Probing peroxisomal beta-oxidation and the labelling of acetyl-CoA proxies with [1-(13C)]octanoate and [3-(13C)]octanoate in the perfused rat liver.
ABSTRACT: We reported previously that a substantial fraction of the acetyl groups used to synthesize malonyl-CoA in rat heart is derived from peroxisomal beta-oxidation of long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids. This conclusion was based on the interpretation of the 13C-labelling ratio (malonyl-CoA)/(acetyl moiety of citrate) measured in the presence of substrates that label acetyl-CoA in mitochondria only (ratio < 1.0) or in both mitochondria and peroxisomes (ratio > 1.0). The goals of the present study were to test, in rat livers perfused with [1-(13C)]octanoate or [3-(13C)]octanoate, (i) whether peroxisomal beta-oxidation contributes acetyl groups for malonyl-CoA synthesis, and (ii) the degree of labelling homogeneity of acetyl-CoA proxies (acetyl moiety of citrate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, malonyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine). Our data show that (i) octanoate undergoes two cycles of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in liver, (ii) acetyl groups formed in peroxisomes contribute to malonyl-CoA synthesis, (iii) the labelling of acetyl-CoA proxies is markedly heterogeneous, and (iv) the labelling of C1+2 of beta-hydroxybutyrate does not reflect the labelling of acetyl-CoA used in the citric acid cycle.
Project description:1. [(14)C]Malonyl-CoA was incorporated into isoprenoids by cell-free yeast preparations, by preparations from pigeon and rat liver, and by Hevea brasiliensis latex. 2. In agreement with previous reports the incorporation of acetyl-CoA into isoprenoids was not inhibited by avidin and was not stimulated by HCO(3) (-). In a cell-free yeast preparation addition of HCO(3) (-) stimulated the formation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and decreased the incorporation into unsaponifiable lipids. 3. The labelling patterns of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA formed from [2-(14)C]- and [1,3-(14)C]-malonyl-CoA in rat and pigeon liver preparations were those that would be expected if malonyl-CoA underwent decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA before incorporation. 4. The labelling pattern of ergosterol formed by cell-free yeast preparations from [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA was also consistent with decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA before incorporation. 5. The incorporation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA into mevalonate by rat liver preparations was related to the malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity present in the preparation.
Project description:Fatty acid beta-oxidation was studied in organellar fractions from maize root tips by h.p.l.c. and radiometric analysis of the products of incubations with [1-14C]octanoate and [1-14C]palmitate. In crude organellar fractions containing both mitochondria and peroxisomes, octanoate and palmitate beta-oxidation, as determined by the production of acetyl-CoA, was functional and, for palmitate, was activated 4-12-fold after subjecting the root tips to 48 h of glucose starvation. The sensitivity to a 'cocktail' of respiratory-chain inhibitors containing cyanide, azide and salicylhydroxamate depended on the conditions of incubation, with no inhibition in a medium facilitating peroxisomal beta-oxidation and a significant inhibition in a medium potentially facilitating mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Indeed, preparations of highly purified mitochondria from glucose-starved root tips were able to oxidize octanoate and palmitate to give organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This activity was inhibited 5-10-fold by the above cocktail of respiratory-chain inhibitors, with no parallel accumulation of acetyl-CoA, thus showing that the inhibition affected beta-oxidation rather than the pathway from acetyl-CoA to the organic acids. This provides the first evidence that the complete beta-oxidation pathway from fatty acids to citrate was functional in mitochondria from a higher plant. Moreover, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was shown to be present in the purified mitochondria. In contrast with the peroxisomal activity, mitochondrial beta-oxidation showed the same efficiency with octanoate and palmitate and was strictly dependent on glucose starvation.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rodents may represent an adaptive response to disturbances in hepatic lipid metabolism. The following studies were done to determine the effects of 2-hydroxy-3-propyl-4-[6-(tetrazol-5-yl)hexyloxy]acetophenone (4-THA), a tetrazole-substituted acetophenone which induces peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rodent liver, on fatty acid oxidation in vitro. In isolated hepatocytes, 4-THA inhibited the oxidation of oleate (C18:1) and decreased the mitochondrial redox state. The inhibition was more pronounced in the presence of 0.2 mM-oleate than with 0.5 mM, indicating the inhibition may be competitive. 4-THA had no effect on the oxidation of octanoate (C8:0), suggesting that the site of inhibition of oleate oxidation was the carnitine-dependent transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane. In rat liver mitochondria, 4-THA inhibited carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) competitively with respect to the substrate palmitoyl-CoA, increasing the apparent Km from 19 microM to 86 microM. The inhibition of CPT-I by 4-THA was independent of the concentration of the co-substrate carnitine. Whereas fasting attenuated the inhibition of CPT-I by malonyl-CoA, it did not diminish the inhibition by 4-THA. Inhibition of transferase activity by 4-THA and malonyl-CoA was attenuated in mitochondria which had been solubilized with octyl glucoside to expose the latent form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-II), suggesting that the inhibition was specific for CPT-I. The specificity was further demonstrated in studies of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in which 4-THA inhibited the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA but not palmitoylcarnitine. The results demonstrate that 4-THA inhibits fatty acid oxidation in rat liver in vitro at the site of transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane, CPT-I. Whether this disruption in mitochondrial oxidation is causally related to the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation is yet to be determined.
Project description:An n.m.r. method is presented for monitoring the extent to which fatty acids undergo beta-oxidation without release of shorter-chain intermediates. It is based upon a 13C isotopomer analysis of glutamate from tissue presented with a mixture of [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate and [1,2,3,4-13C]octanoate. The method does not require steady-state metabolic or isotopic conditions, so it may be applied during a variety of metabolic circumstances, including perfused tissue under stress and in vivo. We have tested the method in perfused rat hearts during anoxia, a model where previous work has shown that beta-oxidation of palmitate is incomplete and shorter-chain intermediates are released [Rabinowitz and Hercker (1974) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 161, 621-627]. Indeed, n.m.r. spectra of freeze-clamped, acid-extracted tissue show that octanoate undergoes complete beta-oxidation in control normoxic rat hearts, but not in anoxic hearts. Complete beta-oxidation of octanoate was observed under a number of other metabolic conditions in perfused rat hearts, including low-pressure-induced ischaemia, KCl arrest and in the presence of high concentrations of competing substrates. We also demonstrate that the technique is applicable in intact tissue by taking direct measurements in perfused rat hearts using a recently published [13C]homonuclear decoupling technique and in in vivo heart and liver removed from rats after an intravenous infusion of a mixture of [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate and [1,2,3,4-13C]octanoate.
Project description:Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Odd-numbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant ?-oxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-h ECMO received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA), or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 ?mol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1) as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5/group). The 13-carbon ((13)C)-labeled substrates ([2-(13)C]lactate, [5,6,7-(13)C3]heptanoate, and [U-(13)C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 min before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the (13)C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio compared with other groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate and heptanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC compared with control. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in protein synthesis rate. In conclusion, octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate.
Project description:1. The effect of nutritional status on fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue was compared with the effect of cold-exposure. Fatty acid synthesis was measured in vivo by 3H2O incorporation into tissue lipids. The activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase and the tissue concentrations of malonyl-CoA and citrate were assayed. 2. In brown adipose tissue of control mice, the tissue content of malonyl-CoA was 13 nmol/g wet wt., higher than values reported in other tissues. From the total tissue water content, the minimum possible concentration was estimated to be 30 microM 3. There were parallel changes in fatty acid synthesis, malonyl-CoA content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in response to starvation and re-feeding. 4. There was no correlation between measured rates of fatty acid synthesis and malonyl-CoA content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in acute cold-exposure. The results suggest there is simultaneous fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in brown adipose tissue of cold-exposed mice. This is probably effected not by decreases in the malonyl-CoA content, but by increases in the concentration of free long-chain fatty acyl-CoA or enhanced peroxisomal oxidation, allowing shorter-chain fatty acids to enter the mitochondria independent of carnitine acyltransferase (overt form) activity.
Project description:A fatty acid synthetase multienzyme complex was purified from Euglena gracilis variety bacillaris. The fatty acid synthetase activity is specifically inhibited by antibodies against Escherichia coli acyl-carrier protein. The Euglena enzyme system requires both NADPH and NADH for maximal activity. An analysis was done of the steady-state kinetics of the reaction catalysed by the fatty acid synthetase multienzyme complex. Initial-velocity studies were done in which the concentrations of the following pairs of substrates were varied: malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, NADPH and acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. In all three cases patterns of the Ping Pong type were obtained. Product-inhibition studies were done with NADP+ and CoA. NADP+ is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, and uncompetitive with respect to malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. CoA is uncompetitive with respect to NADPH and competitive with respect to malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. When the concentrations of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA were varied over a wide range, mutual competitive substrate inhibition was observed. When the fatty acid synthetase was incubated with radiolabelled acetyl-CoA or malonyl-CoA, labelled acyl-enzyme was isolated. The results are consistent with the idea that fatty acid synthesis proceeds by a multisite substituted-enzyme mechanism involving Ping Pong reactions at the following enzyme sites: acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, beta-oxo acyl-enzyme synthetase and fatty acyl transacylase.
Project description:The oxidation of [3-13C]pyruvate and [3-13C]propionate was studied in vivo in infused rats. The infused [3-13C]pyruvate was quickly converted to [3-13C]lactate in the blood, and the [3-13C]lactate formed was well metabolized in both normoxic and ischaemic hearts. Large differences (200-600%) in the 13C enrichment of alanine (C-3) and acetyl-CoA (C-2) compared with lactate (C-3) were found in both normoxic and ischaemic hearts, suggesting that the extracellular [3-13C]lactate preferentially entered a region of the cytoplasm which specifically transfers the labelled pyruvate (formed from [3-13C]lactate) to the mitochondria. The highly enriched mitochondrial pyruvate gave high enrichment in alanine and acetyl-CoA, which was detected by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Ischaemia increased 13C incorporation into the main cytoplasmic lactate pool and decreased 13C incorporation into citric acid cycle intermediates, mainly decreasing the pyruvate anaplerosis. Isoprenaline-induced ischaemia of the heart caused only a slight decrease in pyruvate oxidation. In contrast to the decreased anaplerosis of pyruvate, the anaplerosis of propionate (and propionyl-carnitine) increased significantly in ischaemic hearts, which may contribute to the protective effect of propionyl-carnitine seen in ischaemia. In addition, we found that [3-13C]propionate preferentially labelled aspartate C-3 in rat heart, suggesting incomplete randomization of label in the succinyl-CoA-malate span of the citric acid cycle. These data show that proton observed 13C edited spectroscopic methods, i.e. heteronuclear spin-echo and the one-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence sequence, can be successfully used to study heart metabolism in vivo.
Project description:Livers of genetically obese Zucker rats showed, compared with lean controls, hypertrophy and enrichment in triacylglycerols, indicating that fatty acid metabolism was directed towards lipogenesis and esterification rather than towards fatty acid oxidation. Mitochondrial activities of cytochrome c oxidase and monoamine oxidase were significantly lower when expressed per g wet wt. of liver, whereas peroxisomal activities of urate oxidase and palmitoyl-CoA-dependent NAD+ reduction were unchanged. Liver mitochondria were able to oxidize oleic acid at the same rate in both obese and lean rats. For reactions occurring inside the mitochondria, e.g. octanoate oxidation and palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase, no difference was found between both phenotypes. Total carnitine palmitoyl-, octanoyl- and acetyl-transferase activities were slightly higher in mitochondria from obese rats, whereas the carnitine content of both liver tissue and mitochondria was significantly lower in obese rats compared with their lean littermates. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity was slightly higher in liver mitochondria from obese rats, but this enzyme was more sensitive to malonyl-CoA inhibition in obese than in lean rats. The above results strongly suggest that the impaired fatty acid oxidation observed in the whole liver of obese rats is due to the diminished transport of fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane via the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I. This effect could be reinforced by the decreased mitochondrial content per g wet wt. of liver. The depressed fatty acid oxidation may explain in part the lipid infiltration of liver observed in obese Zucker rats.
Project description:1. 14C-labelled fatty acyl-CoA esters resulting from beta-oxidation of [U-14C]hexadecanoate by peroxisomal fractions isolated from rats treated with clofibrate showed the presence of the full range of saturated intermediates down to acetyl-CoA. 2. The pattern of intermediates generated was fairly constant. At low concentrations of [U-14C]hexadecanoate (50 microM), decanoyl-CoA was present in lowest amounts. At higher concentrations of [U-14C]hexadecanoate (greater than 100 microM), all intermediates of chain length shorter than 12 carbon atoms (except acetyl-CoA) were present at similar low concentrations; the process of beta-oxidation now resembling chain-shortening of hexadecanoate by two cycles of beta-oxidation. 3. In the absence of an NAD(+)-regenerating system [pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168)] 2-enoyl- and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA esters were generated, suggesting that re-oxidation of NADH is essential for optimal rates of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in vitro. 4. At high concentrations of [U-14C]hexadecanoate (greater than 100 microM), 3-oxohexadecanoyl-CoA was produced, suggesting that thiolase (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; EC 22.214.171.124) can become rate-limiting for peroxisomal beta-oxidation.