Biosynthesis of geraniol and nerol and beta-D-glucosides in Pelargonium graveolens and Rosa dilecta.
ABSTRACT: 1. 3R-[2-(14)C]Mevalonate was incorporated into geranyl and neryl beta-d-glucosides in petals of Rosa dilecta in up to 10.6% yield, and the terpenoid part was specifically and equivalently labelled in the moieties derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate and 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. A similar labelling pattern, with incorporations of 0.06-0.1% was found for geraniol or nerol formed in leaves of Pelargonium graveolens The former results provide the best available evidence for the mevalonoid route to regular monoterpenes in higher plants. 2. Incorporation studies with 3RS-[2-(14)C,(4R)-4-(3)H(1)]-mevalonate and its (4S)-isomer showed that the pro-4R hydrogen atom of the precursor was retained and the pro-4S hydrogen atom was eliminated in both alcohols and both glucosides. These results suggest that the correlation of retention of the pro-4S hydrogen atom of mevalonate with formation of a cis-substituted double bond, such as has been found in certain higher terpenoids, does not apply to the biosynthesis of monoterpenes. It is proposed that either nerol is derived from isomerization of geraniol or the two alcohols are directly formed by different prenyltransferases. Possible mechanisms for these processes are discussed. 3. The experiments with [(14)C,(3)H]mevalonate also show that in these higher plants, as has been previously found in animal tissue and yeast, the pro-4S hydrogen atom of mevalonate was lost in the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate.
Project description:1. The degradation of (+)-alpha-pinene biosynthesized from 3RS-[2-(14)C]mevalonate by Pinus radiata or Pinus nigra revealed an asymmetrical labelling pattern whereby the moiety derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate contained at least 90% of the incorporated tracer. This pattern differed both in asymmetry and position of labelling from previous results obtained with P. nigra, but is consistent with the generally accepted hypothetical mechanism for the biosynthesis of the pinane skeleton. 2. (+)-alpha-Pinene biosynthesized in Pinus attenuata and in the previously named two species from 3RS-[2-(14)C,(4R)-4-(3)H(1)]mevalonate and its (4S)-isomer retained all the 4R hydrogen atoms (within the experimental error) but lost all the 4S hydrogen atoms of the precursor. This stereospecificity of hydrogen loss is the same as that previously found for the formation of geraniol and nerol in other plant species, and the result may be reasonably inferred to be general for monoterpenes.
Project description:The incorporation of [2-(14)C,(5R)-5-(3)H(1)]MVA* and [2-(14)C,5-(3)H(2)]MVA into geranylgeraniol and phytoene by a preparation of ;non-aqueous' bean leaf chloroplasts has been studied. In the formation of phytoene from two molecules of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, the loss of hydrogen is stereospecific, the hydrogen atom lost from C-1 of each molecule of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate being that which was originally the pro-S hydrogen atom from C-5 of mevalonate. All the pro-R hydrogen atoms from C-5 of mevalonate are retained. These results with a cell-free system confirm and extend the observations made in previous work with tomato slices.
Project description:The stereochemistry of the hydrogen elimination that occurs during the formation of the Delta(4)- and Delta(2)'-double bonds of abscisic acid has been determined from the (14)C/(3)H ratios in abscisic acid biosynthesized by avocado fruit from [2-(14)C,(2R)-2-(3)H(1)]-, [2-(14)C,(2S)-2-(3)H(1)]- and [2-(14)C,(5S)-5-(3)H(1)]-mevalonate. Setting the (14)C/(3)H ratio at 3:3 for [2-(14)C,(2R)-2-(3)H(1)]mevalonate, the corresponding ratio in derived methyl abscisate was 3:2.28; the analogous ratio for methyl abscisate from [2-(14)C,(2S)-2-(3)H(1)]mevalonate was 3:1.63. Removal of the 3'-hydrogen atom of abscisic acid by base-catalysed exchange altered the ratios to 3:1.55 and 3:1.44 respectively. It was concluded that this 3'-hydrogen atom is derived from the pro-2R-hydrogen atom of mevalonate. Removal of the 4-hydrogen atom from methyl abscisate by formation of a derivative, a lactone, lacking this hydrogen atom changed the ratio to 3:1.04 for material derived from [2-(14)C,(2R)-2-(3)H(1)]-mevalonate and to 3:1.05 for [2-(14)C,(2S)-2-(3)H(1)]mevalonate, showing that this hydrogen atom also is derived from the pro-2R-hydrogen atom of mevalonate. These ratios of the lactones are consistent with their retaining one (3)H atom at the 6'-methyl position of abscisic acid from the [(2R)-2-(3)H(1)]- and [(2S)-2-(3)H(1)]-mevalonate. The presence of some label at positions 3' and 4 when [(2S)-2-(3)H(1)]mevalonate was the precursor is attributed to the action of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase. The hydrogen atom at C-5 of abscisic acid is derived from the pro-5S-hydrogen atom of mevalonate.
Project description:Monoterpenes are important contributors to grape and wine aroma. Moreover, certain monoterpenes have been shown to display health benefits with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer or hypotensive properties amongst others. The aim of this study was to construct self-aromatizing wine yeasts to overproduce de novo these plant metabolites in wines.Expression of the Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) geraniol synthase (GES) gene in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain substantially changed the terpene profile of wine produced from a non-aromatic grape variety. Under microvinification conditions, and without compromising other fermentative traits, the recombinant yeast excreted geraniol de novo at an amount (~750 ?g/L) well exceeding (>10-fold) its threshold for olfactory perception and also exceeding the quantities present in wines obtained from highly aromatic Muscat grapes. Interestingly, geraniol was further metabolized by yeast enzymes to additional monoterpenes and esters: citronellol, linalool, nerol, citronellyl acetate and geranyl acetate, resulting in a total monoterpene concentration (~1,558 ?g/L) 230-fold greater than that of the control. We also found that monoterpene profiles of wines derived from mixed fermentations were found to be determined by the composition of the initial yeast inocula suggesting the feasibility of producing 'à la carte' wines having predetermined monoterpene contents.Geraniol synthase-engineered yeasts demonstrate potential in the development of monoterpene enhanced wines.
Project description:Cell-free preparations of both Rhizoctonia solani, a sterol-synthesizing fungus, and Phytophthora cinnamomi, a non-sterol-synthesizing fungus, incubated in the presence of [2(-14)C]mevalonate and iodacetamide, converted the mevalonate into labelled mevalonate 5-phosphate, mevalonate 5-pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. In the absence of iodoacetamide, but under anaerobic conditions, the same preparations converted the mevalonate into labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene, the first two compounds presumably as their pyrophosphates. When cell-free preparations of both organisms were incubated aerobically in the presence of [1(-14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate, only labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene were recovered from the P. cinnamomi reaction mixture, whereas labelled geraniol, farnesol, squalene, squalene epoxide, lanosterol and ergosterol were present in the R. solani reaction mixture. When these same preparations were incubated in the presence of 14C-labelled squalene, labelled squalene epoxide, lanosterol and ergosterol were recovered from the R. solani reaction mixture. In contrast, the P. cinnamomi preparation was unable to convert the squalene into products further along the sterol pathway; instead, a portion of the labelled squalene was converted into water-soluble products, indicating the possible existence of a squalene-degradation process in this organism. It appears that the block in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of P. cinnamomi occurs at the level of squalene epoxidation.
Project description:The enzyme catalysing the synthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate, or from geranyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate, has been purified 100-fold from homogenates of pig liver. The enzyme has optimum pH 7.9 and requires Mg(2+) as activator in preference to Mn(2+); it is inhibited by iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and phosphate ions in addition to the products of the reaction, inorganic pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate. From product-inhibition studies of the geranyltransferase reaction, the order of addition of substrates to and release of products from the enzyme has been deduced: geranyl pyrophosphate combines with the enzyme first, followed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Farnesyl pyrophosphate dissociates from the enzyme before inorganic pyrophosphate. The existence of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase in liver is confirmed. Methods for the preparation of the pyrophosphate esters of isopentenol, 3,3-dimethylallyl alcohol, geraniol and farnesol are also described.
Project description:Methods are described for the assay and partial purification of mevalonate kinase from superovulated rat ovary. The total activity of mevalonate kinase in superovulated rat ovary was 1.6+/-0.14units/g wet wt.; it was unchanged by the administration of luteinizing hormone in vivo. The K(m) of a partially purified preparation of mevalonate kinase for dl-Mevalonate was 3.6+/-0.5mum; its K(m) for MgATP(2-) was 120+/-7.7mum. The enzyme was inhibited by geranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not by isopentenyl pyrophosphate or 3,3'-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. dl-mevalonate 5-phosphate inhibited at high concentrations. With both geranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate the inhibition was competitive with respect to MgATP(2-). The K(i) for inhibition by geranyl pyrophosphate was 1.3+/-0.2mum; the K(i) for inhibition by farnesyl pyrophosphate was 1.0+/-0.3mum. These findings are discussed with reference to the control by luteinizing hormone of steroidogenesis from acetate.
Project description:Six analogues of geranyl pyrophosphate (the monophosphates of geraniol and tetrahydrogeraniol, and the pyrophosphates of nerol, octan-1-ol, tetrahydrogeraniol and citronellol) were synthesized, and were found to be inhibitors of pig liver prenyl- (geranyl-)transferase. The effects of each analogue were analysed in kinetic experiments, which showed the pyrophosphates of citronellol, tetrahydrogeraniol and octan-1-ol to be the most potent inhibitors. The results are interpreted to support a previous hypothesis that the main forces in the binding of substrates to prenyltransferase are non-specific lipophilic forces and a pyrophosphate-binding force.
Project description:Isoprenoids make up a remarkably diverse class of more than 25000 biomolecules that include familiar compounds such as cholesterol, chlorophyll, vitamin A, ubiquinone, and natural rubber. The two essential building blocks of all isoprenoids, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), are ubiquitous in the three domains of life. In most eukaryotes and archaea, IPP and DMAPP are generated through the mevalonate pathway. We have identified two novel enzymes, mevalonate-3-kinase and mevalonate-3-phosphate-5-kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum, which act sequentially in a putative alternate mevalonate pathway. We propose that a yet unidentified ATP-independent decarboxylase acts upon mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate, yielding isopentenyl phosphate, which is subsequently phosphorylated by the known isopentenyl phosphate kinase from T. acidophilum to generate the universal isoprenoid precursor, IPP.
Project description:Wild roses store and emit a large array of fragrant monoterpenes from their petals. Maximisation of fragrance coincides with floral maturation in many angiosperms, which enhances pollination efficiency, reduces floral predation, and improves plant fitness. We hypothesized that petal monoterpenes serve additional lifelong functions such as limiting metabolic damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS), and altering isoprenoid hormonal abundance to increase floral lifespan. Petal monoterpenes were quantified at three floral life-stages (unopened bud, open mature, and senescent) in 57 rose species and 16 subspecies originating from Asia, America, and Europe, and relationships among monoterpene richness, petal colour, ROS, hormones, and floral lifespan were analysed within a phylogenetic context. Three distinct types of petal monoterpene profiles, revealing significant developmental and functional differences, were identified: Type A, species where monoterpene abundance peaked in open mature flowers depleting thereafter; Type B, where monoterpenes peaked in senescing flowers increasing from bud stage, and a rare Type C (8 species) where monoterpenes depleted from bud stage to senescence. Cyclic monoterpenes peaked during early floral development, whereas acyclic monoterpenes (dominated by geraniol and its derivatives, often 100-fold more abundant than other monoterpenes) peaked during floral maturation in Type A and B roses. Early-diverging roses were geraniol-poor (often Type C) and white-petalled. Lifetime changes in hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) revealed a significant negative regression with the levels of petal geraniol at all floral life-stages. Geraniol-poor Type C roses also showed higher cytokinins (in buds) and abscisic acid (in mature petals), and significantly shorter floral lifespan compared with geraniol-rich Type A and B roses. We conclude that geraniol enrichment, intensification of petal colour, and lower potential for H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-related oxidative damage characterise and likely contribute to longer floral lifespan in monoterpene-rich wild roses.