Study of soluble lipoprotein in rat liver mitochondria.
ABSTRACT: 1. A water-soluble lipoprotein was isolated and purified from osmotically shocked preparations of rat liver mitochondria by using a technique of Sephadex-sandwich disc electrophoresis. 2. The purified lipoprotein migrates as a distinct sharp zone in high-resolution electrophoretic systems, indicating high degree of purity. 3. The lipoprotein resembles mitochondrial membranes with respect to lipid composition and lipid/protein ratio. 4. The lipoprotein and its apoprotein fraction obtained by delipidization at -18 degrees C to -20 degrees C have common properties with respect to their fluorescence spectra, instability to storage and electrophoretic mobility. 5. The purified lipoprotein has an excitation maximum at 325nm and a fluorescence maximum at 418nm. 6. Storage at 4 degrees C for 4 days or repeated freezing and thawing results in 15-30% decrease in electrophoretic mobility. 7. The patterns of incorporation in vitro of [1-(14)C]leucine into proteins of the soluble lipoprotein and of mitochondrial membrane of isolated rat liver mitochondria suggest a probable precursor role for the apoprotein in the formation of mitochondrial membrane protein. 8. Lipoprotein preparations isolated from mitochondrial fractions of rat kidney, brain and heart and of chicken and mouse liver resemble closely that obtained from rat liver mitochondria, suggesting that the soluble lipoprotein could be a distinct entity of mitochondrial origin.
Project description:1. The synthesis of glycerides from l-3-glycerophosphate and palmitic acid by mitochondrial preparations from rat liver was shown to be stimulated markedly by a soluble factor from the supernatant fraction of the liver. 2. That the soluble factor was a protein was indicated by its inactivation after treatment with papain and after boiling for 3min. at 100 degrees , its precipitation by ammonium sulphate and its behaviour on Sephadex G-200. The soluble factor was purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and gel filtration. 3. Bovine serum albumin and lipoprotein fractions from rat and human serum also stimulated glyceride biosynthesis but the stimulations were one-twentieth to one-third of that obtained with the soluble factor. 4. The function of the soluble factor could not be explained by assuming a leakage of acyl-CoA synthetase, phosphatidate phosphatase or diglyceride acyltransferase from the mitochondria into the supernatant during preparation of the mitochondrial fraction. 5. Palmitic acid, in the presence of the soluble factor and optimum amounts of ATP and CoA, was a more effective substrate than palmitoyl-CoA or palmitoylcarnitine for the biosynthesis of glycerides by mitochondria.
Project description:A soluble cytochrome was isolated and purified from the slime mould Physarum polycephalum and identified as cytochrome c by room-temperature and low-temperature (77 degrees K) difference spectroscopy. A close similarity between P. polycephalum and mammalian cytochromes c was suggested by a comparison of the initial rates of oxidation of both proteins by mammalian mitochondria. This similarity was further emphasized by redox titrations and gel-electrophoretic studies which indicated that P. polycephalum cytochrome c has an oxidation-reduction midpoint potential of +257mV at pH7.0 and a molecular weight of 12500+/-1500 (mean+/-maximum deviation for a set of six measurements). P. polycephalum exhibits an absolute requirement for protohaemin for growth. The (59)Fe-labelled haemin was prepared by chemical synthesis from protoporphyrin. The purified product had a specific radioactivity of 0.8+/-0.02muCi/mol. Growth of P. polycephalum in the presence of [(59)Fe]haemin resulted in the incorporation of (59)Fe into the plasmodial cytochrome c. The specific radioactivity of the cytochrome c haem was 0.36+/-0.02muCi/mol. The high specific radioactivity of the cytochrome haem indicates that synthesis of the holoenzyme must proceed by direct attachment of haem to the apoprotein rather than by the intermediate formation of a protoporphyrinogen-apoprotein complex. The observed decrease in the specific radioactivity of the haem group is attributed to exchange of the (59)Fe with unlabelled iron in the plasmodia either before or during attachment of the haem group to the apoprotein.
Project description:1. Very-low-density (VLD), low-density (LD) and high-density (HD) lipoproteins were isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation from the serum of male guinea pigs fed on a diet containing 3--4% fat. The apoproteins of these lipoproteins (apo-VLD, apo-LD and apo-HD lipoproteins) were studied after delipidation with organic solvents or extraction with tetramethylurea. 2. The major apolipoprotein of LD lipoprotein isolated by gel filtration was found to closely resemble apolipoprotein B of human serum in its chemical and physical properties. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel showed that this apoprotein consisted of a number of polypeptides. 3. Tetramethylurea precipitated an apoprotein from guinea-pig serum lipoproteins that is probably the apolipoprotein B-like component. This apoprotein accounted for about 80% of the apo-LD lipoprotein, about 55% of the apo-VLD lipoprotein and about 50% of the apo-HD lipoprotein. 4. The distribution of apolipoproteins soluble in tetramethylurea was determined by densitometric scanning of stained polyacrylamide disc gels. 5. A glycine-rich component of high electrophoretic mobility (band I) and a triplet of soluble apolipoproteins (bands II-IV) were present in both VLD and LD lipoprotein classes. These components constituted a higher proportion of the tetramethylurea-soluble apoproteins of VLD lipoprotein (60--80%) than of LD lipoprotein (40--55%). 6. Small amounts (10--15%) of a component of intermediate mobility, which contained traces of half-cystine, were also present in both VLD and LD lipoproteins. 7. A group of soluble components of basic character (bands VI-X), present as minor components of VLD lipoprotein (10--20%), constituted a major proportion (30--45%) of the soluble apoproteins of LD lipoprotein. Two of these apoproteins were rich in lysine, and two of lower electrophoretic mobility were rich in arginine. 8. The pattern of tetramethylurea-soluble apoproteins in HD lipoprotein was distinguished by the presence of two polypeptides of low electrophoretic mobility as its predominant components. One of these components, band VI, resembled the A-I apolipoprotein of man in both its amino acid profile and in its electrophoretic mobility. The second major component, band VI-B, was rich in lysine and resembled the C-I apolipoprotein of man in amino acid composition. 9. The soluble components of bands I and IX were analogous in physicochemical properties to the R-X1 and R-X2 (high-arginine polypeptide) peptides of human serum lipoproteins respectively.
Project description:1. CoA, acetyl-CoA, l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine when added to rat liver mitochondria equilibrate with approximately two-thirds of the total intramitochondrial water. The mitochondrial space calculated to be freely permeable to these solutes was identical with that obtained for sucrose. 2. Acetyl-CoA is rapidly deacylated by rat liver mitochondria at 0 degrees C, and special precautions are required to measure its mitochondrial permeation. 3. Rat liver mitochondria were separated into fractions that correspond to the inner membrane, the outer membrane, and the soluble proteins of the matrix and intermembrane compartment. Soluble enzymes considered to be located in the matrix were citrate synthase (EC 184.108.40.206), palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11), electron-transferring flavoprotein, medium-chain-length ATP-specific fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 18.104.22.168), l-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) and 3-keto-acyl-CoA thiolase (EC 126.96.36.199). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.-) is largely associated with the inner-membrane fraction. A long-chain-length ATP-specific fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 188.8.131.52) is associated with the outer-membrane fraction.
Project description:Liver mitochondria prepared by differential centrifugation are contaminated by significant quantities of peroxisomes and microsomal fractions. 'Easily solubilized carnitine palmitoyltransferase' prepared from liver mitochondria is thought to originate from the outer surface of the mitochondrial inner membrane. We have characterized the carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities of freeze-thaw extracts of rat liver mitochondrial preparations. Chromatography on Sephadex G-100 yields two broad peaks of carnitine decanoyltransferase activity: one eluted at the end of the void volume, which can be removed (precipitated) by ultracentrifugation; the second peak represents the soluble activity and is eluted at an Mr near 70,000. The activity in the soluble peak is precipitated by an antibody raised against carnitine octanoyltransferase purified from mouse liver peroxisomes. In contrast, antibody raised against carnitine palmitoyltransferase purified from liver mitochondrial membranes had no effect (P. Brady & L. Brady, personal communication). The carnitine acyltransferase activities of the Mr-70,000 peak in the presence or absence of Tween 20 showed maximum activity with decanoyl-CoA and about one-third of this activity with palmitoyl-CoA, similar to peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase. These data show that 7500 g preparations of liver mitochondria isolated by differential centrifugation are enriched by peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase (approx. 20% of the protein of the fraction is peroxisomal) and indicate that this enzyme may be the one reported as 'overt' or 'easily solubilized' mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase.
Project description:1. Butan-1-ol solubilizes that portion of rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) that cannot be solubilized by ultrasonics and other treatments. 2. A difference in electrophoretic mobilities, chromatographic behaviour and solubility characteristics between the enzymes solubilized by ultrasonic treatment and by butan-1-ol was observed, suggesting the occurrence of two forms of this enzyme in rat liver mitochondria. 3. Half the aspartate aminotransferase activity of rat kidney homogenate was present in a high-speed supernatant fraction, the remainder being in the mitochondria. 4. A considerable increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity was observed when kidney mitochondrial suspensions were treated with ultrasonics or detergents. 5. All the activity after maximum activation was recoverable in the supernatant after centrifugation at 105000g for 1hr. 6. The electrophoretic mobility of the kidney mitochondrial enzyme was cathodic and that of the supernatant enzyme anodic. 7. Cortisone administration increased the activities of both mitochondrial and supernatant aspartate aminotransferases of liver, but only that of the supernatant enzyme of kidney.
Project description:Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid is thought to represent the initial step in a series of oxidative modification reactions that ultimately transform this lipoprotein into an atherogenic high-uptake form that can cause lipid accumulation in cells. We have studied the effects of hypochlorite, a powerful oxidant released by activated monocytes and neutrophils, on isolated LDL. Exposure of LDL to reagent hypochlorite (NaOCl) at 4 degrees C resulted in immediate and preferential oxidation of amino acid residues of apoprotein B-100, the single protein associated with LDL. Neither lipoprotein lipid nor LDL-associated antioxidants, except ubiquinol-10, represented major targets for this oxidant. Even when high concentrations of NaOCl were used, only low levels of lipid hydroperoxides could be detected with the highly sensitive h.p.l.c. post-column chemiluminescence detection method. Lysine residues of apoprotein B-100 quantitatively represented the major target, scavenging some 68% of the NaOCl added, with tryptophan and cysteine together accounting for an additional 10% of the oxidant. Concomitant with the loss of LDL's amino groups, chloramines were formed and the anionic surface charge of the lipoprotein particle increased, indicated by a 3-4-fold increase in electrophoretic mobility above that of native LDL on agarose gels. While both these changes could be initially reversed by physiological reductants such as ascorbic acid and methionine, incubation of the NaOCl-modified LDL at 37 degrees C resulted in increasing resistance of the modified lysine residues against reductive reversal. Exposure of mouse peritoneal macrophages to NaOCl-oxidized LDL resulted in increased intracellular concentrations of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These findings suggest that lipid-soluble antioxidants associated with LDL do not efficiently protect the lipoprotein against oxidative damage mediated by hypochlorite, and that extensive lipid oxidation is not a necessary requirement for oxidative LDL modification that leads to a high-uptake form of the lipoprotein.
Project description:1. Isolated rat liver mitochondria do not synthesize labelled phosphatidylcholine from CDP-[(14)C]choline or any phospholipid other than phosphatidic acid from [(32)P]phosphate. The minimal labelling of phosphatidylcholine and other phosphoglycerides can be attributed to microsomal contamination. However, when mitochondria and microsomes are incubated together with [(32)P]phosphate, the phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine of the reisolated mitochondria become labelled, suggesting a transfer of phospholipids between the two fractions. 2. When liver microsomes or mitochondria containing labelled phosphatidylcholine are independently incubated with the opposite un-labelled fraction, there is a substantial and rapid exchange of the phospholipid between the two membranes. Exchange of phosphatidylinositol also occurs rapidly, whereas phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid exchange only slowly. There is no corresponding transfer of marker enzymes. The transfer of phosphatidylcholine does not occur at 0 degrees , and there is no requirement for added substrate, ATP or Mg(2+), but the omission of a heat-labile supernatant fraction markedly decreases the exchange. 3. After intravenous injection of [(32)P]phosphate, short-period labelling experiments of the individual phospholipids of rat liver microsomes and mitochondria in vivo give no evidence for a similar exchange process. However, the incubation of isolated microsomes and mitochondria with [(32)P]phosphate also fails on reisolation of the fractions to demonstrate a precursor-product relationship between the individual phospholipids of the two membranes. 4. The intraperitoneal injection of [(32)P]phosphate results in a far greater proportion of the dose entering the liver than does intravenous administration. After intraperitoneal administration of [(32)P]phosphate the specific radioactivities of the individual phospholipids are in the order microsomes > outer mitochondrial membrane > inner mitochondrial membrane. 5. The incorporation of (32)P into cardiolipin is very slow both in vivo and in vitro. After labelling in vivo the radioactivity in the cardiolipin persists compared with that of the other phospholipids, whose specific radioactivities in the microsomes and mitochondrial fragments decay at a similar rate to that of the acid-soluble phosphate pool. 6. The possibility of phospholipid exchange processes occurring in the liver cell in vivo is discussed, and it is suggested that only a small but highly labelled part of the endoplasmic-reticulum lipoprotein pool is involved in the transfer.
Project description:The total activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in mitochondria isolated from rat brain and liver was 53.5 and 14.2nmol/min per mg of protein respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase in liver mitochondria incubated for 4 min at 37 degrees C with no additions was 30% in the active form and this activity increased with longer incubations until it was completely in the active form after 20 min. Brain mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was initially high and did not increase with addition of Mg2+ plus Ca2+ or partially purified pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase or with longer incubations. The proportion of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form in both brain and liver mitochondria changed inversely with changes in mitochondrial energy charge, whereas total pyruvate dehydrogenase did not change. The chelators citrate, isocitrate, EDTA, ethanedioxybis(ethylamine)tetra-acetic acid and Ruthenium Red each lowered pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in brain mitochondria, but only citrate and isocitrate did so in liver mitochondria. These chelators did not affect the energy charge of the mitochondria. Mg2+ plus Ca2+ reversed the pyruvate dehydrogenase inactivation in liver, but not brain, mitochondria. The regulation of the activation-inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in mitochondria from rat brain and liver with respect to energy charge is similar and may be at least partially regulated by this parameter, and the effects of chelators differ in the two types of mitochondria.
Project description:1. A method was devised to allow determination of intramitochondrial aspartate amino-transferase activity in suspensions of intact mitochondria. 2. Addition of purified rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to suspensions of rat liver mitochondria caused an apparent increase in the intramitochondrial enzyme activity. No increase was observed when the mitochondria were preincubated with the purified cytoplasmic isoenzyme. 3. These results suggest that mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, but not the cytoplasmic isoenzyme, is able to pass from solution into the matrix of intact rat liver mitochondria in vitro. 4. This system may provide a model for studies of the little-understood processes by which cytoplasmically synthesized components are incorporated into mitochondria in vivo.