage the molecular weight of chondroitin sulphate, labelled with [(35)S]sulphate, remained unchanged in vivo over a period of 10 days, approximately corresponding to the half-life of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan. The molecular-weight distribution of chondroitin [(35)S]sulphate, labelled in vivo or in vitro, was invariably identical with that of the bulk polysaccharide from the same tissue. It is concluded that the observed regional variations in molecular-weight distribution were established at the time of polysaccharide biosynthesis. 3. In tissue culture more than half of the (35)S-labelled polysaccharide-proteins of the two tissues was released into the medium within 10 days of incubation. The released materials were of smaller molecular size than were the corresponding native proteoglycans. In contrast, the molecular-weight distribution of the chondroitin [(35)S]sulphate (single polysaccharide chains) remained constant throughout the incubation period. 4. A portion (about 20%) of the total radioactive material released from (35)S-labelled cartilage in tissue culture was identified as inorganic [(35)S]sulphate. No corresponding decrease in the degree of sulphation of the labelled polysaccharide could be detected. These findings suggest that a limited fraction of the proteoglycan molecules had been extensively desulphated. 5. It is suggested that the initial phase of degradation involves proteolytic cleavage of the proteoglycan, but the constituent polysaccharide chains remain intact. The partially degraded proteoglycan may be eliminated from the cartilage by diffusion into the circulatory system. An additional degradative process, which may occur intracellularly, includes desulphation of the polysaccharide, probably in conjunction with a more extensive breakdown of the polymer.
Project description:Intraperitoneal administration of sodium oestrone [(35)S]sulphate to male and female free-ranging guinea pigs is followed by excretion of most of the radioactivity mainly as inorganic [(35)S]sulphate in the urine within 72h. The remainder of the radioactivity in the urine was found in oestrone [(35)S]sulphate, two unidentified metabolites (A and B) and traces of oestradiol-17beta 3-[(35)S]sulphate. When injected intraperitoneally into animals with bile-duct and bladder cannulae, most of the dose was excreted in the bile. Unchanged oestrone [(35)S]sulphate was the main biliary component excreted in males and females, but the latter also excreted appreciable amounts of oestradiol-17beta 3-[(35)S]sulphate and metabolites A and B. The urine from these animals also contained these metabolites, inorganic [(35)S]sulphate and also oestrone [(35)S]sulphate, but in small amounts. Metabolite A was present only in samples from males. Whole body radioautography pinpointed the liver and kidney as the possible sites of metabolism of the ester. The ester underwent little desulphation in the isolated perfused female guinea-pig liver and in animals in which kidney function had been eliminated, and was excreted unchanged in the bile. These results and the observed low oestrogen sulphatase and arylsulphatase C activities found in guinea-pig liver and kidney support the view that the two enzymes are identical.